Psalm 48

In finem pro filiis Core. a. Audite haec omnes gentes: auribus percipite omnes qui habitatis orbem. Quique terrigenae, et filii hominum, simul in unum dives, et pauper.Unto the end, a psalm for the sons of Core. Hear these things, all ye nations: give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world. All you that are earthborn, and you sons of men: both rich and poor together.
b. Os meum loquetur sapientiam: et meditatio cordis mei prudentiam. Inclinabo in parabolam aurem meam: aperiam in psalterio propositionem meam.My mouth shall speak wisdom: and the meditation of my heart prudence. I will incline my ear to a parable; I will open my proposition on the psaltery.
c. Cur timebo in die mala? iniquitas calcanei mei circumdabit me. Qui confidunt in virtute sua, et in multitudine divitiarum suarum gloriantur. Frater non redimit, redimet homo? non dabit Deo plactionem suam. Et pretium redemptionis animae suae: et laborabit in aeternum, et vivet adhuc in finem.Why shall I fear in the evil day? the iniquity of my heel shall encompass me. They that trust in their own strength, and glory in the multitude of their riches, no brother can redeem, nor shall man redeem: he shall not give to God his ransom, Nor the price of the redemption of his soul: and shall labor for ever, and shall still live unto the end.
d. Non videbit interitum, cum viderit sapientes morientes: simul insipiens, et stultus peribunt.He shall not see destruction, when he shall see the wise dying: the senseless and the fool shall perish together:
e. Et relinquent alienis divitias suas: et sepulcra eorum domus illorum in aeternum. Tabernacula eorum in progenie, et progenie: vocaverunt nomina sua in terris suis.And they shall leave their riches to strangers: and their sepulchres shall be their houses for ever. Their dwelling places to all generations: they have called their lands by their names.
f. Et homo cum in honore esset, non intellexit; comparatus est iumentis insipientibus, et similis factus est illis.And man when he was in honor did not understand; he is compared to senseless beasts, and is become like to them.
g. Haec via illorum scandalum ipsis: et postea in ore suo complacebunt.This way of theirs is a stumbling block to them: and afterwards they shall delight in their mouth.
h. Sicut oves in inferno positi sunt, mors depascet eos. Et dominabuntur eorum iusti in matutino: et auxilium eorum veterascet in inferno a gloria eorum. Veruntamen Deus redimet animam meam de manu inferi, cum acceperit me.They are laid in hell like sheep: death shall feed upon them. And the just shall have dominion over them in the morning; and their help shall decay in hell from their glory. But God will redeem my soul from the hand of hell, when he shall receive me.
i. Ne timueris cum dives factus fuerit homo, et cum multiplicata fuerit gloria domus eius. Quoniam cum interierit, non sumet omnia: neque descendet cum eo gloria eius.Be not thou afraid, when a man shall be made rich, and when the glory of his house shall be increased. For when he shall die he shall take nothing away; nor shall his glory descend with him.
k. Quia anima eius in vita ipsius benedicetur: confitebitur tibi cum benefeceris ei. Introibit usque in progenies patrum suorum, et usque in aeternum non videbit lumen. Homo cum in honore esset non intellexit: comparatus est iumentis insipientibus, et similis factus est illis.For in his lifetime his soul will be blessed: and he will praise thee when thou shalt do well to him. He shall go in to the generations of his fathers: and he shall never see light. Man when he was in honor did not understand: he hath been compared to senseless beasts, and made like to them.
a. Supra psalmista invitavit gentes ad gaudium et gratiarum actionem pro beneficiis populo Dei datis; hic autem monet eas ut confidant de Deo: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo excitat attentionem. Secundo prosequitur propositum. Previously, the psalmist invited the nations to gladness and thanksgiving for the gifts given to the people of God. In this psalm, he advises them to trust in God. Concerning this he does two thing. First, he rouses (their) attention, and second, he pursues (his) intention.
Titulus non est novus. Secundum autem titulum homo dupliciter redditur attentus. Uno modo dicitur attentus reddi aliquis ex parte auditorum, alio modo ex parte dicendorum, cum promittit se dicturum aliqua magna: Prover. 8: Audite me, quia de rebus magnis locutura sum. Et hoc modo loquitur hic. Primo ergo reddit eos attentos ex parte eorum quibus loquebatur. Secundo ex parte dicendorum, ibi, os meum. The title (of this psalm) is not new. According to it, a man is made attentive in two ways, namely on the part of those listening, or on the part of the things that are about to be said, when one promises that one is about to say some great things - Proverb 8: "Hear, for I will speak of great things." And it is in this latter sense that the psalmist speaks here. Thus, he first makes them attentive on the part of those to whom he was speaking, and secondly, on the part of the things about to be said, at My mouth.
