Psalm 7

In finem Psalmus David quem cantavit Domino pro verbis Chusi filii Gemini

a. PSAL. DAVID VII

Domine Deus meus in te speravi; salvum me fac ex omnibus persequentibus me, et libera me. Ne quando rapiat ut leo animam meam, dum non est qui redimat, neque qui salvum faciat. Domine Deus meus si feci istud: si est iniquitas in manibus meis. Si reddidi retribuentibus mihi mala.

To the end. A Psalm of David which he sang to the Lord for the words of Chusi, the son of Benjamin.

a. Psalm 7. Of David.

Lord, my God, in you have I hoped; save me from all who pursue me, and set me free. Lest at any time he seize my soul like a lion, while there is no one who delivers me or who saves me. Lord, my God, if I have done this: if there is sin in my hands. If I have returned evil to the ones repaying me.

b. Decidam merito ab inimicis meis inanis. Persequatur inimicus animam meam, et conprehendat et conculcet in terra vitam meam, et gloriam meam in pulverem deducat.b. Let me, empty, be cut off deservedly by my enemies. Let my enemy pursue my soul and take it, and trample my life in the earth, and let him reduce my fame into the dust
c. Exurge Domine in ira tua: exaltare in finibus inimicorum meorum. Et exsurge Domine Deus meus in praecepto quod mandasti: et synagoga populorum circumdabit te. Et propter hanc in altum regredere.c. Arise, Lord, in your anger, and be exalted on the borders of my enemies. And arise, Lord, my God, in the commandment which you have ordered: for the congregation of the peoples will surround you. And because of this you returned on high.
d. Dominus iudicat populos. Iudica me Domine secundum iustitiam meam, et secundum innocentiam meam super me. Consummetur nequitia peccatorum, et diriges iustum.d. The Lord judges the peoples. Judge me, Lord, according to my righteousness, and according to my integrity which is in me. Let the malice of sinners be consumed, for you guide the righteous.
e. Scrutans corda, et renes Deus. Iustum adiutorium meum a Domino, qui salvos facit rectos corde.e. God examines the heart and inner being. Just assistance is mine from the Lord, who saves the upright in heart.
f. Deus iudex iustus, fortis et patiens, nunquid irascetur per singulos dies?f. God is a righteous judge, strong and patient. Is he not angry throughout each day?
g. Nisi conversi fueritis, gladium suum vibrabit, arcum suum tetendit, et paravit illum. Et in eo paravit vasa mortis: sagittas suas ardentibus effecit.g. Unless you are changed, he will brandish his sword, he has bent his bow, and he has prepared it. And in him he has prepared vessels of death: he has made his arrows with flames.
h. Ecce parturiit iniustitiam, concepit dolorem, et peperit iniquitatem.h. Behold he travailed with injustice, he conceived pain and brought forth iniquity.
i. Lacum aperuit, et effodit eum, et incidet in foveam quam fecit. Convertetur dolor eius in caput eius; et in verticem ipsius iniquitas eius descendet.i. He has uncovered a pit, and he dug it out, and he has fallen into the trap which he made. His pain returns onto his head; and onto his very pate his iniquity comes down.
k. Confitebor Domino secundum iustitiam eius, et psallam nomini Domini altissimi.k. I will praise the Lord according to his righteousness, and I will sing praise to the name of the Lord Most High.
a. Supra praemissi sunt psalmi pro liberatione ab hostibus; hic ponitur psalmus in quo petit vindictam de eis: et praeponitur titulus talis, In finem quem cantavit domino pro verbis Chusi filii Gemini.Previously presented are Psalms for liberation from enemies; here is set forth a Psalm in which he asks for punishment concerning them; and a heading of such a kind is placed first, To the end which he sang to the Lord for the words of Chusi, the son of Benjamin.
Historia habetur 2 Reg. 17, quod David fugit a facie filii sui, et Achitophel sapientissimus adhaesit Absaloni. Chusi vero adhaesit david: quem remisit ut sciret consilia Achitophel, et ea sibi significaret. Cum autem Achitophel consilium dedisset Absaloni nocivum valde patri suo David, scilicet ut statim eum invaderet antequam tutaretur alicubi, Chusi secreto significavit David, ut de campestribus fugeret ubi erat, et transiret Jordanem ad loca munitissima. Isto ergo nuncio Chusi audito David, hoc canticum cecinit Domino: et ideo dicitur hic, Quem cantavit Domino pro verbis Chusi filii Gemini.The account in 2 Kings 17 [2 Samuel 15 and 17] tells that David fled from the presence of his son, and Ahithophel, that most wise man, joined Absalom. But Chusi joined David: whom he sent back to discover the counsels of Ahithophel, and to make them known to him. But when Ahithophel had given counsel to Absalom that was very harmful to his father David, namely that immediately he attack him before he could protect himself anywhere, Chusi secretly made this known to David, so that he fled from the plains where he was, and crossed the Jordan into well fortified places. Therefore, when David heard that message of Chusi, he sang this song to the Lord, and so it is said, Which he sang to the Lord for the words of Chusi, the son of Benjamin.
Dicitur autem filius Gemini, quia forte de tribu Beniamin erat: vel ex aliquo descenderat qui habebat hoc nomen.Now it says "son of Benjamin", perhaps because he was from the tribe of Benjamin, or he was descended from someone who had that name.
Hieronymus non habet, In finem: nec pro victoria, sed pro ignoratione, vel ignorantibus. Et dicit Super verbis Aethiopis: tamen nescitur an fuerit Aethiops.Jerome does not have unto the end, nor for victory, but for ignorance, or for those who are ignorant. And it says upon the words of the Ethiopian: but it is not known whether he was an Ethiopian.
Mystice autem hic psalmus potest esse ecclesiae, et contra persecutores.In a mystical sense, this Psalm can be about the Church and against its persecutors.
Et dicitur pro verbis Chusi, qui interpretatur silentium, sed Gemini dextera; quasi dicat: occulto divinae providentiae judicio factum est ut Achitophel, qui fratris ruina interpretatur, scilicet Judas Iscariotes, in ruinam, idest in mortem fratris sui, Christi videlicet, qui non confunditur eos vocare fratres, Hebr. 2 consilio et auxilio conspiravit.And it says for the words of "Chusi", which is understood as "silence", but "Benjamin" as "right hand". It is as if he were saying, by the hidden judgment of divine providence, it was made so that "Ahithophel" (which is understood as "downfall of a brother" ­ namely of Judas Iscariot), conspired to his own downfall, that is in the death of his brother (namely, Christ ­ who was not ashamed to call them brothers (Hebrews 2 [2:11]) by counsel and with help.
Sed quod ille ad perniciem unius hominis fecit, Christus ad salutem omnium inflexit, ut dicit Augustinus in glossa.But because that man worked for the destruction of one man, Christ altered this for the salvation of all, as Augustine says in the gloss.
Hic autem psalmus habet tres partes. Primo ponitur oratio. Secundo exauditio, ibi, Dominus judicat. Tertio gratiarum actio, Confitebor Domino.Now this psalm has three sections. First, a prayer is set forth. Second, there is a hearkening to the prayer at May the Lord judge, and third, an act of thanksgiving at I will praise the Lord."
