Verba mea auribus
percipe Domine: intellige clamorem meum. Intende voci orationis
meae, rex meus, et Deus meus. Quoniam ad te orabo Domine.
Give ear, O Lord, to my
words, understand my cry. Hearken to the voice of my prayer, O my
King and my God. For to thee will I pray: O Lord,
© Dr. Stephen Loughlin
judgment, as indicated
earlier at the beginning of g.
finem, pro ea quae consequitur haereditatem
Unto the end. For her that obtaineth the
exaudies vocem meam. Mane astabo tibi et videbo, quoniam non Deus
volens iniquitatem tu es. Neque habitabit iuxta te malignus, neque
permanebunt iniusti ante oculos tuos.
in the morning thou shalt hear my voice. In the
morning I will stand before thee, and will see: because thou art
not a God that willest iniquity. Neither shall the wicked dwell
near thee: nor shall the unjust abide before thy eyes.
omnes qui operantur iniquitatem: perdes omnes qui loquuntur
mendacium. Virum sanguinum et dolosum abominabitur Dominus.
Thou hatest all the workers of iniquity: thou wilt
destroy all that speak a lie. The bloody and the deceitful man the
Lord will abhor.
autem in multitudine misericordiae tuae, introibo in domum tuam,
adorabo ad templum sanctum tuum in timore tuo.
But as for me in the multitude of thy mercy, I
will come into thy house; I will worship towards thy holy temple,
in thy fear.
deduc me in iustitia tua, propter inimicos meos: dirige in
conspectu tuo viam meam.
Conduct me, O Lord, in thy justice: because of my
enemies, direct my way in thy sight.
Quoniam non est in ore eorum veritas: cor eorum vanum est.
Sepulcrum patens est guttur eorum, linguis suis dolose agebant.
For there is not truth in their mouth: their heart
is vain. Their throat is an open sepulcher: they dealt deceitfully
with their tongues:
illos Deus. Decidant a cogitationibus suis, secundum multitudinem
impietatum eorum expelle eos: quoniam irritaverunt te Domine.
judge them, O God. Let them fall from their
devices: according to the multitude of their wickednesses cast
them out: for they have provoked thee, O Lord.
laetentur omnes qui sperant in te: in aeternum exultabunt, et
habitabis in eis. Et gloriabuntur in te omnes, qui diligunt nomen
But let all them be
glad that hope in thee: they shall rejoice for ever, and thou
shalt dwell in them. And all they that love thy name shall glory
Quoniam tu benedices iusto. Domine, ut scuto bonae voluntatis tuae
For thou wilt bless the just. O Lord, thou hast
crowned us, as with a shield of thy good will.
Psalmista orationem proposuit contra persequentes manifeste; hic
contra dolosos orat, ne decipiatur. Et circa hoc duo facit. Primo
ponit petitionem contra dolosos, ne decipiatur. Secundo, ut lapsus
reparetur, ibi, Domine
ne in furore
Previously, the Psalmist set forth his prayer in
no uncertain terms against those who were pursuing him. Here, he
prays against those who perpetrate deceptions, that he might not
be deceived. Concerning this he does two things. First, he puts
forth his petition against these deceivers, that he might not be
deceived, and secondly, that he might be restored from a failure
on his part, at, O Lord, rebuke me not
psalmus habet titulum in quo est aliquid novi, qui talis est; In
finem pro ea quae consequitur hereditatem.
Ubi tangitur figura et mysterium. Figura quidem intelligi potest
dupliciter. Primo, secundum quod glossa exponit, et habetur in
historia Genesis 21, quod Sara videns ludentem Ismaelem cum Isaac
filio suo, turbata est, et dixit ad Abraham: Ejice
ancillam hanc et filium ejus: non enim erit heres filius ancillae
cum filio meo Isaac.
Intellexit quidem Sara ludum illum persecutionem esse contra
Isaac; Abraham autem dure accepit quod dixerat Sara de filio suo
Ismaele; sed dixit ei Deus: Non
tibi videatur asperum super puero et ancilla tua: omnia quae
dixerit tibi Sara, audi vocem ejus, quia in Isaac vocabitur tibi
etc.: quasi dicat: Isaac tibi haeres erit tuus, non Ismael. Unde
infra 25, dicitur: Dedit
Abraham cuncta quae possederat filio suo Isaac, filiis autem
concubinarum largitus est munera
etc. Potest ergo hic psalmus referri ad hoc: quod populus
Judaeorum secundum figuram consequebatur hereditatem promissam
Abrahae, cujus erat caput David, et rex. Secundum mysterium vero
populus Christianus: Gal. 4: Nos
autem, fratres, secundum isaac promissionis filii sumus.
Ergo psalmus iste tendit In
idest in Christum quem laudat Pro
scilicet pro ecclesia, Quae
This psalm has in
its title something new, namely, Unto the end. For her
that obtaineth the inheritance.
This can be referred to here in both a literal and mystical way.
With regard to the former, this can be understood in two ways.
First, as the Gloss explains it and as it is found in history
recounted in Genesis 21, namely that Sara, seeing Ismael playing
with Isaac her son, was troubled and said to Abraham: Cast
out this bondwoman, and her son: for the son of the bondwoman
shall not be heir with my son Isaac.
(Genesis 12:10) Sara thought that this play was in fact a
persecution directed against Isaac. Abraham accepted, with duress,
what Sara had said concerning Ismael his son. But God said to him:
Let it not seem grievous to thee for the boy, and for
thy bondwoman: in all that Sara hath said to thee, hearken to her
voice: for in Isaac shall thy seed be called. (Genesis
12:12) It is as if he were saying: "Isaac will be your heir,
not Ismael." Whence it is said at Genesis 25:5-6, that
Abraham gave all his possession to Isaac. And to the
children of the concubines he gave gifts (and separated them from
Isaac his son, while he yet lived, to the east country).