Dicit ergo, quod ad omnem differentiam hominum et ad omnes pertinent, quae dicturus est. Et tangit quatuor differentias hominum. Unam ex diversitate populorum: quia alius erat populus Iudaeorum, et alius gentium. Aliam ex parte locorum. Aliam ex parte originis. Quidam enim erant nobiles et insignes, quidam non. Aliam ex parte fortunae: quia quidam divites, quidam non. Thus he says that what he is about to say pertains to every difference between men and to all (people). He mentions four differences between men. One concerns the diversity of peoples, since some were Jewish, while others were gentiles. Another difference concerns (their) location. Another, (their) origin, for some were noble and distinguished, while others were not. The last difference concerns (their) fortunes, since some were rich, while others were not.
Primam ponit cum dicit, audite haec omnes gentes, non solum Iudaeorum, quia haec ad omnes pertinet audire: et est hoc necessarium: Proverb. 1: Audiens sapiens etc. He considers the first when he says, Hear these things, all ye nations, and not just of the Jews, since to hear this belongs to all. And this is necessary - Proverbs 1: "A wise man shall hear..."
Secundam ponit cum dicit, auribus percipite qui habitatis orbem, idest quacumque parte orbis: et dicit, auribus percipite, quia oportet audire et percipere: Matth. 13: Qui habet aures audiendi audiat, idest attendat.He considers the second when he says, Give ear, all ye inhabitants of the world, that is, in whatever part of the world (they may be). He says, Give ear, because it is necessary to hear and understand - Matthew 13: "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear", that is, let him attend.
Hieronymus habet, habitatores occidentis. Quasi sit quaedam prophetia: quia fides Christi praecipue viget in populo occidentis: quia in aquilonari sunt adhuc multi gentiles, et in orientalibus sunt multi schismatici et infideles. Jerome has "The inhabitants of the west," as if this were a kind of prophecy. For the faith of Christ especially thrives in the people of the west, while in the northern (regions) there are still many gentiles, and in the eastern (parts) there are many schismatics and infidels.
Vel, audite haec omnes gentes, refertur ad malos; qui habitatis orbem, ad bonos qui dominantur terrae.Or, Hear these things, all ye nations, is referred to evil (people, while) All ye inhabitants of the world is referred to the good who govern the earth.
Tertiam ponit cum dicit, quique terrigenae, idest ignobiles, et filii hominum, idest nobiles. He considers the third when he says, All you that are earthborn, that is, those who are ignoble, and you sons of men, namely the noble.
Hieronymus habet, tam filii adam quam filii singulorum, quia quidam nihil habent insigne ex parentibus. Jerome has, As much the sons of Adam as the sons of individuals, since some have no idea of who their ancestors were.
Mystice terrigenae dicuntur peccatores, qui terrae adhaerent per affectum; unde serpenti comparantur: Isa. 65: Serpenti (idest terrenis) pulvis panis eius. Filii hominum dicuntur boni, qui imaginem Dei et Christi, qui est filius hominis, habent. In the mystical sense, the Earthborn are sinners who cling to the earth through (their) desires. Hence they are compared to the serpent - Isaiah 65: "The dust shall be the serpent's (that is, the earthly person's) food." The sons of men are called good who are the image of God and of Christ, who is the Son of man.
Quartam ponit cum dicit, simul in unum dives et pauper; quasi dicat: omnes audiatis haec documenta: quia omnibus sunt utilia. Et quae sunt? Matth. 5: Beati pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum: Eccl. 31: Beatus dives qui inventus est sine macula etc. Tamen aliquis est dives actu, sed non affectu: et hic potest esse sanctus, sicut Abraham et Ludovicus rex franciae. Alius est dives actu et affectu: et hic non est sanctus. De hoc dicitur Matth. 19: Facilius est camelum intrare etc. quia sicut est contra naturam intrare camelum per foramen acus; ita intrare divitem in regnum caelorum est contra iustitiam divinam. Et tales sunt terrigenae; sed primi sunt filii hominum.He considers the fourth when he says, Both rich and poor together, as if to say, "Everyone, heed these teachings" since they are useful to all. And what are these teachings? Matthew 5: "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven"; Ecclesiasticus 31: "Blessed is the rich man that is found without blemish." However, some are rich in actuality, but not in (their) desires. And this can be a holy (one), like Abraham, and Ludovic, the king of France. Others are rich in actuality and in their desires. And this does not describe a holy (one). Concerning this, Matthew 19 says "It is easier for a camel to pass..." etc., because just as it is contrary to nature for the camel to pass through the eye of a needle, so too is it contrary to divine justice for the rich (in this latter sense) to pass into the kingdom of heaven. And such are the earthborn, but the former are the sons of men.
b. Os meum. Hic reddit attentos ex promissione dicendorum. My mouth. Here, he makes them attentive through the promise of things that are about to be said.