Circa primum duo facit. Primo orat ut liberaretur ab hostibus. Secundo, ut hostes deprimantur, Exurge Domine in ira tua.About the first he does two things. First he prays that he would be set free from his enemies. Second, that his enemies would be weighed down, Arise, Lord, in your anger.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit misericordiam. Secundo allegat suam innocentiam: Domine Deus meus si feci istud.About the first he does two things. First he asks for mercy. Second, he recounts his own innocence, Lord, my God, if I have done this.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo praemittit orantis affectionem. Secundo proponit petitionem: Salvum me fac. Tertio petitionis rationem, Ne quando rapiat.About the first he does three things. First, he presents the desire of the one praying. Second, he relates his petition, Save me. Third he gives the reason for the petition, Lest when he seize me.
Affectus orationis est ut speret in Domino: Eccl. 2: Quia nullus speravit in Domino, et confusus est: et ideo dicit, In te speravi.The longing of his prayer is that he may hope in the Lord, as in Ecclesiasticus 2 [Sir. 2:11b], Because no one has hoped in the Lord and has been ashamed: and so he says, In you I have hoped.
Petitio est duplex; petit enim salvari et liberari, secundum Dionysium. Liberari est removeri a malo; salvari conservari in bonis. Sic ergo petit quod salvetur a corruptione hostium, et liberetur ab eis. Et potest intelligi de corporalibus hostibus, et de spiritualibus: quasi dicat: salvum me fac ab hostibus, et a tentationibus: Psal. 21: Salva me ex ore leonis. Idem, ibidem, Libera animam meam a malignitate eorum.The petition is twofold: for he asks to be saved and to be set free. According to Dionysius, to be set free is to be removed from evil; to be saved is to be preserved for good things. In this manner he asks, therefore, that he be saved from the corruption of his enemies, and to be set free from them. And this can be understood concerning bodily enemies, and concerning spiritual enemies. It is as if he were saying, Save me from my enemies, and from temptations; as in Psalm 21 [22:21] Save me from the mouth of the lion. Again, in the same place, Set my soul free from their wickedness.
Ponit petitionis rationem cum dicit, nequando rapiat, etc.: quasi dicat: nisi subvenias mihi, devorabit me Absalon, sicut leo: 2 Reg. 15: Surgite fugiamus: neque erit nobis refugium a facie Absalonis. Et supra dicit in plurali, Ab omnibus persequentibus: hic in singulari: Ne quando rapiat ut leo, quia omnes sub uno capite comprehenduntur: spirituales sub uno diabolo: corporales sub Absalone. De primo 1 Petri 5: Adversarius vester diabolus tamquam leo rugiens etc. Psal. 9. Insidiatur in abscondito quasi leo etc. Rapiat quasi subito, et velociter: Joa. 10: Lupus rapit: quia diabolus insidiose facit. Et hoc faciet, Dum non est qui redimat etc. Redimitur quis, dum liberatur a malo: et hoc refertur ad liberationem a poena: Osee 13: De morte redimam eos. Neque qui salvum faciat, per liberationem a culpa: Matth. 1: Ipse salvum faciet populum suum a peccatis eorum. Hieronymus: ne forte rapiat ut leo animam meam, et laceret; et non sit qui eripiat.He gives the reason for the petition when he says, Lest when he seize etc., as if he were saying, Unless you come to my aid, Absalom, like a lion, will devour me: 2 Kings 15 [2 Samuel 15:14], Arise, let us flee, for there will be no refuge for us from the face of Absalom. And above he speaks in the plural, from all those who persecute me; here, in the singular, Lest when he seize me like a lion, because under one heading all persecutors are understood: spiritual under one, the devil; bodily under Absalom. Concerning the first:1 Peter 5 [5:8] Our adversary the devil like a roaring lion etc. Psalm 9 [10:9] He lies in wait in secret like a lion etc. He seizes as if suddenly, And quickly: John 10 [10:12] the wolf seizes: because the devil does this deceitfully. And he does this, while there is no one who redeems etc. One is redeemed when one is set free from evil: and this refers to being set free from penalty, as in Hosea 13 [13:14] From death I will redeem them. Nor one who saves, through being set free from guilt; as in Matthew 1 [1:21] He saves his people from sin. Jerome says: Lest he strongly seize my soul like a lion, and tear it: and there is not one who rescues.
Deinde allegat suam innocentiam: Domine Deus meus, si feci istud. Et hoc potest intelligi dupliciter: vel per modum juramenti, vel praenuntiationis. si per modum juramenti, sic sciendum est quod duplex est juramentum, scilicet per contestationem, sicut ad Rom. 1: Testis est mihi Deus cui servio in spiritu meo etc. Et per execrationem, ut cum dicitur, si ita feci sic contingat mihi; Job 31: Si gavisus sum ad ruinam illius qui me oderat etc. 2 Cor. 1: Ego testem Deum invoco in animam meam: quasi dicat, si non sum innocens rapiat me. Vel potest intelligi per modum praenuntiationis; quasi dicat, si ego sum in istis defectibus, haec erit poena mea, decidam etc.Then he recounts his innocence, Lord, my God, if I have done this. And this can be understood in two ways: either in the manner of an oath, or a prediction. If in the manner of an oath, then it must be understood that the oath is twofold, namely in being called as a witness, as in Romans 1 [1:9] God is my witness whom I serve in my spirit etc. and in a curse, as when he says, If I have done this, then let it happen to me: Job 31 [31:29] If I have rejoiced over the destruction of one who hates me etc. 2 Corinthians 1 [1:23] I call upon God as my witness in my spirit. It is as if he were saying, If I am not innocent, seize me. Or it can be understood in the manner of a prediction; as if he were saying, If I have such defects, this will be my punishment, Let me be cut off etc.
Et secundum hoc excludit primo a se culpam, Si feci istud, etc. Secundo determinat sibi poenam, Decidam etc. Excludit autem a se culpam, primo in generali, cum dicit, Domine Deus meus, si feci istud. Quid istud? Peccatum, scilicet superbiae secundum glossam, quod est quasi universale peccatum: Eccl. 10: Initium omnis peccati superbia. Vel aliter; Istud, quia quando quis patitur tribulationem aliquam ex culpa sua, dicitur ei, tu fecisti tibi istud; quasi dicat; tu es in causa ut hoc fiat. Et sic dicit: Si feci istud, ego huic persecutioni causam dedi: 2 Reg. 8: Faciebat David judicium et justitiam cum populo suo. Mich. 7: Iram Domini portabo: quia peccavi ei etc. Secundo, cum dicit, Si est iniquitas etc. excludit culpam in speciali; ubi tria facit: nam primo dicit quod nulli fecit injuriam; et ideo dicit, Si est iniquitas: Job 51: Si iniquitatem quae est in manu etc. 1 Reg. 24: Animadverte et vide, quod non est in manu mea malum neque iniquitas. Unde cum homo nulli facit injuriam, injustum videtur quod affligatur.And according to this he first excludes guilt from himself, If I have done this, etc. Second, he determines a penalty for himself, Let me be cut off etc. But he excludes himself from guilt, first in general when he says, Lord my God if I have done this. What is the this? It is the sin, namely, of pride according to the gloss, because it is, so to speak, the universal sin: Ecclesiasticus 10 [Sir. 10:15] The beginning of all sin is pride. Or, otherwise, the this, occurs when someone suffers some tribulation out of their own fault, it is said to him, you have done this to yourself: as if he were saying, you are the cause that has made this happen. And thus he says, If I have done this, I have given the cause for this persecution: 2 Kings 8 [2 Samuel 8:15] David used to give judgement and justice among his people: Micah 7 [7:9] I will bear the anger of the Lord: because I have sinned against him etc. Secondly, when he says, If there is iniquity etc. he excludes guilt in particular; here he does three things: for first he says that he has injured no one and so he says, If there is iniquity: Job 41 [11:14?]: If there is sin which is in my hand etc.. 1 Kings 24 [1 Samuel 24:12] Turn and look, because there is neither evil nor iniquity in my hand. Wherefore, when a man has injured no one, it seems unjust that he be afflicted.