Therefore, this psalm can be referred to the foregoing, that, in
the literal sense, the Jewish people obtained the inheritance
promised to Abraham, whose head and king was David. According to
the mystical sense, the foregoing is referred to the Christian
people: Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children
of the promise. (Galatians
4:28) Therefore, this psalm tends Unto the end,
that is to say, to Christ whom it praises, For her,
namely for the Church, That obtaineth the inheritance,
rejected by the synagogue.
modo, secundum litteram Hieronymi, titulus est, Victori
pro heredibus canticum David:
et sic potest intelligi, quod iste psalmus factus est pro victoria
quam David habuit ad litteram. Et sciendum, quod David fugiens
haereditatem amisit per Absalonem, sicut habetur 2 Reg. 16. Unde
sicut praecedens psalmus fuit pro liberatione et victoria contra
Absalonem, ita hunc fecit pro recuperatione hereditatis: quia
David reverso in Hierusalem, adhuc malitiose insurrexerant sibi et
alii contra eum. Unde 2 Reg. 20, mandavit David Amasae, quod usque
in diem tertium convocaret omnes viros Juda, ut persequeretur Siba
filium Bochri: quia
magis afflicturus est nos filius Bochri quam Absalon.
Pertransiverat enim omnes tribus Israel usque Abelam, omnesque
electi congregati erant ad eum:
quo decapitato regnavit David super omnem Israelem.
(We can consider all this) in another way
according to Jerome's version. Its title is For the conquerer
on behalf of those receiving inheritances. A song of David. This
can be understood in a literal way, namely that this psalm was
made for the victory that David had won. It should be understood
that David in fleeing lost his inheritance because of Absalom, as
recounted at 2 Kings 16. Hence as the preceding psalm was on
behalf of the liberation from and victory over Absalom, in like
manner he composed this one for the recovery of his inheritance.
For although David had returned to Jerusalem, his own still
rebelled maliciously, some of them even rising up against him.
Thus David (at 2 Kings 20) ordered Amasa to assemble all the men
of Juda until the third day so that Seba the son of Bochri might
be pursued, for the son of Bochri will do us more harm
than did Absalom...He had passed through all tribes of Israel unto
Abela...and all the chosen men were gathered together unto him.
(2 Kings 20: 4, 5, 14) Upon his decapitation, David ruled over the
whole of Israel.
hoc ergo psalmo secundum litteram tria considerantur. Primo petit
exaudiri. Secundo ostendit fiduciam suae exauditionis, ibi, Mane
Tertio proponit petitionem, ibi, Domine
Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit exaudiri. Secundo signat
rationem exauditionis, ibi, Rex
this psalm three things are to be considered according to the
literal sense. First, the Psalmist prays to be heard. Second, he
shows his confidence in his being heard, at, In the
morning. Third, he puts
forward his petition, at, Conduct me, O Lord.
Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he prays to be
heard. Second, he designates the reason for his being heard, at,
quod qui vult petere aliquid ab aliquo, sic procedit. Primo
desiderat quod vult petere. Secundo meditatur verba proponenda.
Tertio proponit ea apud exaudientem. Et e converso auditor. Primo
percipit verba auditu. Secundo intellectu capit sensum verborum.
Tertio inclinatur ad implendum desiderium petentis. Loquitur ergo
David ad Deum, secundum similitudinem hanc. Et primo petit primum,
scilicet ut audiat verba ejus exteriori auditu, cum dicit, Verba
mea auribus percipe, Domine.
Secundo petit sensum, scilicet intellectum verborum, cum dicit,
non exteriorem, sed interiorem affectum: Ps. 17: Clamor
meus in conspectu ejus:
murmur meum, quod cogitavi proponendum:
et consonat illi translationi quae dicit Meditationem.
Tertio petit tertium, scilicet exauditionem: Intende
voci orationis meae,
idest velis exaudire orationem meam: Psal. 69: Deus
in adjutorium meum intende.
Sed numquid Deus haec seorsum facit, audit, intendit, exaudit?
Dicendum, quod metaphorice loquitur: scilicet ut omnia haec
approbet, verba exteriora, meditationem interiorem, et quae
It should be
noted that he who wishes to ask something from another, proceeds
in the following way. First, he desires that for which he wishes
to ask. Second, he thinks about the words he is going to use.
Third, he sets them before the one listening (to his appeal). On
the part of the one listening, the procedure is reversed: First,
he hears the words that have been spoken. Second, he grasps
intellectually the sense of the words. Third, he is inclined to
fulfill the desire of the one asking. Therefore, David speaks to
God in this fashion. He begins by asking for the first (of these
three), namely that He hear his words with the outer ear when he
says, Give ear, O Lord, to my words.
Second, he asks for the sense, that is to say, the understanding
of his words, when he says, Understand my cry, not
made externally, but rather felt within: My cry came
before him. (Psalm 17:7)
Jerome's version has: Understand my murmuring which I
thought to put forth: and
this agrees with that translation which says Meditation.
Finally, he asks for the third (of these three), namely that he be
heard: Hearken to the voice of my prayer, that
is to say, "May you wish to listen to my prayer:" O
God, come to my assistance.
(Psalm 69:2) But does God do these three separately? Does he hear,
consider, and then grant? One ought to say that the Psalmist
speaks metaphorically, namely that God approves of all these acts,
namely of spoken words, interior meditation, and of what he sets
ponit rationem exauditionis, cum dicit, Rex
Et est hoc principium versus secundum graecum. Ponitur autem
triplex ratio exauditionis, scilicet ex parte Dei. Quarum una est
Regis enim est gubernare. Ex quo ergo ad Deum pertinet, pertinet
ad eum necessaria providere: Hier. 10: Quis
non timebit te o rex gentium?
Alia ratio est, quia Deus:
Deus enim finis est voluntatum nostrarum et conservator: Ps. 27:
Deo speravit cor meum, et adjutus sum
etc. Et ideo dicit Deus
Isa. 8: Numquid
non populus a Deo suo requiret visionem pro vivis et mortuis
etc. Tertia ratio sumitur ex parte orantis, cum dicit: Quoniam
ad te orabo, Domine;
quasi dicat: Conveniens est, quia promisisti orantibus
exauditionem. Matth. 7: Omnis
qui petit accipit, et qui quaerit invenit, et pulsanti aperietur.
Nec refertur quod dicit Hieronymus, Deprecor,
et hic dicitur, Orabo:
quia hoc designat continuationem orationis sine intermissione:
quasi dicat: Ita Orabo,
quod tamen semper deprecor: Luc. 18: Oportet
semper orare, et non deficere.