Quicumque docet, aut docet res aut docet verba. Quando praedicamus fidem et mores, docemus res; quando exponimus scripturam, docemus verba. Primo ergo dicit de prima doctrina. Secundo de secunda, ibi, inclinabo. Whoever teaches, teaches either human affairs or words. When we proclaim faith and morals, we teach human affairs; when we expound upon Scripture, we teach words. And so, first he speaks about first teaching, and then he speaks about the second at, I will incline.
Rerum autem cognitio necessaria est ad duo: scilicet ad cognitionem veritatis, et ad usum operationis. Omnis ergo cognitio veritatis, quae nobis necessaria est de aliis rebus, referenda est ad cognitionem veritatis divinorum. Unde Augustinus dicit: Qui scrutatur haec, non referens ad aeterna, est otiosus. Et ideo omnis cognitio veritatis pertinet ad sapientiam; et ideo dicit, os meum loquetur sapientiam: 1 Cor. 2: Sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos. The knowledge of human affairs is necessary for two reasons, namely for the knowledge of truth, and for the purpose of acting. Thus all knowledge of truth, which is necessary for us concerning other affairs, must be referred to the knowledge of the truth of divine affairs. Consequently, Augustine says, "He who examines this thoroughly, but not referring it to the eternal, is lazy." In this way, every knowledge of truth belongs to wisdom, and, consequently, the psalmist says, My mouth shall speak wisdom - 1 Cor. 2: "We speak wisdom among the perfect."
Id autem quod est necessarium quantum ad usum operationis, pertinet ad prudentiam, qua habetur directio rerum humanarum; et ideo dicit, et meditatio cordis mei prudentiam, scilicet loquetur: Prov. 10: Sapientia est viro prudentia, quia sapientia comparata ad res humanas et materiales est prudentia. However, that which is necessary with respect to the purpose of acting belongs to prudence by which the direction of human affairs is accomplished. And thus, the psalmist says, And the meditation of my heart shall speak prudence - Proverbs 10: "Wisdom is prudence in man", because wisdom brought to bear upon human and corporal affairs is prudence.
Inclinabo. Hic agit de secunda doctrina, scilicet verborum obscurorum: et sunt circa ea duo necessaria. Primo, ut studeat intelligere. Secundo, ut studeat ea exponere aliis. I will incline. Here he speaks about the second kind of teaching, namely of obscure words. These (obscure words) are necessary in two ways. First, that one might be eager to understand them, and second, that one might be eager to explain them to others.
Quantum ad primum dicit, inclinabo in parabolam aurem meam. Parabola est sententia aliqua, quando habet obscuram similitudinem; quasi dicat: dabo studium ad intelligendum aliorum dicta: Prov. 1: Animadvertet parabolam et interpretationem eius; verba sapientium et aenigmata eorum. With respect to the first, he says, I will incline my ear to a parable. A parable is a teaching when it has an obscure image or representation. It is as if he were saying, " I will study so as to understand the sayings of other people" - Proverbs 1: "He shall attend to a parable and its interpretation; the words of the wise, and their mysterious sayings."
Vel, inclinabo aurem meam in parabolam, quam loquitur Deus: quia aenigmatice loquitur; quasi dicat: inclinabo intellectum meum ad vocem Domini, qui loquitur parabolice. Or, I will incline my ear to a parable, which God speaks, because He speaks enigmatically, as if to say, "I will incline my intellect to the Lord's voice who speaks parabolically.
Aperiam in psalterio propositionem meam. Propositio dicitur dupliciter. Uno modo id, quod prae aliis opto, et est illud quod magis desidero, illud, aperiam in psalterio, idest in mea operatione, quia hic est optimus modus aperiendi propositum suum: quia si tu proponis intrare vitam aeternam, non manifestas propositum tuum, si non habes bonam operationem.I will open my proposition on the psaltery. Proposition is said in a twofold way. In one way, (it is) that which I wish for in preference to other things, that which I desire more - that (very thing) will I open on the psaltery, that is, in my activity, because here is the best way of opening his proposition. For if you propose to enter life eternal, you do not clearly show your proposition if you do not practice good activity.
Vel propositio est sermo obscurus, vel propositus causa tentationis; sic Samson, Iudic. 14, proposuit problema: unde dicit: si non arassetis in vitula mea: et sic accipitur hic propositio. Et ideo Hieronymus dicit quod est sermo obscurus. Or (in the second way), proposition is (understood as) obscure speech, or (as) the cause of temptation; thus Samson, in Judges 14, proposed problems: whence he says "If you had not ploughed with my heifer"; and in this way is this proposition understood. And for this reason, Jerome says that it is obscure speech.