Secundo quidem remisit offensam; et ideo dicit, Si reddidi etc. Et hoc 1 Reg. 24: Pepercit tibi oculus meus. Dixi enim: non extendam manum meam in Dominum meum: quia Christus Domini est. Levit. 19: Ne quaeras ultionem: nec memoreris injurias civium tuorum.Second, he also forgives the offense, and therefore he says, If I have returned etc. And on this there is 1 Kings 24 [I Samuel 24:11] My eye has pitied you. Then he said, I will not put forth my hand against my lord because he is the anointed of the Lord. Leviticus 19 [19:18] Do not seek revenge nor remember the wrongs of your countrymen.
Tertio, quod inimicis benefecit: quod est tertium bonum. Unde littera Hieronymi habet, Dimisi hostes meos vacuos. Rom. 12: Noli vinci a malo, sed vince etc. Prov. 25: Si esurierit inimicus tuus etc. Matth. 5: Benefacite eis qui oderunt vos. 4 Reg. 6: Regi Samariae mandavit Elisaeus ut apponeret cibos exercitui regis Syriae, qui venerat ad capiendum eum. Appositaque est eis ciborum magna praeparatio.Third, he blessed his enemies, which is the third good. In this place Jerome has the words, I sent away his enemies empty: Romans 12 [12:21] Do not be conquered by evil, but conquer etc; Proverbs 25 [25:21] If your enemy hungers etc; Matthew 5 [5:44] Bless those who hate you; 4 Kings 9 [2 Kings 6:22-23?], Elisha commanded the king of Samaria to put a meal before the army of the king of Syria, who had come to capture him. And a great preparation of food was laid before them.
b. Consequenter cum dicit, Decidam. Determinat sibi poenam quae sequitur: quasi dicat: si ista non sunt vera quae dico, fiant mihi ista. Et primo ponit detrimentum pecuniae. Secundo personae. Tertio gloriae.b. These things are all pursuant to his saying, Let me be cut off. He determines for himself a punishment which follows, as if he were saying, If these things are not true which I am saying, then may these things happen to me. And first he sets down the loss of money; second of the person; third of honor.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: hoc malum accidat mihi, scilicet quod Decidam merito, idest juste Ab inimicis, idest auferantur mihi bona. Job 31: Si adhaesit membris meis macula, seram, et alius comedat.Therefore he says concerning the first: Let this evil happen to me, namely that I am cut down deservedly, that is justly, by my enemies, that is, let them take away my possessions, as in Job 31 [31:7-8] If sin clings to my members, then may I sow and another eat.
Quoad personam tria ponit quae homo patitur in se. Primo persecutionem. Secundo captivitatem. Tertio mortem. Quantum ad primum dicit, Persequatur. Quantum ad secundum, Comprehendat. Quantum ad tertium, et Conculcet, vel occidendo, vel totaliter me prosternat.Regarding the person he sets down three things which a man suffers in himself: First, persecution; second, captivity; third, death. Concerning the first he says, Let them pursue me. Concerning the second he says, Let them seize me. Concerning the third, And let them trample, either by killing or throwing me to the ground altogether.
Quantum ad gloriam subjungit, Et gloriam meam etc. Ac si diceret, quicquid sit illud in quo glorior, redigatur in pulverem et dispergatur. Mystice: inimicus diabolus persequens tentando: Thren. 4: Velociores fuerunt persecutores etc. Comprehendat, per consensum peccati: Thren. 1: Omnes persecutores ejus apprehenderunt eam inter angustias. Conculcet per consuetudinem et contemptum: Isa. 51: Incurvare ut transeamus. Gloria hominis duplex est: naturalis scilicet et spiritualis. De prima 1 Cor. 11: Vir non debet, idest mens, Velare caput suum quia gloria et imago Dei est. De secunda 2 Cor. 1: Gloria nostra haec est testimonium conscientiae nostrae. Gloriam ergo hominis deducit diabolus in pulverem, quia imago Dei deturpatur, quia maculatur: 1 Tim. 4: Cauteriatam habentes conscientiam: Ps. 72: Domine in civitate tua, imaginem ipsorum ad nihilum rediges.Concerning his honor he adds, And my honor etc. But if he were saying, Whatever there may be in which I take honor, let it be reduced to dust and scattered. In a mystical sense, our enemy the devil persecutes by tempting: Lamentations 4 [4:19] Swifter were our pursuers etc. Let him seize me, through consent to sin: as in Lamentations 1 [1:3] All her persecutors seized her in the midst of her trials. Let him trample, through custom and scorn; as in Isaiah 61 [51:23] Bow down in order that we may walk over you. The honor of man is twofold, that is, natural and spiritual. Concerning the first, I Corinthians 11 [11:7] A man, that is, the mind, should not cover his head: because it is the glory and image of God. Concerning the second, 2 Corinthians 1 [1:12] Our honor is this, the testimony of our conscience. For the devil drags down the honor of man into the dust so that the image of God is defiled, so that it is stained: I Timothy 4 [4:2] Having a seared conscience: Psalm 72 [73:20] Lord, in your city their image is brought to nothing.
c. Supra proposuit orationem pro se, petens liberari et salvari; hic petit contra inimicos: ubi duo facit. Primo petit eorum punitionem. Secundo punitionis fructum, ibi, Et exaltare. Legamus primo litteram secundum historiam, sicut potuit competere David. Exurge, duobus generibus hominum dicitur: dormienti et jacenti. Deus autem quando peccata non punit, dormire videtur, quasi non haberet prudentiae vigilantiam: Ps. 43: Exurge, quare obdormis domine? Item quando non punit, videtur impotens jacere; sed tunc surgere videtur, quando potestatem manifestat adversarios puniendo: Isa. 26: Exaltetur manus tua, ut non videant, videant et confundantur zelantes populi, et ignis hereditatem tuam devoret.c. Previously he offered a prayer for himself, asking to be set free and saved; here he prays against his enemies: in this place he does two things. First, he prays for their punishment. Second, for the fruit of punishment, where it says, And be lifted up. We should read this first literally according to the history, as if it could apply to David. Rise up is said of two kinds of men, those sleeping, and those lying down. For when God does not punish sins, it seems that he sleeps, as if he did not have the vigilance of prudence; as in Psalm 43 [44:24] Awake, Lord! Why do you sleep? Again, when he does not punish, it seems that he, being powerless, is lying down; but then it seems that he rises up when he manifests power by punishing his adversaries; as in Isaiah 26 [26:11] Your hand is lifted up, but they did not see it; let them see your zeal for your people and be ashamed, and may fire devour your inheritance.