Secondly, he designates the reason for his being
heard when he says, My king.
And in the Greek version this is the first verse. He sets forth a
three-fold reason for his being heard, namely by God. The first of
these is My king.
It is the business of a king to govern. For this reason,
therefore, this pertains to God, pertains to him to provide for
the necessities of life: Who shall not fear thee, O king
of nations? (Jeremiah 10:7)
Another reason is that that he is God.
For God is the end of our willing and is our defender: (The
Lord is my helper and my protector:) in him hath my heart
confided, and I have been helped.
(Psalm 27:7) And so he says My God: Should not the
people seek (a sight) of their God, for the living of the dead.
(Isaiah 8:19) The third reason is taken from the perspective of
the one praying, when he says, For to thee will I pray,
O Lord. It is as if he were
saying: "It is fitting that you have promised to listen to
those who pray: For every one that asketh, receiveth:
and he that seeketh, findeth: and to him that knocketh, it shall
be opened. (Matthew 7:8) It
does not matter that Jerome says "I beseech" (deprecor)
and our version says "I will pray" (orabo),
since either word designates the continuation of prayer without
ceasing, as if to say: "In this manner Will I pray,
that in spite of (what may occur) I beseech (the Lord)
continuously": (And he spoke also a parable to
them,) that we ought always to pray, and not to faint. (Luke
est secunda pars psalmi. Ubi primo ostendit fiduciam se habere de
exauditione. Secundo fiduciae rationem, ibi, Mane
etc. Dicit ergo: Exaudies
vocem meam mane:
secundum literam, idest celeriter, quasi dicat tempestive. Hoc
enim sperare debemus de Deo quod cito exaudiet: Isa. 30: Ad
vocem clamoris tui statim ut audierit respondebit tibi.
Idem penul. Adhuc
illis loquentibus ego audiam.
Ratio fiduciae ponitur cum dicit, Mane
This is the psalm's second part where the psalmist
shows, first, the confidence he has in being heard, and second the
reason for this confidence, at, In the morning, I will stand.
Thus he says: Thou shalt hear my voice in the morning,
that is to say quickly, as if to say, at the right time. For we
ought to hope this of God that he will hearken to us quickly: At
the voice of thy cry, as soon as he shall hear, he will answer
thee. (Isaiah 30:19). And
again: (before they call, I will hear;) as they are yet
speaking, I will hear.
(Isaiah 65:24) The reason for his confidence he sets forth when he
says, In the morning, I will stand.
quadrupliciter dicitur: scilicet naturalis diei: Gen. 1: Factus
est vespere et mane dies unus.
Item vitae humanae; et sic juventus dicitur mane: Psal. 89: Mane
floreat et transeat.
Item diei gratiae in prima conversione hominis ad deum, quia tunc
incipit habere lumen gratiae: Ps. 89: Repleti
sumus mane misericordia tua.
Item aeternitatis: Ps. 29. Ad
scilicet in vita praesenti, Demorabitur
fletus, et ad matutinum,
scilicet aeternitatis, Laetitia.
Duplex ergo ratio assignatur confidentiae. Primo, quia mane astat,
idest Deo adhaeret, et ad Deum se praeparat; unde Hieronymus
Eccl. 18: Ante
orationem praepara animam tuam, et noli esse quasi homo qui tentat
ergo diei, idest in matutinis, Astabo
idest tibi intendam. Et hoc, quia tunc est homo liber a
solicitudinibus, et magis habet cor liberum ad cogitandum de Deo:
Psal. 62: In
matutinis Domine meditabor in te:
Isaiae 26: Sed
et spiritu meo in praecordiis meis de mane vigilabo ad te, et
exaudies vocem meam
etc. Quia devotos audit. Mane,
scilicet gratiae, propulsis tenebris culpae, Astabo,
ut habet littera Hieronymi. 2 Reg. 23: Sicut
lux aurorae mane absque nubibus rutilat oriente sole
scilicet liberando a culpa et poena. Vel Mane,
scilicet in die aeternitatis: Job 38: Ubi
eras cum me laudarent astra matutina
etc. Et tunc homo totaliter exauditur. Vel Mane,
idest a juventute: Astabo
Thren. 3: Bonum
est viro cum portaverit jugum Domini ab adolescentia sua:
Eccl. ult. Memento
creatoris tui in diebus juventutis tuae
quia Prov. 8: Diligentes
me diligo: et qui mane vigilaverint ad me, inveniet me.
Secunda ratio fiduciae est, quod videt; unde dicit, Et
et exponit hoc primo quomodo astet, cum dicit: Ego
autem in multitudine.
Primo dicit quid videt: scilicet qui sunt illi qui impediuntur ab
exauditione, et quae sunt hujusmodi impedimenta: et isti sunt
mali; unde dicit Videbo,
etc. Ubi notanda sunt duo. Primo, quod mali excluduntur ab istis.
Secundo quod inducuntur in mala poenae, ibi, Odisti
etc. Circa primum loquitur de Deo sicut de aliquo homine qui
diligit aliquos seu odit. Ubi triplex gradus potest esse: quia
alicui peccatoris placet peccatum,
alicui placet persona peccantis, alicui neutrum: sed tamen
libenter et sine indignatione videt eum. Hoc autem non est in Deo:
quia Deo non placet peccatum, nec respicit ad familiaritatem
peccatoris. Item dedignatur eum videre: et ideo dicit quantum ad
quoniam tu non es Deus volens iniquitatem,
idest non placet tibi. Quantum ad secundum dicit: Neque
habitabit juxta te malignus,
idest non habes eum in familiaritate tua: Ps. 100: Non
habitabit in medio domus meae
etc. Item ibidem 25: Odivi
Quantum ad tertium dicit, Neque
idest peccatores, Ante
scilicet approbationis: Habacuc 1: Mundi
sunt oculi tui, et respicere ad iniquitatem non poteris.