Hebraei habent, divinationem meam, quod idem est. The Hebrew version has My divination, which amounts to the same thing.
c. Cur timebo. Proposito prooemio psalmi in quo populi incitavit attentionem; hic procedit ad propositum principale, quod est inducere homines ad non timendum mala praesentia, ne confidant de bonis praesentibus; sed eius timor et fiducia sit in Deo solo: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ostendit de quo sit timendum. Secundo ostendit de quo non debeant timere, ibi, ne timueris. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit intentum. Secundo probat propositum, ibi, qui confidunt. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit quaestionem. Secundo ponit conclusionem. Why shall I fear evil? Having set forth the psalm's introduction, in which he rouses the people's attention, he now proceeds to (his) main purpose which is to lead men not to fear evil at hand, nor to trust in goods of the present time. Rather, his fear and trust is in God alone. Concerning this he does two things. First, he shows what is to be feared, and second, what they ought not to fear, at Be not thou afraid. Concerning the former, he does two things. First, he sets forth (his) intent, and second, he proves his proposition, at, They that trust. Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he sets forth a question, and second, he offers a conclusion.
Quaestio est, cur timebo in die mala? Ubi primo videndum est, quae sit ista dies mala: quia omnes dies sunt a Deo. Sed dicuntur mali propter mala quae in eis contingunt: Eph. 5: Redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt. Potest ergo dies mala dici in qua aliquod periculum evenit; et praecipue in qua imminet periculum aeternae damnationis, et haec est dies iudicii: Soph. 1: Vox diei domini amara: tribulabitur ibi fortis. Ergo, cur timebo in die mala? Idest quid faciet me timere in die illa? Et respondet, iniquitas calcanei mei circumdabit me. Nihil enim timendum est, nisi peccatum: quia nulla nocebit adversitas, si nulla dominetur iniquitas: Prov. 28: Fugit impius nemine persequente: Eccl. 34: Qui timet Deum nihil trepidabit; et ideo dicit, iniquitas calcanei. The question is, Why shall I fear in the evil day? First it must be discerned what this evil day is, for all days are from God. They are called evil on account of the evils that happen on them - Ephesians 5: "Redeeming the time, because the days are evil." Therefore, a day can be called evil on which some danger happens, especially (that day) on which the danger of eternal damnation overtakes one. This is the day of judgment - Sophonias 1: "The voice of the day of the Lord is bitter, the mighty man shall there meet with tribulation." Therefore, (the question) Why shall I fear in the evil day? that is, "What will cause me to fear on that day?" And the psalmist responds, The iniquity of my heel shall encompass me. For nothing is to be feared except sin, since no misfortune will be suffered if no iniquity governs one - Proverbs 28: "The wicked man fleeth, when no man pursueth (but the just, bold as a lion, shall be without dread)"; Ecclesiasticus 34: "He that feareth the Lord shall tremble at nothing"; and thus he says, The iniquity of the heel.
Per calcaneum possunt tria intelligi. Primo, quia est extrema pars corporis. Et ideo iniquitas calcanei mei est iniquitas quae perseverat usque ad finem vitae; et hoc modo accipitur calcaneum: Gen. 3: Ipsa (scilicet mulier) conteret caput tuum, scilicet ratio superior; sed ipsa conteret caput serpentis: et tu insidiaberis calcaneo eius, idest insidiaberis ei usque ad finem vitae. Three things can be understood by the word "heel". First, that it is an extreme part of the body. And in this way, The iniquity of my heel is that iniquity which lasts until the end of (one's) life, in which fashion it is understood as heel - Genesis 3: "She (namely the woman) shall crush thy head", namely the higher reason; but she shall crush the serpent's head: and "thou shall lie in wait for her heel", that is, you will lie in wait for it until the end of (your) life.
Item per calcaneum potest intelligi infirmitas carnis: quia quando homo deficit, calcaneus labitur. Et sic iniquitas calcanei, idest peccatum procedens ex infirmitate carnis, circumdabit me. Secondly, "heel" can be understood as the weakness of the flesh. For when a man falls, his heel slips away. And so, The iniquity of the heel, that is, the sin coming from the weakness of the flesh, shall encompass me.
Tertio persecutio iniusta, quam quis movet contra alium; secundum illud Ioan. 13: Qui manducat panem meum, levabit contra me calcaneum. Et sic iniquitas calcanei, idest persecutio iniusta, retorquetur contra persequentem, Prov. 5: Iniquitates suae capiunt impium. Thirdly, ("heel" can be understood as) unjust persecution which someone brings against another. With respect to this there is John 13: "He that eateth bread with me, shall lift up his heel against me." And so, The iniquity of the heel, that is, unjust persecution, will be cast back against the persecutor - Proverbs 5: "His own iniquities catch the wicked (and he is fast bound with the ropes of his own sin)."