In ira dicit, idest in punitione, quae est irae effectus. Fructum autem punitionis ponit triplicem. Unum ex parte Dei, ut Deus exaltetur, non in se, sed in opinione hominum, quia per hoc reputatur altus et potens: et ideo dicit, Exaltare; quasi dicat: deprime inimicos meos, et in hoc altus apparebis. Eccl. 36: Sicut in conspectu illorum magnificatus est in nobis, ita in conspectu nostro etc. Et dicit, In finibus, ut totaliter deprimat, et nihil remaneat invadendo fines eorum. Hieronymus habet, Elevare indignans super hostes; quasi dicat, irascere, et in hoc elevare.It says, In anger, that is, in punishment, which is the effect of anger. And the fruit of punishment he sets forth in three ways. One is on the part of God, that God may be exalted, not in himself, but in the opinion of men, because through this he is considered exalted and powerful; and therefore he says, Be exalted. It is as if he were saying, Afflict my enemies, and in this you will appear exalted: Ecclesiasticus 37 [Sir. 36:3] As in their sight he is glorified in us, so in our sight etc. And he says, on my borders, so that he may be utterly afflicted, and so that nothing will remain to invade their borders. Jerome has, Arise, indignant, over my enemies; as if he were saying, Be angry, and in this arise.
Alius fructus est ex parte David: nam 1 Reg. 13, legitur: Invenit Dominus virum secundum cor suum, cui praecepit ut esset dux super populum suum: et ipse David de se dicit 2 Reg. 6: Praecepit mihi Dominus, ut sim dux, etc. Hoc ergo praeceptum videbatur evacuari David depresso: et ideo dicit: Exurge in praecepto quod mandasti, scilicet sim dux in regno: et ideo Hieronymus habet, Exurge ad me in judicium quod mandasti. Another fruit is on the part of David: for in 1 Kings 13 [13:14] is read, The Lord found a man after his own heart, whom he commanded that he might be a leader over his people: and David himself says concerning himself in 2 Kings 6 [6:21] The Lord commanded me that I might be the leader. Therefore, this commandment seemed to be voided when David was weighed down: and for this reason he says, Arise in the commandment which you have ordered, that is, that I may be the leader in the kingdom: and so Jerome has, Arise for me in the judgment which you have ordered.
Alius fructus est ex parte populi. In veteri lege ordinabatur per homines de aliis principibus populi; sed de summo principe solum dispensabatur per Deum: Num. 27: Provideat Dominus Deus spirituum omnis carnis hominem etc. Deut. 17: Cum intraveris terram quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi, et possederis eam, habitaverisque in illa, et dixeris, constituam super me regem sicut habent omnes per circuitum nationes, illum constitues principem quem Dominus tuus elegerit. Ergo populus in magno principatu debebat sequi divinam ordinationem: et ideo subdit: Et synagoga populorum circumdabit te, idest sequetur tuam ordinationem, ut revertatur in me: Et propter hoc in altum regredere, idest apparebit magnificentia tua; quasi dicat: non solum propter vindictam, sed ut homines revertantur ad me. Sed prout refertur ad Christum, petit incarnationis mysterium: in quo duplex est fructus.Another fruit is on the part of the people. In the old law it was ordained by men concerning the other rulers of the people; but the highest office are assigned by God alone; as it says in Numbers 17 [27:16] May the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, provide a man etc. Deuteronomy 17 [17:14] When you have entered into the land which the Lord, your God, will give you, and have occupied it and dwelt in it, and you have said, I will set up a king over me like all the nations round about have, you shall set that man as your ruler whom the Lord, your God, chooses. Therefore, people in great authority ought to follow the divine decree: and for this reason he put down: And the gathering of the peoples will surround you, that is it follows your decree, as it is revealed in me: And because of this you returned on high, that is your magnificence will appear; It is as if he is saying, not only for punishment, but so that men may return to me, but in so far as this refers to Christ, he asks about mystery of the incarnation: in which there is a twofold fruit.
Primus depressio daemonum, et conversio hominum, Exurge Domine. quantum ad primum dicit, Exurge, idest appare in mundo per incarnationem, et hoc In ira tua, idest ut punias daemones: Joan. 12: Nunc judicium est mundi etc. Marc. 1: Quid nobis et tibi Jesu Nazarene? Venisti ante tempus perdere nos. Et exaltare in finibus inimicorum, auferendo eorum possessionem: Luc. 11: Cum fortis armatus custodit atrium suum, in pace sunt omnia quae possidet. Si autem fortior illo supervenerit, et vicerit eum, universa arma ejus auferet, in quibus confidebat, et spolia ejus distribuet: et Matth. 12: Quomodo potest quisquam intrare domum fortis, et vasa ejus diripere, nisi prius alligaverit fortem, et tunc domum ejus diripiet? Vel contra Judaeos, ut sit petitio ecclesiae gentium contra eos.The first is the oppression of demons and the conversion of men, Arise, Lord. So far as concerns the first he says, Arise, that is, appear in the world through the incarnation, and this, in your anger, that is so that you punish the demons: John 12 [12:31] Now is the judgment of this world etc. Mark 1 [1:24] What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? You have come before the time to persecute us. And to be raised up on the borders of my enemies, by taking over their possessions; as in Luke 11 [11:22-23] If a strong man, armed, guards his court, all the things which he possesses are in peace. But if another, more strong, comes upon him, and overcomes him, and takes away all his weapons, in which he trusted, he distributes the spoil. And in Matthew 12 [12:29] How can anyone enter the house of a strong man, and plunder his goods, unless he first bind the strong man, and then plunder his house? Or against the Jews, that the prayer of the church of the gentiles may be against them.
Et dicit, Exaltare in finibus inimicorum: alia non mutantur. Illud quod exaltatum homini apparet, ex hoc occultatur: ut puta quando nimis in altum exaltatur. Sicut ergo quod latet in profundo si exaltetur apparet: Job 28: Profunda fluvii scrutatus est, et abscondita producit in lucem: sic ait, Exaltare, idest manifestare: et sicut quod nimis exaltatur occultatur; unde Act. 1: Elevatus est, et nubes suscepit eum ab oculis eorum, sic Exaltare, ut efficiaris Judaeis occultus: ut te non cognoscant, et sic crucifigant, et redimantur.And he says, to be exalted on the borders of my enemies: the others do not change. That which appears exalted to a person, for that reason is hidden from him: So, the example is when something is raised too high in the heights. Therefore, just as what is concealed in the deep, if it is raised up, appears: Job 28 [28:11] He probed the depth of the river, and brought forth the hidden things into the light. So he said, be exalted, that is, be manifested: and just as when one is raised up exceedingly, he is hidden, wherefore Acts 1 [1:9] says, He was raised up and a cloud took him from their sight, thus be exalted, so that you may be made hidden to the Jews: so they do not recognize you, and thus they crucify you, and they will be redeemed.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Exurge Domine Deus in praecepto, pro conversione hominum. Ubi primo ponitur motivum conversionis. Secundo perfectio. Tertio punitio.Concerning the second point he says, Arise Lord God in the instruction, for the conversion of men. In this place he first sets forth the motive for conversion. Second the completion. Third punishment.