Note that In
the morning can be said in a
fourfold way: namely, of the natural day itself: And
there was evening and morning one day
(Genesis 1:5); secondly, of human life: and so one is said to be
in the morning of one's youth: In the morning man shall
grow up like grass (Psalm
89:6); thirdly, of the day of grace in the first conversion of man
to God, since at that point he begins to have the light of grace:
We are filled in the morning with thy mercy
(Psalm 89:14); and fourth, of eternity: In the evening,
that is to say, in the present life, Weeping shall have
place, and in the morning,
that is to say, in eternity, gladness. (Psalm
29:6) A twofold reason is assigned for his confidence. First,
because in the morning he stands near, that is to say, he clings
to and prepares himself for God. Hence, Jerome's version has, I
will prepare for: Before prayer prepare they soul: and be not as a
man that tempteth God. (Ecclesiasticus
18:23) Therefore, In the morning
of day, that is, at dawn, I will stand before thee,
that is, I will be intent upon you. And this because at that time,
man is free from responsibilities, and has a heart more free to
meditate upon God: I will meditate on thee in the
morning (Psalm 62:7); And
with my spirit within me in the morning early I will watch to thee
(Isaiah 26:9) because he
hears those devoted to him. In the morning,
that is (of the day) of grace, having repelled the darkness of
guilt, I will stand and
I will contemplate,
as Jerome's version renders it: As the light of the
morning, when the sun riseth...
(2 Kings 23:4) Thou shalt hear my voice,
having been freed from blame and punishment. Or, In the
morning, namely on the day of
eternity: When the morning stars praised me altogether.
(Job 38:7) At that time man, man is wholly regarded. Or, In
the morning, that is, of his
youth: I will stand before thee: It is good for a man,
when he hath borne the yoke (of the Lord) from his youth.
(Lamentations 3:27); Remember
thy Creator in the days of thy youth
(Ecclesiastes 12:1). Thou shalt hear my voice,
for I love them that love me: and they that in the
morning early watch for me, shall find me.
(Proverbs 8:17) The second reason for his confidence is that he
sees. Hence he says, And I will see.
And he sets forth first how he will present himself, when he says,
But as for me in the multitude of thy mercy. First
he says that he sees, namely who those people are that are
prevented from being heard, and what these impediments are. These
people are evil. Hence he says, I will see,
namely, Because thou art not a God that willest
iniquity. Two things are to
be noted here. First, that the evil are excluded from (the very
things that the good enjoy). Second, that they are brought to the
evils associated with their punishment, at, Thou hatest.
Concerning the first, the psalmist speaks of God as a man who
delights in some and hates others. (For a man) there can be a
threefold approach to this (situation). First, that he is pleased
with the sin of the one sinning, second, that he is pleased with
the person of the one sinning, and third, that he does neither of
these but gladly and without indignation associates with him. But
these approaches are not to be found in God who neither is pleased
with sin, nor cares to be familiar with a sinner. Furthermore, he
disdains to associate with him. Thus he says, with respect to the
first, that I will see because thou art not a God that
willest iniquity, that is to
say, it is not pleasing to you. With respect to the second, he
says, Neither shall the wicked dwell near thee,
that is to say, you do not have him in your company: He
that worketh pride shall not dwell in the midst of my house
(Psalm 100:7); I have hated the assembly of the
malignant (and with the wicked I will not sit). (Psalm
25:5) With respect to the third, he says, Nor shall the
unjust, that is to say
sinners, abide before thy eyes,
namely receive your approval: Thy eyes are too pure to
behold evil, and thou canst not look on iniquity.
ostendit quomodo inducuntur ad poenam: et ponit triplicem ordinem.
Triplex enim gradus est, quo modo aliquis odit aliquem. Primo
habet eum odio, volendo ei malum in corde. Secundo hoc exequitur
inferendo poenam. Tertio si quando punivit, tamen reconciliat eum
sibi. Sed Deus primo odit; unde dicit, Odisti
etc. Sap. 14: Similiter
est odio Deo impius et impietas ejus.
Sed contra, Sap. 2: Diligis
omnia quae sunt
etc. Respondeo: quod Deus fecit, non odit; sed quod non fecit,
scilicet peccatum. Sed si nos pertinaciter insistamus, peccatorem
odit inquantum non revocat, et per poenas ordinat.
At this point, he shows how the wicked are brought
to punishment. He sets forth a threefold order, for there is a
threefold process by which one hates another. First, one carries a
hatred directed at the other, wishing evil to the other from one's
heart. Second, this hatred is carried out by inflicting
punishment. Lastly, although punished, one nevertheless reconciles
oneself to the other. But God hates at the start; hence the
Psalmist says, Thou hatest: But to God the wicked and his
wickedness are hateful alike. (Wisdom
14:9) However, contrary to this is the following: For
thou lovest all things that are, and hatest none of the things
which thou hast made. (Wisdom
11:25) I respond to this (seeming contradiction) by saying that
God does not hate what he has made. Rather he hates what he did
not make, namely sin. And if we insist stubbornly upon our sin, we
can say that God hates the sinner insofar as the sinner does not
turn away from his sin, and God sets the situation aright through
infert poenam; et ideo dicit: Perdes
omnes qui loquuntur mendacium: Sap.
quod mentitur occidit animam.
Nota quod triplex est mendacium: scilicet perniciosum, quod fit in
nocumentum alterius sive spiritualis sive temporalis rei, puta in
doctrina; et hoc est gravissimum. Jocosum, quod dicitur ad
delectandum. Officiosum, quo quis loquitur ad proficiendum sive
temporaliter sive spiritualiter. Et secundum Augustinum,
nullum mendacium officiosum est sine peccato:
quia si mentiris ut liberes aliquem, hoc non est bonum: quia
Apostolus dicit Rom. 3: Non
sunt facienda mala ut veniant bona.
Praeterea omne malum posset fieri propter bonum; potest tamen
officiosum esse aliquando veniale. Sed jocosum semper est veniale.
Perniciosum vero semper est mortale: et de isto hic intelligitur.
Next, He inflicts the punishment. And so the
Psalmist says, Thou wilt destroy all that speak a lie: The
mouth that belieth, killeth the soul. (Wisdom
1:11) Note that a lie is of three kinds. There is the pernicious
lie, since it results in the harming of another's spiritual or
temporal things (for example in the area of doctrine), and this is
most grave; secondly, there is the humorous lie, since it is said
in order to please; lastly, there is the officious lie which is
proffered for some temporal or spiritual advantage. According to
Augustine, no officious lie is without sin. For if you lie to free
another, this is not good, since the Apostle says at Romans 3:8
that Let us not do evil, that there may come good.