Qui confidunt in virtute sua. Hic ponitur ratio quare sit timendum; quia propter peccatum. Et est duplex ratio quare sit timendum peccatum. Primo, propter impossibilitatem evadendi poenam peccati: Iob 11: Peribit ab eis refugium, et spes eorum abominatio animae. Alia ratio est propter mala quae malis imminent. Primo ergo ponit impossibilitatem evadendi poenam. Secundo ostendit mala imminentia malis, ibi, non videbit. They that trust in their own strength. Here, he sets down the reason why (this evil day) is to be feared, namely because of sin. There is a two-fold reason that sin is to be feared. First, on account of the impossibility of avoiding the punishment of sin - Job 11: "...the way to escape shall fail them, and their hope the abomination of the soul." Secondly, on account of the evils that befall the evil. Therefore, he sets down, first, the impossibility of evading punishment, and secondly, shows the evils that befall the evil, at, He shall not see.
Aliquis evadit poenas primo per auxilium extrinsecum. Secundo per propriam solicitudinem. Tertio propter defectum subiecti, ut quando moritur. Et ostendit quod nullo istorum modorum evadere potest. Primo propter auxilium. Secundo, quod nec per remedium a se exhibitum. Tertio, quod nec per defectum subiecti.Someone evades punishment, first, through outside help, secondly, through one's own solicitude, and third, on account of a lacking in the subject, as when he is dead. And he shows that in no one of these ways can one evade (punishment), first on account of help, nor, secondly, through the assistance provided by oneself, nor, thirdly, through a lacking in the subject.
Qui vult liberari per auxilium, quandoque liberatur ex potentia sui exercitus: Ioan. 18: Si regnum meum esset de hoc mundo, ministri mei etc. Quandoque per divitias: Prov. 6: Omnem substantiam domus suae tradet, et liberabit se. Quandoque per amicos. Et ostendit quod nullum istorum potest a poena peccati liberare. Et licet secundum glossam legatur aliter, tamen secundum hebraeos legitur, quia Deus confidentes de se liberat. He who desires to be freed through (outside) help, is freed sometimes by the power of his own army - John 18: "If my kingdom were of this world, my servants (would certainly strive that I should not be delivered to the Jews...). At other times, (one is freed) through riches - Proverbs 6: "...he shall give up all the substance of his house" and shall free himself. Sometimes, (one is freed) by (one's) friends. And he shows that none of these can free one from the punishment of sin. And although, according to the Gloss, it could be read otherwise, nevertheless according to the Hebrew version, it is read that God frees those who trust in him.
Frater non redimet; quasi dicat, Frater non redimet eos qui confidunt in eo. Et ideo primo ostendit quod per auxilium amicorum non iuvatur a poena peccati, quia virtus amicorum modica est. Et ideo in virtute corporali amicorum non est confidendum. Ideo dicit, qui confidunt in virtute sua, scilicet amicorum suorum, vel in virtute propria speciali: quia, est via quae videtur homini recta, novissima autem illius ducunt ad mortem, Prov. 14.No brother can redeem, as if to say, "No brother can redeem those who trust in (their own strength or riches)." Thus in this way he first shows that through the help of (one's) friends, one is not helped with respect to the punishment of sin. For the strength of friends is slight. On this account, then, one should not trust in the bodily strength of (one's) friends. And so he says, They that trust in their own strength, namely of their friends, or (for that matter) in their own particular power, since "There is a way which seemeth just to a man: but the ends thereof lead to death" as Proverbs 14 states.
Item qui confidunt in virtute divitiarum suarum, non liberantur per ista omnia a peccati poena: quia Prov. 11: Qui confidunt in divitiis suis, corruent. Non enim confidendum est in divitiis corporalibus vel spiritualibus, sed quaerat homo prout potest salutem suam: Ier. 9: Non glorietur sapiens in sapientia sua, et non glorietur fortis in fortitudine sua, et non glorietur dives in divitiis suis. Nec persona coniuncta sibi quantumcumque potest eum redimere, idest liberare a peccato, sive a poena: Ezech. 14: Si fuerint tres viri in medio eius Noe, Daniel et Iob, ipsi iustitia sua liberabunt animas suas. Again, They that glory in the multitude of their riches, are not freed by them all from the punishment of sin, because Proverbs 11 states: "Those who trust in their riches shall fall." Man should not trust in bodily or spiritual riches, but should seek, insofar as he can, his salvation - Jeremiah 9: "Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the strong man glory in his strength, and let not the rich man glory in his riches". No person composited in his very being can, in any way, redeem himself, that is to say, free himself from sin or punishment - Ezechial 14: "If...these three men be in the midst thereof...Noe, Daniel and Job...they shall deliver their own souls by their justice."