Dicit ergo, In praecepto, scilicet mansuetudinis et humilitatis: quod mandasti: Matth. 11: Discite a me, quia mitis sum et humilis corde. Exurge ergo in hoc praecepto, idest appare humilis altus existens; quasi dicat: ita humilitatem accipias ut altitudinem non deseras: vel exurge a mortuis, et sic Synagoga populorum circumdabit te, congregatio scilicet beatorum qui remunerabuntur, et malorum qui punientur. Cant. 11: Oleum effusum nomen tuum etc. Isa. 2: Praeparabitur mons domus Domini in vertice montium, et elevabitur super colles, et fluent ad eum omnes gentes. Et 6 Cap.: Leva oculos tuos in circuitu: omnes isti qui congregati sunt venerunt tibi. Et Propter hanc in altum regredere, scilicet ut hanc synagogam perficias, credentium scilicet congregationem: Ephes. 4: Ascendens in altum captivam duxit captivitatem etc. Mich. 2: Ascendit pandens iter ante eos. Vel In altum, absconderis ab oculis judaeorum, etc. Synagoga populorum circumdabit te, contemnendo et persequendo: in quo maxime punientur.Therefore he says, In the instruction, that is to say, of meekness and humility: which you have ordered: Matthew 11 [11:29] Learn from me, because I am meek and humble in heart. Arise therefore in this instruction, that is, to appear humble while standing out on high. It is as if he were saying, thus will you receive humiliation so that you do not abandon the height: or arise from death, and thus the congregation of the peoples will surround you, the congregation, that is to say, of the blessed who will be rewarded and of the evil who will be punished: Song of Solomon 11 [1:2] Like oil poured out is your name etc. Isaiah 2 [2:2] The mountain of the house of the Lord will be prepared in the highest mountain, and raised above the hills, and all the nations will flow to it. And Chapter 6 [49:18] Lift up your eyes round about: all who have gathered have come to you: and because of this return on high, that is to say, that you may perfect this assembly, namely the congregation of believers: Ephesians 4 [4:] And going up on high he led captivity captive etc. Micah 2 [2:13] He goes up, opening the way before them. Or, on high, you will be hidden from the eyes of the Jews, etc. The gathering of the peoples will surround you, to despising and persecuting: in which they will be greatly punished.
d. Secunda pars est istius psalmi, in qua agitur de exauditione petitionis. Et quia exauditio petitionis fit judicio Dei, ideo introducitur divinum judicium. d. This is the second part of this Psalm, in which the hearkening to the prayer is treated. And since the hearkening to his prayer is in the judgment of God happen, divine judgment is therefore introduced.
Et primo praemittit ipsum. Secundo agit de dilatione ejus, Deus judex justus fortis et patiens, numquid irascetur per singulos dies. Circa primum tria facit. Praemittitur enim primo judicium. Secundo ejus modum, Judica me Domine etc. Tertio judicis idoneitatem, Scrutans corda et renes Deus.And first he presents him. Second he discusses his delay, God is a righteous judge, strong and patient. Is he not angry throughout each day? Concerning the first, he does three things: first he presents the judgment; second, its method at Judge me, Lord, etc; third, the fitness of the judgment, at the one examining the heart and inner being.
Dicit ergo, habeo inimicos persequentes: et peto divino auxilio liberari. Et de hoc confido. Quia Dominus judicat populos: judicat enim orbem terrae in aequitate, et populos in veritate sua: Ps. 96. Isa. 3: Stat ad judicandum Dominus, et stat ad judicandos populos. Et nota quod postquam dixit, Propter hanc in altum, subjungit de judicio: quia post ascensionem revertetur ad judicandum: Act. 1: Quemadmodum vidistis eum ascendentem in caelum, ita veniet ad judicandum.Therefore he says, I have enemies who persecute me: and I pray to be set free by divine help. And I hope in this. For the Lord judges the peoples: indeed he judges the world with equality, and the peoples in his truth, Psalm 96 [95:13 LXX; 96:13]. Isaiah 3 [3:13] The Lord stands up to judge, and stands to judge the peoples. And note what he said afterward, On account of this on high, he adds concerning judgment: because after the ascension he returns to judge: Acts 1 [1:11] In the same way you saw him ascend into heaven, even so he will come to judge.
Modus judicii ponitur in forma orationis, quia orando ostendit quid fiet in judicio, dicens, Judica me. Et primo ponit bonorum retributionem. Secundo malorum punitionem, Consumetur.The manner of judgment is put in the form of a prayer: because by praying he shows what will happen in judgment, saying, Judge me. And first he sets down the repayment of the good and second the punishment of the evil, where it says Let it be consumed.
In judicio duo retribuuntur: quia bonis bona, et malis mala. Qui ergo bonus est, et qui caret malis, habebit abundantiam bonorum, et sublationem malorum: Prov. 1: Qui me audierit, abundantia perfruetur, timore malorum sublato etc. Et ideo quantum ad primum dicit, Judica me secundum justitiam meam, scilicet quam dedisti mihi, secundum quod sum justus: et haec justitia est, ut mihi retribuantur bona: Matth. 5: Beati qui esuriunt et sitiunt justitiam, quoniam etc.In judgment, two things are repaid: because good [is repaid] to the good, and evil to the evil. He who is good, and who is devoid of evil, will have an abundance of good things, and removal of evil things; as in Proverbs 1 [1:33] He who shall have heard me shall enjoy an abundance, the fear of evil things having been removed. And for this reason he says this concerning the first, Judge me according to my righteousness, just as you have given it to me, according to which I am righteous: and this justification is that good things are repaid to me: Matthew 5 [5:6] Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness: for it etc.
Quantum ad secundum dicit: Secundum innocentiam meam: et haec justitia est ut nihil mali patiatur: Job 22: Salvabitur innocens: salvabitur autem in munditia manuum suarum. Et nota, quod petit hoc judicium secundum justitiam. Supra dicit in poenitentiali psalmo secundum misericordiam, nullum meritum commemorans: nunc autem quia jam justificatus fecerat aliqua bona, quibus debebatur praemium, petit judicari secundum justitiam. Quod ait, Super me, designat quia justitia hominis et innocentia non sunt ab homine, sed a Deo.Concerning the second he says, According to my integrity, and this justice is that he will suffer nothing evil; as in Job 22 [22:30] The innocent will be saved, but he will be saved through the cleanness of his own hands. And note that he asks for this judgment according to justice. Previously he said, in the Penitential Psalm [Psalm 6], according to mercy, remembering no merit: now, however, since he is already justified, he has done some good things, for which he is owed a reward, he asks to be judged according to justice. When he said, Upon me, he signifies that the justice and innocence of man are not from man, but from God.