Besides, all evil could be done for the sake of good.
Nevertheless, the officious lie can sometimes be venial. But the
humorous lie is always venial. The pernicious lie is always
mortal. And it is this last sort of lie that is understood here
(in the psalm passage currently under consideration).
Deus sic odit sicut poenas inferens qui non reconciliatur; unde
sanguinum et dolosum abominabitur Dominus.
Illa abominamur quae in cognitione nostra non patimur. Viri
sanguinum dicuntur illi quorum affectus est ad effundendum
sanguinem: Prov. 1: Pedes
eorum ad malum currunt, et festinant ut effundant sanguinem:
2 Reg. 16: Egredere
Dolosus est qui in dolo loquitur. Sed advertendum, quod ordinate
procedit Psalmista: quia primo homo simpliciter operatur malum
cogitando; et hos Deus odit. Sed quando addunt malitiam exequendo,
provocant Deum ad puniendum. Sed quando perdurant, tunc Deus
abominatur: Prov. 15: Abominatio
est Deo vita impii
Thirdly, God hates as he inflicts punishments upon
those who are not reconciled to him; hence he adds, The bloody
and the deceitful man the Lord will abhor.
We abhor those who in our understanding we cannot bear. "Bloody
men" are those whose passion it is to shed blood: For
their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.
(Proverbs 1:16); Come out, thou man of blood. (2
Kings 16:7) A deceitful man is one who speaks in a fraudulent
manner. It should be noted that the Psalmist proceeds in an
ordered way, that, first, man effects evil at the start simply by
thinking, and these God hates. But when they add malice by
carrying out (this evil so thought), they provoke God to
punishment (of them). But when they continue in their malice, then
God abhors (them): The way of the wicked is an
abomination to the Lord.
cum dicit, Ego,
ostendit, quomodo astat Domino: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo
ostendit quomodo accedit ad Deum. Secundo, quam orationem
porrigit, ibi, Adorabo.
Dicet ergo aliquis sibi: tu dicis quod Non
habitabit juxta te malignus.
Sed numquid non tu es peccator? Quomodo ergo astabis? Et ideo
dicit, non secundum merita, sed In
multitudine misericordiae tuae introibo,
idest appropinquabo tibi, In
Vel ad litteram dicitur templum, vel congregatio fidelium: 1 Tim.
oporteat te in domo dei conversari, quae est ecclesia Dei.
Dan. 9: Non
enim in justificationibus
nostris prosternimus preces ante faciem tuam
etc. Sed tu cum sis peccator, idest vir sanguinum, quomodo
appropinquas vel adoras? Certe, In
Eccl. 1: Qui
sine timore est, non
ideo dicit, In
scilicet cum reverentia.
Consequently, when he says, But as for me,
he sets forth how he stands before God. Concerning this he does
two things. First, he shows how he approaches God, and secondly,
what prayer he makes, at, I will worship.
And so, someone might say the following to himself: "You say
that Neither shall the wicked dwell near thee.
But are you not a sinner? How, therefore, will you stand before
Him?" And thus the Psalmist says, "Not according to my
own merits, but rather In the multitude of thy mercy, I
will come," that is to say, I
will approach you, Into thy house. Or,
in the literal sense, (I will come into your) temple, or the
congregation of the faithful: (But if I tarry long, that
thou mayest know) how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house
of God, which is the church of the living God
(1 Timothy 3:15); For it is not for our justifications
that we present our prayers before thy face, but for the multitude
of thy tender mercies. (Daniel
9:18) "But you, although a sinner, that is to say, a bloody
man, how do you approach or adore Him?"; Certainly In
thy fear: For he that is without fear, cannot be justified
(Ecclesiasticus 1:28), for
which reason he says In thy fear,
namely with reverence.
petivit orationem exaudiri; hic proponit eam. Et primo orat pro
se. Secundo pro aliis. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit
orationem. Secundo ponit ejus rationem, ibi, Quoniam
Circa primum duo petit; scilicet deduci et dirigi;
et hoc ideo, quia homo in mundo est sicut in via: Isa. 30: Haec
est via: ambulabitis in ea.
Qui autem vadunt per viam, indigent duobus: quia si via non sit
secura, indigent ducatu; vel dirigente, si sit dubia. In mundo
undique sunt hostes: Psal. 141: In
via hac qua ambulabam, absconderunt laqueum mihi.
Item ignota est via: Job 3: Viro
cujus abscondita est via
etc. Et ideo primo petit, Domine,
deduc me in justitia tua,
secundum justitiam tuam, vel ut ambulem in tua justitia: et hoc,
Ps. 142: Spiritus
tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam: propter nomen tuum Domine
vivificabis me in aequitate
tua. Dirige in conspectu tuo viam meam.
Alia translatio habet, Dirige
in conspectu meo viam tuam:
prima concordat cum Hieronymo: secunda cum graeco; sed tamen idem
est sensus: quasi dicat: Domine, sum in via occulta: Prov. 14: Est
via quae videtur homini recta, novissime autem deducit ad mortem:
et ideo, Dirige
me in conspectu
idest secundum tuam providentiam, quia tibi nihil est occultum.
ut tibi semper placeam. Vel In
conspectu meo viam tuam,
ut scilicet semper sit in corde meo, ut te semper sequi possim.
Previously, the Psalmist asked that his prayer be
heard. Here, he sets this prayer forth. First, he prays for
himself, and then for others. Concerning the first he does two
thing. First, sets forth his prayer, and second, he describes his
reason for it, at, For there is not truth. Concerning
the first, he seeks two things, namely to be conducted and be
directed, and for this reason, that man while in this world is, as
it were, on the way: This is the way, walk ye in it.
(Isaiah 30:21) Those who walk
in this way need two things. For if the way is not safe, they need
guidance, or if it is uncertain, then direction. In this world,
there are enemies everywhere: In this way wherein I
walked, they have hidden a snare for me. (Psalm
141:4) Furthermore, the way is unknown: To a man whose
way is hidden. (Job 3:23) For
this reason, he first asks, Conduct me, O Lord, in thy
justice, according to your
justice, or that I may walk in your justice; and this, Because
of my enemies: Thy good spirit shall lead me into the right land:
for thy name's sake, O Lord, thou wilt quicken me in thy justice.