Sed postquam frater non potest redimere quantumcumque sibi propinquum, numquid redimet homo? Non, quia homo non potest aliquem eripere de manu Dei, sed solus Deus redimet eos. Et homo, scilicet Christus: homo, ut pretium, idest mors locum in eo habere possit, et Deus ut habeat virtutem redimendi,But since a brother, no matter how great he is, cannot redeem his neighbor through his own power, Shall man redeem? No, because man cannot take someone away from God's hand; only God redeems them. And Man, namely Christ, as the Price, namely, so that (his) death may have a place in (man's redemption), and God, that he have the power of redeeming.
vel aliter, frater, idest Christus, qui est verus frater noster: Ps. 21: Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis: Can. 8: Quis mihi det te fratrem meum etc. Si non redimet iste, quis alius redimet? Quasi dicat, nullus. Or otherwise, Brother, that is, Christ, who is our true brother - Psalm 21: "I will declare thy name to my brethren"; Song of Songs 8: "Who shall give thee to me for my brother" etc. If that one will not redeem, who else will? As if to say "No one".
Non dabit Deo placationem suam. Hic ostendit quod non evadunt poenam propter aliquid quod faciunt dum sunt in peccato: quia duplici remedio indigent peccatores propter duplex malum quod incurrunt, scilicet offensam Dei, et reatum poenae. Et ideo indigent placare Deum: quod ipsi facere non possunt, quia ex quo ipsi non placent Deo, et sunt inimici Dei, nec eorum munera accipit: unde dicit, non dabit Deo placationem suam, quia non placent exteriora Deo, nisi sit interior gratia, quam non potest purus homo dare. He shall not give to God his ransom. Here, he shows that they do not avoid punishment on account of something they do while they are in sin. The reason for this is that sinners stand in need of a two-fold remedy because of a two-fold evil which they have incurred, namely God's displeasure, and punishment's debt. And for this reason they need to satisfy God, which they themselves cannot do, since, by the very fact that they themselves are not pleasing to God and are His enemies, he does not accept their gifts. Thus he says, He shall not give to God his ransom, because external things do not satisfy God, unless they be interior graces which the pure man cannot give.
Item indigent absolvi a poena: et hoc etiam homo facere non potest; unde dicit, nec pretium redemptionis animae suae, scilicet purus homo potest dare; et ideo non potest liberare a poena: Ps. 88: Quis est homo qui vivit et non videbit mortem, eruet animam suam de manu inferi? Sed Christus qui est Deus et homo, dedit placationem pro nobis: Rom. 5: Cum inimici essemus, reconciliati sumus Deo etc.Furthermore, they need to be absolved from punishment. And this also man cannot do. Whence he says, Nor the price of the redemption of his soul, namely (that which) the pure man can give. For this reason he cannot free (himself) from punishment - Psalm 88: "Who is the man that shall live, and not see death: that shall deliver his soul from the hand of hell?" But Christ, who is God and man, gave satisfaction on our behalf - Romans 5: "When we were enemies, we were reconciled to God (by the death of his Son)."
Item solum pretium redemptionis: 1 Pet. 1: Redempti estis de vana vestra conversatione etc. Again, only The price of the redemption - 1 Peter 1: "...you were..redeemed...from your vain conversations...(with the precious blood of Christ)."
Vel, non dabit, idest non curabit dare placationem, et pretium redemptionis animae suae, ille scilicet qui confidit in divitiis. Et secundum hoc potest continuari alia littera, quae dicit, frater, Christus scilicet, non redimit, quia illi non curant placare Deum per poenitentiam, quia Christus non iuvat eos qui nolunt se iuvare. Or, He shall not give, that is, he shall not care to give satisfaction, and, The price of the redemption of his soul, namely of that one who trusts in (his) riches. And according to this (interpretation), another version can be linked (with the one here) which says, "brother", namely Christ, "cannot redeem", because these very people do not care to satisfy God through penance, and Christ does not help those who do not wish to help themselves.
Et laborabit. Hic ostendit quod non evadet per defectum sui, quia semper punitur; unde dicit, laborabit in aeternum, idest punietur supplicio aeterno: Matth. 25: Ibunt hi in supplicium aeternum, quia noluerunt hic laborare: Ps. 72: In labore hominum non sunt. Et quia quantum in se fuit, in aeternum peccaverunt, quia praeferunt peccatum legi Dei; et ideo non timent poenam, sed semper vellent facere peccatum. Et vivet adhuc in finem, idest vita eius non deficiet in poenis: Iob 20: Luet quae fecit omnia, nec tamen consumetur. And shall labor. Here he shows that he does not escape through his own lacking, because it is always punished. Hence he says, He shall labor for ever, that is, he shall be punished with eternal suffering - Matthew 25: "These shall go into everlasting punishment", because they do not wish to labor now - Psalm 72: "They are not in the labor of men". For whenever someone is in himself (that is to say, making himself into the end), he sins in eternity, because he prefers sin to God's law. And for this reason, they do not fear punishment, but always want to sin. And shall still live unto the end, that is, his life shall not be lacking in punishments - Job 20: "He shall be punished for all that he did, and yet shall not be consumed."