Contra hoc quod petit, ut sibi sint bona, et mali nihil patiatur, videtur aliquando bonum esse et utile opprimi a malis, et etiam ultra boni habent mala in mundo isto, et mali bona: Luc. 16: Recordare quia recepisti bona in vita tua etc. Et ratio hujus assignatur. Consumetur, idest ad finem deveniet: nequitia peccatorum: Apoc. ult.: Qui in sordibus est, sordescat adhuc.Against that which he asks for, that there be good things for him, and that he suffer nothing evil, it seems that at times the good is usefully to be afflicted by evil, and indeed beyond this the good have evil in this world, and the evil good; as it says in Luke 16 [16:25] Remember that you have received good in your life etc. And the reason for this is assigned. Let it be consumed, that is let it reach its end: The malice of sinners: Revelation, the last chapter, [22:11] He who is in filth, let him be filthy still.
Nota quod quandoque Deus differt poenam ut praedestinati convertantur: Isa. 30: Propterea expectat vos Deus, ut misereatur vestri. Unde tunc. Consumetur nequitia peccatorum, idest deficiet. Quandoque ut mali malitiam suam amplius manifestent, et judicia Dei appareant justa: et tunc, Consumetur, idest perficietur, Nequitia peccatorum, ut justior appareat vindicta: propter quod dicit Gen. 15: Scito praenoscens quod peregrinum futurum sit semen tuum, etc. Usque necdum completae sunt iniquitates amorrhaeorum etc. Act. 7: Et non dedit ei hereditatem in ea nec passum pedis etc. Usque dixit Dominus. Sic ait, Consumetur; quasi dicat: faciant quidquid possunt, quia tandem Consumetur nequitia ipsorum peccatorum. Sed numquid mali gravabunt bonos? Non: quia Deus diriget justos. Unde, Diriges justum, Prover. 2: Simplicitas justorum dirigit eos.Note that sometimes God delays punishment so that those predestined may be converted; as it says in Isaiah 30 [30:18] For God is waiting for you, that he may show you mercy. Thus, at that time, Let the malice of sinners be consumed, that is, let it cease. At other times, so that the evil may more fully evidence their malice, and the judgments of God appear just: and at that time, Let it be consumed, that is let it be brought to an end, The malice of sinners, that punishment may appear more just, on account of which he says in Genesis 15 [15:13-16] Know with certainty that your seed will be an alien, etc. until when the iniquities of the Amorites are complete etc. Acts 7 [7:5] And he did not give him an inheritance in it, not even a foot's length etc. so far the Lord has spoken. Thus he said, Let it be consumed; as if he were saying, Let them do whatsoever they are able, because in the end, Let the malice of sinners be consumed. But will the evil oppress the good? No. Because God guides those who are just. Wherefore [it says], He guides the just, Proverbs 2 [11:3] The simplicity of the just guides them.
e. Deinde cum addit, Scrutans, ostendit judicis idoneitatem. Et primo ponit idoneitatem judicis. Secundo confidentiam de eo conceptam, ibi, Justum adjutorium meum.e. Then, when he adds, The one examining, he shows the fitness of the judge. And first he sets down the fitness of the judge; second, the confidence received from him is understood, where it says, Just assistance is mine.
Duo autem requiruntur ad idoneitatem judicis: scilicet ut sit sapiens, et ut sit justus. Haec autem sunt in Deo: et ideo judex est idoneus: Prov. 20: Rex qui sedet in solio judicii, dissipat omne malum intuitu suo. Est enim sapientissimus, omnia cognoscens, etiam interiora: Heb. 4: Omnia nuda et aperta sunt oculis ejus. Est etiam justissimus: Hier. 2: Tu autem Domine sabaoth, qui judicas juste etc. Et ideo dicit, Scrutans corda. Hieronymus habet sic, Probator cordis et renum, Deus justus: et post sequitur alius versus: Clypeus meus in Deo. Ubi littera nostra habet, Justum adjutorium etc.Now there are two things required for the fitness of a judge, namely that he be wise and that he be just. These things, however, are in God: and therefore it is fitting that he is judge: Proverbs 20 [20:8] A king seated on the throne of judgment dispels all evil with his glance. For he is the wisest, knowing all things, even those things which are within: Hebrews 4 [4:13] Everything is naked and exposed to his eyes. And he is the most just: Jeremiah 2 [11:20] But you, Lord of Hosts, who judge justly etc. And therefore he says, Examining the heart. Jerome has thus, The examiner of the heart and inner being, God is just, and afterward follows the other verse: My shield is in God. In that place our version has, Just assistance etc.
Dicit ergo, Scrutans. Tria sunt in homine: unum apparens, scilicet exterius opus: et duo quae latent, scilicet intentio et delectatio. Haec duo nobis latent, sed Deo patent. Et quia Deo sunt nota, licet nobis occulta, ideo dicit, Scrutans corda, quia novit intentionem, Et renes, idest delectationem, utrum scilicet delecteris in laude Dei vel hominum. Sed quia scrutari est inquirere, inquirere autem est ignorantis, hoc a Deo removet. Et ut ostendat quod Deus evidenter scit; cum dixit, Consumetur etc. convenienter dixit, Scrutans: quia in tribulatione maxime apparet conditio hominum.Therefore he says, Examining. There are three kinds [of examining] concerning man: one is visible, that is an exterior work: and there are two that are hidden, namely intention and delight. These two are hidden to us, but they lie open to God. And since these things are observed by God, although hidden to us, he thus says, Examining the heart, because he knows the intention: And the inner being, that is the delight, whether, that is to say, you delight in the praise of God or of men. But since to examine is to inquire, and to inquire is of one who does not know, this does not apply to God." And in order to show that God manifestly knows, when he said, Let it be consumed etc., suitably he said, Examining: because in tribulation the condition of men is most revealed.
Deinde subinfertur, Justum adjutorium meum a Domino etc. Ubi ponitur fiducia concepta de judice, a quo adjutorium est sperandum. Est enim duplex adjutorium Dei: scilicet misericordiae, et aliud justitiae. Adjutorium quo liberatur a malis et peccatis, est misericordiae: et non est justum, quia non ex meritis. Sed quando quis justificatur, Deus perficit: et hoc est justitiae, quia respondet aliqualiter merito.Then is added, Just assistance is mine from the Lord etc. he put down trust recieved about the judge, from whom help is to be hoped for. And there is twofold assistance from God, that is to say, of mercy, and of justice. Assistance from one who sets free from evil and sins: this is mercy: and it is not just, because it is not [given] by reason of merit. But when one is justified, God perfects him: and this is of justice, because he responds in some way to merit.
De primo dicitur Psal. 9: Adjutor in opportunitatibus etc. De secundo Psal. 45: Adjuvabit eam Deus etc. Sed quare? Quia, Salvos facit etc. Prov. 2: Custodiet rectorum salutem. Rectos corde, idest qui intentione tendunt in Deum.Concerning the first it is said in Psalm 45 [46:2] A Helper in need etc. Concerning the second, Psalm 45 [46:6] God will assist it etc. But why is this? Because, He makes salvation etc., as it says in Proverbs 2 [2:7] He guards the welfare of the upright. The upright in heart, that is, those who bend in intention toward God.
Sed quaerit Cassiodorus. Quare non dicit, qui salvos facit rectos renibus, sed Rectos corde.But Cassiodorus asked, Why does he not say, He who saves the upright in the loins, but upright in heart?