(Psalm 142:10-11) Direct my way in thy sight.
Another translation has Direct thy way in my sight. The
first agrees with Jerome's version, the second with the Greek.
Nevertheless, the sense is the same in both. It is as if the
Psalmist were saying: "O Lord, I am on a hidden way":
There is a way which seemeth just to a man: but the ends
thereof lead to death. (Proverbs
14:12) And for this reason, Direct my way in thy sight,
that is, according to your providence, for nothing is hidden from
you. Or, In thy sight,
so that I may always be pleasing to you. Or, In thy
sight direct my way, namely
so that it is always in my heart so that I may always be able to
cum subjungit, Quoniam,
assignat rationem petitionis, et describit inimicos, et periculum
imminens. Primo ex defectu boni. Secundo ex abundantia mali, ibi,
Then, when he adds, For,
he designates the reason for his petition and describes his
enemies and the danger that is imminent, first, because of the
absence of good, and second, because of the abundance of evil, at,
Their heart is vain.
quidem est, quia si servarent pacem, possem eis pacificari et
secure incedere. Sed Non
est in ore eorum veritas;
quia aliud habent in ore, et aliud in corde: Osee 4: Non
et ideo non possum secure incedere.
Goodness is indeed lacking because if they were
keeping the peace, I could be at peace with them and approach them
safely. But There is not truth in their mouth,
because they have one thing in their mouth and another in their
heart: (The Lord shall enter into judgment with the
inhabitants of the land: for) there is no truth (and there is no
mercy, and their is no knowledge of God in the land).
(Hosea 4:1) For this reason, then, I am not able to approach them
ex abundantia mali. Et primo quantum ad meditationem, cum dicit:
eorum vanum est,
idest vana meditantur, ad quae attingere non possunt, scilicet
decipere pauperes qui custodiuntur a te: Eccl. 11: Multae
insidiae sunt dolosis.
because of the abundance of evil. First, as to their meditations,
when he says, Their heart is vain,
that is to say, they reflect upon vain matters to which they are
not able to attain, namely to deceive the poor who are guarded by
you: (Bring not every man into thy house:) for many are
the snares of the deceitful. (Ecclesiasticus
ex aviditate: quia, Sepulcrum
patens est guttur eorum.
Guttur servit ad gustum et locutionem. Uno modo potest legi, ut
exponatur secundum quod ordinatur ad locutionem; quasi dicat:
eorum est sepulcrum patens:
nam sicut sepulcrum est locus mortuorum, et de eo egreditur
foetor, ita locutiones eorum mortificant alios, vel spiritualiter
vel corporaliter: 1 Cor. 15: Corrumpunt
bonos mores colloquia prava.
Item foetida sunt eloquia talium, quia turpia loquuntur: Eccl. 11:
Alio modo ut exponatur quantum ad comestionem et aviditatem: et
hoc possumus accipere vel ad litteram;
et sic sunt Sepulcrum
quia sunt voraces. Et propter hoc ut impleant voracitatem suam,
adulantur, et inique agunt. Vel figuraliter: et sicut sepulcrum
quantum est de se paratum est ad suscipiendum mortuos, sic isti
semper sunt parati ad decipiendum: Hier. 5: Pharetra
ejus quasi sepulcrum patens.
of their avidity, for Their throat is an open sepulcher.
The throat is employed for taste and speech. This can be read in
one way, that it is set forth as it is ordered to speech: Their
throat is an open sepulcher, for
just as a sepulcher is a place for the dead and from which a
stench comes, so too does their speech spiritually or corporeally
destroy others: Evil communications corrupt good
manners. (1 Corinthians
15:33) Furthermore, eloquence of this sort is fetid since they
speak of base things: As corrupted bowels send forth
(Ecclesiasticus 11:32) It can be read in another way, namely that
it is set forth as to their eating of food and their avidity, and
we can take this either in a literal way; and so they are An
open sepulcher, because they
are voracious. On account of this, they flatter and act
iniquitously so that they might satisfy their voraciousness; or we
can take this figuratively; and so, just as much as a sepulcher is
prepared to receive the dead, so too these evil people are always
open to deceiving others: Their quiver is as an open
sepulcher. (Jeremiah 5:16)
quantum ad eorum oppressionem, Linguis
etc.: quasi dicat: Per verba blanda ducunt ad mortem: Rom. 16: Per
dulces sermones et blande seducunt corda innocentium:
Hier. 9: Sagitta
vulnerans lingua eorum
etc. Haec potest esse oratio justi et ecclesiae.
Third, as to their oppression, They dealt
deceitfully with their tongues, as
if to say: "Through their flattering words they lead us to
death": By pleasing speeches and good words, seduce
the hearts of the innocent.
(Romans 16:18); Their tongue is a piercing arrow.
(Jeremiah 9:8) This prayer can be of the just and of the Church.
cum dicit, Judica,
orat pro aliis. Et primo contra malos. Secundo pro bonis, ibi, Et
Circa primum tria facit. Primo petit eorum judicium. Secundo
determinat judicii modum, ibi, Decidant
etc. Tertio assignat judicii causam, ibi, Quoniam
Then when the Psalmist says, Judge,
he prays for others, first against those who are evil, and then,
at, Let them all be glad,
for those who are good. Concerning the first he does three things.
First, he asks for their judgment. Second, he determines the mode
of their judgment, at, Let them fall.
Third, he indicates the cause of their judgment, at, For
they have provoked thee, O Lord.
ex quo sunt mali. Sed advertendum, quod duplex est judicium:
scilicet discretionis, quo etiam boni judicantur: Psalm. 42:
me Deus, et discerne causam meam
etc. Secundo condemnationis: Jo. 3: Qui
non credit, jam judicatus est.