d. Non videbit. Supra ostendit psalmista, quod timendum est propter peccatum, quia nullum remedium est ad evadendum poenam; hic autem agit de malis quae imminent eis propter improvidentiam eorum: et circa hoc tria facit. Primo commemorat improvidentiam eorum de malis futuris. Secundo commemorat mala quae imminent, ibi, relinquent alienis. Tertio ponit spem de Deo qua sperat liberari ab his malis, ibi, verumtamen. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit eorum improvidentiam. Secundo ignorantiae causam, ibi, cum viderit.He shall not see. Previously, the psalmist showed what is to be feared on account of sin, that there is no way of avoiding punishment. Here, he treats of those evils which threaten them on account of their lack of foresight. Concerning this latter, he does three things. He recalls, first, their lack of foresight concerning future evils, and second, those evils which threaten (them), at, They shall leave...to strangers. Lastly, he describes (his) hope of God through which he hopes to be freed from these evils, at, But (God). Concerning the first he does two things. First, he shows their lack of foresight, and second, the cause of (their) ignorance, at, When he shall see.
Dicit ergo iste talis cui imminent tot mala: non videbit, idest non considerabit interitum, idest damnationem suam. Iustorum enim est novissima memorari, Eccl. 7.And so, he says that so many evils threaten that kind of person (that) He shall not see, that is, he will not consider, his Destruction, that is, his damnation. Ecclesiaasticus 7: "For it is of the just to remember (their) last end." [ed. perhaps Ecclesiasticus 7:40: "in omnibus operibus tuis memorare novissima tua et in aeternum non peccabis - "In all thy works remember thy last end, and thou shalt never sin."]
Sed de istis dicitur Deut. 32: Gens absque prudentia et sine consilio. Et quare iniusti non praevident sibi? Redditur ratio Eccl. 9: Hoc est pessimum inter omnia quae sub sole fiunt: quia eadem cunctis eveniunt. Et ideo non considerant quid eis possit evenire in futurum. Et ideo, cum viderit etiam sapientes morientes: sed videntes mortem corporalem non considerant eorum gloriam: Sapien. 4: Videbunt finem sapientis, et non intelligent quid cogitaverit de illo Deus.Deuteronomy 32 speaks of these people: "They are a people without counsel, and without wisdom." And why do the unjust not anticipate (these things) for themselves? The reason is given at Ecclesiastes 9: "This is a very great evil among all things that are under the sun, that the same things happen to all men." Thus, they do not consider what might happen to them in the future. And so even when they see wise men dying, they do not consider their glory, seeing the death of the body - Wisdom 4: "They shall see the end of the wise man, and shall not understand what God hath designed for him."
Differentia est inter insipientem et stultum. Insipiens est qui habet scientiam humanam, et non considerat aeterna; stultus est qui non considerat etiam praesentia. There is a difference between the senseless and the foolish. The senseless person is he who has human knowledge, and does not consider the eternal, while the foolish person is he who does not even consider (the knowledge of) the present.
Vel insipiens est qui non attendit mala praesentia, sed futura; stultus est qui attendit et non vitat; unde dicit, simul insipiens et stultus peribunt. Or, the senseless person is he who does not attend to present evils, but (rather concerns himself with) future evils, while the foolish person is he who attends (to present evils) and does not avoid (future ones). Hence he says, The senseless and the fool shall perish together.
Secundum Hieronymum, duplex est causa contemptus iniustorum: diuturnitas vitae, et quia vident simul sapientes et insipientes mori. According to Jerome, the contempt of the unjust has a two-fold cause, namely length of life, and that they see the wise and the senseless to die together.
e. Et relinquent. Hic ponit mala quae contingunt peccatoribus. Et primo ponit mala quae contingunt in praesenti. Secundo ponit mala quae evenient in futuro, ibi, sicut oves. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ponit mala quae eveniunt in praesenti, quantum ad bona extrinseca. Secundo quantum ad bona intrinseca, ibi, cum in honore. Et ostendit primo quid perdit malus per mortem. And they shall leave. Here, he sets down the evils that happen to sinners. First, he describes those evils which belong to the present, and second, those which will happen in the future, at, Like sheep. Concerning the former, he does two things. First, he describes those evils which happen in the present as far as concerns extrinsic goods, and second, (those which regard) intrinsic goods, at, When he was in honor. And he shows first that evil destroys by means of death.