Respondeo. Rectitudo pertinet in ordine ad finem, et ad hoc est intentio: et ideo oportet quod intentio sit recta. In renibus autem est delectatio sensibilis.I respond: Uprightness extends to the ordering towards its end, and the intention is towards it, and so it is fitting that the intention be upright. However, in the loins is the delight of the senses.
f. Supra praemisit divinum judicium; hic autem agit de dilatione futuri eventus, scilicet poenae. Et primo ostendit causam dilationis. Secundo praeparationem ad vindictam, Nisi conversi etc.f. Previously he set forth the divine judgment; but here he treats of the delay of future events, namely of punishment. And first he shows the cause of the delay; second, the preparation for punishment, where it says, Unless you are changed etc.
Proponit autem tres causas, quare Deus potest putari non punire peccatores. Una est eo quod non sit justus, ut auferatur providentia humanorum actuum: Ezech. 9: Iniquitas domus Israel et Juda magna est nimis valde, et repleta est terra sanguinibus, et civitas repleta est aversione. Dicunt enim: dereliquit Dominus terrae, et Dominus non videt: Job 22: Circa cardines caeli perambulat, nec nostra considerat: et hanc excludit a Deo, qui judex est et justus: Is. 32: Ecce in justitia regnabit rex, et princeps in judicio praeerit.And he proposes three reasons, why God can be considered not to punish sinners. One is that he is not just, so that providence is removed from human acts; as it says in Ezekiel 9 [9:9] The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judah is great beyond measure: the land is full of blood, and the city full of apostasy. For they say, the Lord has forsaken the land, and the Lord does not see: Job 22 [22:14] He walks around the hinges of heaven, and does not regard our affairs: and this does not apply to God, who is a judge and is just: Isaiah 32 [32:1] Behold, a king will reign in justice, and a prince is petitioned in judgment.
Alia causa est, quia non est potens; sed hoc excludit, quia Deus fortis, Job 9: Si fortitudo quaeritur, robustissimus est. Quae ergo causa? Quia Patiens: et ideo dicit, Numquid irascetur etc.: idest non quolibet die puniet, sed expectat aliquando et dissimulat: Sap. 12: Dissimulans peccata hominum propter poenitentiam: Isa. 30: Expectat vos Deus, ut misereatur vestri. Et 28: Non in perpetuum triturans triturabit. Hieronymus habet, Comminans tota die, scilicet per sacram scripturam.Another reason is, that he is not powerful; but this does not apply because God is strong, Job 9 [9:19] If his bravery is questioned, he is very strong. For what reason then? Because: He is patient. Because on account of this he says, Is he not angry etc., that is he does not punish on just any day, but he waits sometimes and conceals: Wisdom 12 [11:23] Concealing the sins of men because of repentance: Isaiah 30 [30:18] The Lord waits for you, that he may have mercy on you etc. and 28 [28:28] Not forever will he who threshes thresh. Jerome has, Rebuking the whole day, namely, through Holy Scripture.
g. Deinde cum dicit, Nisi, ostendit quod Dominus parat se ad poenam inferendam, etsi differat ex causa: et ponitur haec praeparatio. Primo ex parte Dei punientis. Secundo ex parte hominis puniti sive recipientis, ibi, Ecce parturiit.g. Then, when he says, Unless he shows that God prepares himself to inflict punishment, even if he defers for a reason: and this preparation is set down: first, on the part of God as the one punishing; second, on the part of man who is punished or is receiving [punishment], where it says, Behold, he travailed.
Praeparatio ex parte Dei describitur secundum praeparationem hominis contra meritum vel peccatum: quia, Odio sunt Deo impius, et impietas ejus. Sap. 4. Et sicut homo praeparat se gladio contra hostes qui sunt prope, sed arcu contra remotos; ita divina vindicta contra eos qui videntur sibi adhaerere, et possunt videre causam punitionis, dicitur gladius quasi contra propinquos sed arcus contra remotos: et ideo non statim te punit, sed praeparat se ut convertaris. Et nisi conversi fueritis, gladium suum etc., idest vindictam suam: Job 19: Fugite a facie gladii. Ultor enim iniquitatis est gladius etc. Zach. 9: Exibit ut fulgur jaculum ejus: vibrabit ad terrendum, et ad propinquos ut fortius percutiat: quia nisi per comminationes homo convertatur, fortiter percutit. The preparation on the part of God is described according to the preparation of man against his merit or his sin: because, Hateful to God are the evildoer and his evil deed, Wisdom 4 [14:9]. And just as a man prepares or arms himself with a sword against enemies who are nearby, but with a bow against those who are far away, in the same way, divine punishment (against those who see to cling to themselves, and are able to see the reason for the punishment), is called "a sword", as it were, against those who are near, but "a bow" against those far away: and for this reason, he does not immediately punish you, but he prepares himself so that you will change. Unless you are changed, he will brandish his sword, that is his vengeance: Job 19 [19:29] Flee from the presence of the sword, for the punisher of iniquity is a sword etc. Zechariah 9 [9:14] As lightning shall his arrow go forth. He will brandish in order to terrify, and against those nearby he strikes down even more strongly: because unless through threats a man is changed, he is strongly struck down.
Maximus Valerius: Lento gradu ad vindictam sui procedit divina ira: tarditatemque supplicii gravitate compensat. Hieronymus habet, Gladium suum acuet, idest praeparabit majorem damnationem: Deut. 32: Si acuero ut fulgur gladium meum etc.. Matth. 10: Non enim veni mittere pacem in terram, sed gladium etc. Secundum glossam, Gladius Dei Christus est. Vibratio ergo est comminatio gehennae in quo percutientur impii, sicut eo vindicante: Isa. 27: In die illa visitabit Deus in gladio suo duro etc. Praeparat et se arcu, quasi ad remotos; unde arcum suum etc..Valerius Maximus [says] Divine wrath proceeds toward punishment at a slow pace: the tardiness of the aid compensates its seriousness. Jerome has, He sharpens his sword, that is, he will prepare a greater condemnation: Deuteronomy 32 [32:41] I will sharpen my sword like lightning etc. Matthew 10 [:] For I have not come to send peace into the earth, but a sword etc. According to the gloss, the sword of God is Christ. The brandishing [of the sword] therefore is the threat of hell in which the unrighteous are struck down, just as by the one who avenges: Isaiah 27 [27:1] In that day God will punish with his hard sword etc. He prepares for himself a bow, as if against those who are far away; whence his bow etc.
Et primo agit de praeparatione arcus. Secundo sagittarum. Et in eo paravit. Qui parat arcum, primo tendit. Secundo ordinat in manu. And first he does concerning the preparation of the bow. Secondly, the archer, And in him he has prepared. He who prepares a bow first holds it and second, he arranges it in his hand.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Arcum suum, idest divinam vindictam, quasi ex inopinato punientem. Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et paravit illum: Isa. 30: Praeparata est enim ab heri Thophet; a rege praeparata, profunda et dilatata: scilicet ad puniendum. Secundo agit de praeparatione sagittarum Et in eo etc.Concerning the first he says, His bow, that is, divine punishment, like one punishing unexpectedly. Concerning the second he says, And he prepared it: Isaiah 30 [30:33] For Topheth is prepared from yesterday, prepared by the king, deep, and wide, that is to say, [prepared] in order to punish. Secondly, he does concerning the preparation of the archer, And in him etc.