Hic loquitur de judicio condemnationis, quo mali judicabuntur in
extremo judicio: unde Hieronymus habet, Condemna
And so, he says, Judge them,
because they are evil. But it should be noted that judgment is of
two kinds, namely, that of discretion, by which the good are also
judged: Judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause from
the nation (that is not holy: deliver me from the unjust and
deceitful man) (Psalm 42:1);
and secondly, that of
condemnation: He that does not believe is judged. (John
3:18) Here, the Psalmist speaks of the judgment of condemnation
with which the evil will be judged at the last judgment. Hence
Jerome's version has, Condemn them, O God.
contra: Matth. 5: Orate
pro persequentibus et calumniantibus vos.
Respondeo. Dicendum, quod prophetae in sua prophetia non
loquebantur voluntate propria: 2 Pet. 1: Non
enim voluntate humana allata est aliquando prophetia, sed Spiritu
etc. Et ideo quae proferebant, dicebant secundum intellectum
divinae justitiae: et ideo haec erant magis praedictiones
futurorum quam orationes eorum: unde Iudica,
idest scio quod
However, on the
contrary, there is Matthew 5:44: Pray for them that
persecute and calumniate you.
I respond by saying that the prophets did not speak in accordance
with their own will in their prophecies: For prophecy
came not by the will of man at any time: but the holy men of God
spoke, inspired by the Holy Ghost.
(2 Peter 1:21) And it is in this way that they brought forth what
they did, that they spoke according to the mind of divine justice.
And it is for this reason that what they said was cast more in
predictions for the future than in the prayers they made. Hence,
Judge, that is, I
know that you will judge.
justitiae duplex ponitur. Primo, ut deficiant ab intento. Secundo,
ut removeantur a loco. Per primum impediuntur mala quae intendunt:
et ideo dicit, Decidant
a cogitationibus suis,
idest consiliis: Job 5: Qui
apprehendit sapientes in astutia eorum,
etc. Vel Decidant,
idest puniantur propter cogitationes suas: Rom. 2: Cogitationum
etc. Sed per secundum expelluntur a societate bonorum; unde
etc. Hoc erit tunc quando Matth. 25, dicetur: Ite
etc. Job 18: Expellet
eum de luce in tenebras
etc. Et dicit Secundum
quia secundum eas erit modus condemnativus: Deut. 25: Pro
mensura delicti erit et plagarum modus.
A two-fold mode of justice1
is set forth, the first, so that they might cease from their
intent, the second, so that they might be removed from their
presence. Through the first the evil are prevented from what they
intend to do. For this reason he says, Let them fall from their
devices, that is to say, from
their counsels: Who catcheth the wise in their
craftiness, (and disappointeth the counsel of the wicked). (Job
5:13) Or, Let them fall,
that is to say, let them be punished according to their own
thoughts: (Their conscience bearing witness to them,
and) their thoughts between themselves accusing, or also defending
one another. (Romans 2:15)
But through the second (mode of justice), they are expelled from
the society of the good. Hence the Psalmist next says, According
to the multitude of their wickednesses cast them out.
This will occur at that time when it is said in Matthew 25:41:
Depart from me, you cursed (into everlasting fire which
was prepared for the devil and his angels);
He shall drive him out of light into darkeness (and
shall remove him out of the world). (Job
18:18) And the Psalmist says, According to the multitude
of their wickednesses,
because it will be according to these that the manner of
condemnation will take place: According to the measure
of the sin shall the measure also of the stripes be.
idest ad iram provocaverunt. Hoc in Deo non iram, sed voluntatem
puniendi ostendit. Alia litera Amaricaverunt
qui dulcis es, in te pertinaciter peccando. Peccatores primo
peccant, post aggravant peccatum suum ex pertinacia, et Deus tunc
non parcit, sed irritatur, idest inducitur ad vindictam: Rom. 2:
ignoras quod benignitas Dei ad poenitentiam te adducit? Tu autem
secundum duritiam tuam:
Deut. 32: Ipsi
me provocaverunt in eo qui non est Deus
The cause (of their judgment) he sets forth at,
For they have provoked thee, O Lord,
that is to say, they have roused Him to anger. This does not
indicate that there is anger in God, but rather the will to
punish. Other versions have They have made you bitter,
you who are sweet, in sinning obstinately against you. Sinners
aggravate a sin that they have first committed by their obstinacy,
and God at that point does not forbear but is angered, that is to
say, is lead to vengeance: Knowest thou not that the
benignity of God leadeth thee to penance? But according to thy
hardness (and impenitent heart, thou treasurest upto thyself
wrath, against the day of wrath, and revelation of the just
judgment of God. Who will render to every man according to this
works. (Romans 2:4-6); They
have provoked me with that which was no god
etc. (Deuteronomy 32:21)
cum dicit, Et
ponit petitionem. Et primo ponit eam. Secundo subdit expositionem,
Circa primum duo facit. Primo enim ponit quid petit, quia
laetitiam; unde dicit Laetentur:
hoc est enim finis bonorum omnium. Ps. 67: Justi
epulentur et exultent in conspectu Dei, et delectentur in
Secundo, quibus petit, quia sperantibus: unde, Qui
sperant in te.
Consequenter cum dicit, In
exponit primo, et dicit, Laetentur.
Secundo, cum dicit, Sperent,
tu benedixisti justo.
Then when he says, But let them all be glad,
he puts forth his petition. He begins by putting it forth and then
qualifies it by adding, Forever.
Concerning the former he does two things. First, he sets forth
that for which he asks, namely gladness. Hence he says, Let
them..be glad, for this is
the end of all the good: And let the just feast, and
rejoice before God: and be delighted with gladness. (Psalm
67:4) Secondly, he puts forth those for whom he prays, namely for
those who hope. Hence he says, That hope in thee.
Consequently, when he says, They shall rejoice forever,
he qualifies the first and says, Let them...be glad,
and then the second, when he says, That hope in thee,
at, For thou wilt bless the just.
namque sanctorum in patria est sempiterna: et ideo dicit, In
et secura; unde addit, Et
habitabis in eis:
plena, propter quod subdit, Et
etc. Sempiterna quidem est, non temporalis: Isa. 51: Laetitia
sempiterna super capita eorum
etc. Secura absque perturbatione: Isa. 32: Sedebit
populus meus in pulchritudine pacis, et in tabernaculis fiduciae;
et ideo dicit, Et
habitabis in eis,
sicut protector: unde Hieronymus habet, Et
Apoc. 21: Ecce
tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus, et habitabit cum eis.