Et primo quantum ad ipsas sagittas. Secundo, quomodo in eis aliquis magis nocivum ponit, puta ignem vel venenum. Dicit ergo, Et in eo, scilicet arcu, praeparavit vasa, idest instrumenta mortis, scilicet occidentiae: Ezech. 9: Unusquisque habet vas interitus in manu sua. Ardentibus effecit, quia ibi aliquid combustivum, per quod intelligitur poena ignis aeterni;And first so far as concerns the arrows themselves. Second, how someone puts even more harmful [things] on them. Therefore he says, And in it, namely the bow, he prepared vessels, that is instruments of death, namely killings: Ezekiel 9 [9:2] Each with a deadly vessel in his hand: He made with flames, because in that place was something flammable, by which is understood the punishment of eternal fire;
sed dicitur quod in Hebraeo est, Sagittas suas persequentibus me effecit. Per hunc arcum secundum Augustinum in glossa intelligitur sacra scriptura: Job 29: Arcus meus in manu mea instaurabitur. Hic tenditur, quando duritia veteris testamenti est emollita per novum. Praeparatur, quando exponitur. Et in eo paravit vasa mortis. Vasa mortis possunt dupliciter accipi: scilicet in bono, vel in malo. Hi sunt haeretici, qui ex sacra scriptura mortem simplicibu parant: et sic paravit, idest parari permisit: Ps. 106: Errare fecit eos etc. Effecit, idest extra fecit, hoc est in apparentia posuit: Sagittas, penetrabiles sententias: Ps. 119: Sagittae potentis acutae etc. Vel in bono vasa mortis apostolus inobedientibus: 2 Cor. 2: Aliis sumus odor mortis in mortem. Et hos effecit aptos ad comburendum igne charitatis: Eccl. 48: Surrexit elias quasi ignis, et verbum etc.but it is said that in the Hebrew version it is, he made his arrows in pursuing me. By this arrow, according to Augustine in the gloss, is understood Holy Scripture: Job 29 [29:20] My bow will be strengthened in my hand. It is bent when the hardness of the Old Testament is softened in the New. It is prepared when it is expounded. And in him he prepared vessels of death. Vessels of death are to be taken in two ways, namely in a good or an evil [way]. The latter [refers to] heretics, who, according to Holy Scripture prepare death for the simple: and so he has prepared, that is, he sent to be prepared: Psalm 106 [107:40] He made them to wander etc. He made, that is, he made outwardly, this is, he placed it in an appearance. The arrows are penetrating thoughts; as it says in Psalm 119 [120:4] Sharp arrows of one who is powerful etc. Or, in good way, the vessels of death [refer to] the apostle [when he refers] to those who are disobedient: 2 Corinthians 2 To others we are an odor of death to death. And he fashioned these fit for burning with the fire of love: Ecclesiaticus 48 [Sirach 48:1] Elijah rose up like a fire, and the word etc.
h. Deinde cum dicit, Ecce, agit de praeparatione ex parte hominis puniendi. Ubi duo proponit. Progressum scilicet in peccatum, quo paratur, scilicet ad punitionem. Et secundo incursum poenae, Lacum etc.h. Then when he says, Behold, he treats of the preparation on the part of man for punishing. Here he puts forth two sections. Namely, the progression into sin, for which he is prepared, namely for punishing. And second the onset of punishment, where it says A pit etc.
In progressu peccati tria occurrunt. Malum propositum, conatus, et effectus. Et sic inimici David primo conceperant, sed tunc temporis erant in conatu, et post effecerunt. Propositum autem est sicut conceptio; conatus sicut parturitio; effectus sicut partus. Et ideo dicit, Ecce parturiit, idest nititur efficere, Injustitiam, contra proximum: concepit dolorem, quia Hier. 9: Ut inique agerent laboraverunt: Isa. 59: Conceperunt iniquitatem: Jac. 1: Concupiscentia cum conceperit, parit peccatum. Peperit autem iniquitatem conceptam, quia abstulerant Hierusalem Absalon et Achitophel cum suis complicibus.In the progression of sin three things occur: evil is purposed, attempted, and effected. And thus the enemies of David at first had conceived [evil]; but at that time they were in the time of their attempting [to effect evil against David], and afterward they effected [evil]. But the purpose is like conception; the attempt like labor pains; the effect like birth. And thus he says, Behold he travailed, that is he endeavored to effect, Injustice, against his neighbor: He conceived suffering, because Jeremiah 9 [9:5] They labored to do evil: Isaiah 59 [59:4] They conceived iniquity: James 1 [1:15] Desire when it conceives gives birth to sin. But He brought forth iniquity which was conceived, because Absalom and Ahithophel with their accomplices had siezed Jerusalem.accomplices.
i. Lacum. Agit de poena. Et primo ponit metaphoram. Secundo exponit eam, ibi, Convertetur. Venatores ponunt ingenia, ut capiant lupos in foveis. Ipsi etiam inimici, ut capiant homines, exercent ingenia sua: et hoc fit per proditionem; et ideo est sicut fovea. Apud Hebraeos fovea dicitur lacus: Zach. 9: Tu autem in sanguine testamenti tui eduxisti vinctos de lacu, in quo non erat aqua. Lacum ergo, idest foveam profundam, Aperuit, idest excogitavit fraudem, Fodit, profunde cogitando: et hoc explendo, Incidit etc. quia cogitabat occidere, et fuit occisus: Ps. 56: Foderunt ante faciem meam foveam etc. Et hoc exponit, quomodo meam? Quia Convertetur etc. Quia conceperunt dolorem, Dolor convertetur in caput ejus, scilicet iniquitas quam peperit, descendit in verticem ipsius; Isa. 24: Gravabit eum iniquitas sua etc.i. A trap. He treats of punishment. And first he sets down a metaphor; second, he expounds it, where it says, Returns. Hunters come up with clever ideas in order to capture wolves in traps. These enemies also exercise their clever ideas to ensare men: and this may happen through treachery; and so it is like a trap. Among the Hebrews, a trap is called a pit, as in Zechariah 9 [9:11] But you, in the blood of your covenant, have led captives out of the pit, in which there was no water. The pit, therefore, that is, the deep trap, is opened, that is he devised deception, he dug, with deep thinking: and it is by this, He has fallen, etc. because he was purposing to kill, and he was killed: Psalm 56 [56:7] They dug a pit before my face etc. And this explains, how [it is] my [face], because it returns etc. Since they conceived pain, pain returns onto his head, that is to say the iniquity which he prepared, descends onto the crown of his head Isaiah 24 [24:20] Heavy upon it will be its own iniquity etc.
k. Confitebor. Haec est tertia pars, ubi ponit gratiarum actionem Secundum justitiam ejus, quia praecessit meritum: Ps. 110: Confessio et magnificentia opus ejus. Et psallam cum psalterio: Ps. 80: Sumite psalmum, et date tympanum etc.k. I will praise. This is the third part, where he sets down the action of giving thanks according to his righteousness, because it precedes merit; as it says in Psalm 95 [111:3] His work is praise and magnificence. And I will sing with the Psalter: Psalm 80 [81:2] Take a psalm, and play the harp etc.

© Steven DePangher
(sdepangher@earthlink.net)



The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)