Est etiam plena: et hoc patet ex quatuor. Primo ex gloria inde
concepta; unde, Gloriabuntur,
quia non gloriatur quis de re nisi habeat eam excellenter. Sancti
vero excellentissime Deum habent; ideo dicit, Gloriabuntur.
Secundo ex materia: quia gloriantur de re plenissima, et de omni
bono: Joan. 16: Usque
modo non petistis quidquam in nomine meo; petite et accipietis, ut
gaudium vestrum sit plenum:
Jo. 15: Ut
gaudium meum in vobis sit
etc. Et ideo dicit In
Tertio ex societate: quia solus homo non potest bene gaudere de
aliquo, sed quando amicos habet secum participes illius boni: et
ideo dicit, Omnes.
Ps. 86: Sicut
laetantium omnium habitatio est in te.
Quarto ex perfectione, Qui
hoc enim proprium est amicorum gaudere de bono amici, nec facile
homo dimittit quod
The joy of the saints in their homeland is
everlasting. It is for this reason that the Psalmist says,
This joy is secure; hence he adds And thou shalt
dwell in them.
And it is complete, according to which he adds, They
This joy is indeed everlasting and not temporal: And
joy everlasting shall be upon their heads (they shall obtain joy
and gladness, sorrow and mourning shall flee away). (Isaiah
is secure without perturbation: And my people
shall sit in the beauty of peace, and in the tabernacles of
confidence. (Isaiah 32:18)
It is for this reason that he says, And thou
shalt dwell in them,
as a protector. Hence Jerome has, And you will
Behold the tabernacle of God with men, and he
will dwell with them. (Apocalypse
And this joy is complete, something that is clear for four
reasons. First, by reason of the glory conceived at that time.
Hence, They shall glory,
since one does not glory in a thing unless he possesses it
excellently. The saints, however, possess God most excellently,
for which reason he says, They shall glory.
Second, because of the situation, for they glory in a thing most
complete, and of every good: Hitherto you have
not asked anything in my name. Ask, and you shall receive; that
you joy may be full (John
(These things I have spoken to you) that my joy
may be in you, and your joy may be filled. (John
And for this reason he says, In thee.
Third, because of community, for a solitary man cannot rejoice
well in something, but when he has friends with him sharing in
that good (his enjoyment will be full). For this reason he says,
The dwelling in thee is as it were of all
rejoicing. (Psalm 86:7)
Fourth, by reason of perfection, And all they
For it is proper for friends to rejoice in the good of a friend,
and not easily does a man loose that which he loves.
cum dicit, Quoniam,
ostendit quare sperant. Quia primo de dono gratiae. Secundo
ex misericordia praedestinationis etc. Ex dono
namque gratiae; unde ait, Quoniam
tu benedixisti justo,
dando scilicet ei specialem gratiam: Ephes. 1: Benedixit
nos omni benedictione spirituali in caelestibus.
Et misericordia praedestinationis: Ephe. 1: Praedestinati
sumus secundum propositum voluntatis
ejus, qui operatur omnia in omnibus:
et hoc est quod ait, Scuto
scilicet aeterna voluntate misericordiae suae, quae ab aeterno
disposuit salvare: Ephes. 1: Elegit
nos ante mundi constitutionem, ut essemus sancti et immaculati.
Quod autem ait: Ut
innuit quod ipsa
voluntas Dei bona est sicut scutum contra omnia mala: 2 Reg. 23:
scutum et robur meum
etc. Vel est hic ut scutum protegens, in patria vero ut scutum
coronans. Consuetudo namque fuit romanis antiquitus uti scutis
rotundis, et in illis habebant spem victoriae; et quando
triumphabant, illomet scuto utebantur ut corona. Et inde sancti
pinguntur cum scuto rotundo in capite: quia de hostibus adepti
triumphum, scutum rotundum ad instar Romanorum gerunt in capite
pro corona. Dicit ergo: Scuto
bonae voluntatis tuae
quasi dicat, Pro scuto coronationis nostrae habemus bonam
voluntatem tuam, quae nos hic defendit, et ibi coronat.
Then when he says, For,
he declares why they hope, first because of the gift of grace, and
second because of the mercy of predestination. Hence, because of
the gift of grace, he says, For thou wilt bless the
just, namely by giving him a
particular grace: (Blessed be the God and Father of our
Lord Jesus Christ) who hath blessed us with spiritual blessings in
heavenly places. (Ephesians
1:3) And because of
the mercy of predestination (In whom we also are called
by lot) being predestined according to the purpose of him who
worketh all things according to the counsel of his will (Ephesians
1:11), he thus
says, As with a shield of thy good will, that
is to say, with the everlasting will of his mercy by which he
ordained from eternity to save: As he chose us in him
before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and
unspotted (in his sight in charity). (Ephesians
1:4) But when he
says, As with a shield, he
announces that the will of God itself is like a good shield
against all manner of evil: The Lord is (my rock, and)
my strength and (my savior. God is my strong one, in him will I
trust:) my shield (and the horn of my salvation: he lifteth me up,
and is my refuge: my savior, thou wilt deliver me from iniquity.)
(2 Kings 22:2-3) Or, he is here as a protecting shield, but in
heaven as a crowning shield. For it was the custom of ancient
Romans to use a round shield and to place in these their hope for
victory. And when they were triumphant, they used the same shield
as a crown. And for this reason the saints are represented with a
round shield about their heads; for having won a victory over
their enemies, they bear upon their heads a round shield for a
crown just like the Romans. Therefore he says, Thou hast
crowned us, as with a shield of thy good will. It
is as if he were saying, "For the shield of our coronation we
have your good will which defended us in this world, and crowns us
in the next."
The Aquinas Translation Project
Verba mea auribus percipe Domine: intellige clamorem meum. Intende voci orationis meae, rex meus, et Deus meus. Quoniam ad te orabo Domine.
Give ear, O Lord, to my words, understand my cry. Hearken to the voice of my prayer, O my King and my God. For to thee will I pray: O Lord,
© Dr. Stephen Loughlin
1 or judgment, as indicated earlier at the beginning of g.