Dicit quod perdit divitias; unde dicit, relinquent alienis divitias suas: Hier. 17: Fecit divitias, et non in iudicio, in dimidio dierum suorum relinquet eas. Et dicit, suas, quasi a se possessas; vel quia non usus est eis ad utilitatem aliorum: Phil. 2: Omnes quae sua sunt quaerunt. Et dicit, alienis, quia saepe alieni, idest extranei secundum carnem, accipiunt divitias suas: Ps. 38: Thesaurizat, et ignorat cui congregabit ea. He says that Their riches destroy. So, he says, They shall leave their riches to strangers - Jeremiah 17: "(As the partridge hath hatched eggs which she did not lay: so) is he that hath gathered riches, and not by right: in the midst of his days he shall leave them." He says, Theirs, possessed, as it were, by them, or that they are not used by them for the benefit of others - Philippians 2: "All seek the things that are their own." He says, To strangers, because frequently strangers, that is, those who are not blood relatives, receive their riches - Psalm 38: "He storeth up: and he knoweth not for whom he shall gather these things."
Quod si aliquando, etiam filiis dimittat divitias, tamen alieni sunt, ut dicitur Luc. 10: Ille proximus qui fecit misericordiam in illo. Et contingit quod filii et nepotes nihil boni faciunt mortuis; sed residua sunt eis duo de rebus mundi, sepulcrum et fama hominum. Secundum, ibi, tabernacula. Even if at times he releases his riches to his sons, nevertheless they are strangers, as Luke 10 indicates: "That one was a neighbor who showed mercy to him." And it happens that sons and nephews do nothing of good to the dead; but two of this world's things are left to them, namely the sepulchre and the man's reputation. The second (is treated of) at, Their dwelling places.
Quantum ad primum dicit: habuerunt domos et vineas et currus et multa pretiosa. Sed quid habebunt in morte? Pro palatio habebunt sepulcrum, et hoc, in aeternum, idest usque in diem iudicii habitabunt in sepulcris. With respect to the first, he says: They have homes, vineyards, vehicles, and many valuable things. But what will they have in death? For their palace, they will have Their sepulchres, and this, Forever, that is, they will dwell in their sepulchres until the day of judgment.
Vel ex hoc quod faciunt curiosa sepulcra, credunt habitare in aeternum in eo; sed decipiuntur, quia et sepulcra destruentur. Unde licet secundum opinionem eorum illa sepulcra sint domus eorum in aeternum, tamen non est ita. Or for this (reason), that they make careful sepulchres, believing that they will dwell in them forever. But they are deceived because their sepulchres too will be destroyed. Hence although according to their opinion those sepulchres will be their dwelling place forever, nevertheless, it is not so.
Hieronymus tamen habet aliter: interiora eorum domus illorum in aeternum: quia homo habet duplicem domum: exteriorem scilicet; et haec non manet in aeternum; et interiorem, scilicet conscientiam, et haec manet: Isa. 38: Dispone domui tuae. Sive bona, sive mala, semper manet. Jerome('s version of this text, however, has it differently): Their interiors shall be their houses forever, because man has two houses, namely an exterior one, which does not stand forever, and an interior one, namely his consciousness, which does remain - Isaiah 38: "Take order with thy house." Either good or evil, it stands forever.
Tabernacula. Hic ostendit, quod non remanet fama, seu memorabile hominis post mortem. Memorabilia hominis sunt aedificia fortia: ideo dicit, tabernacula eorum in progenie et progenie; quasi dicat, ita aedificantur ac si sint duratura usque in finem; sed decipiuntur, quia destruuntur: Iob 21: Ubi est domus principis, et ubi tabernacula impiorum? Marc. 13: Vides has magnas aedificationes? Non relinquetur etc. Et dicit, tabernacula, quia non diu manent in eis. Their dwelling places. Here he shows that neither fame nor a man's achievements remain after his death. A man's achievements are firm buildings. Hence he says, Their dwelling places to all generations, as if to say, "Thus they are built as if they are to last up to the end." But they are deceived because they will be destroyed - Job 21: "Where is the house of the prince? and where are the dwelling places of the wicked?"; Mark 13: "Seest thou all these great buildings? There shall not be left (a stone upon a stone, that shall not be thrown down.") And he says Their dwelling places, because they shall not remain in them for long.
Vocaverunt nomina sua in terris suis; quasi dicat: haec est intentio huius aedificationis, ut essent nominati in terris suis: Gen. 11: Venite, aedificemus civitatem et turrim, et celebremus etc. Eccl. 40: Aedificatio civitatis confirmavit nomen: unde vocant civitates ex nomine suo; et dicit, suis, quia nomen alicuius non multum extenditur extra terram suam. Et ideo stultum est quod homo celebret nomen suum in terris. They have called their lands by their names; as if to say, "This is the intention of their building, that they be celebrated in their lands" - Genesis 11: "Come, let us make a city and a tower...and let us make our name famous..."; Ecclesiasticus 40: "...the building of a city shall establish a name...". Hence, they call cities by their name; and he says, Their (lands), because a name does not extend much outside of one's own land. And so, the fool is that man who makes his own name famous in his land.
Vel, invocabunt nomina eorum, idest defunctorum, in terris suis, portando cibaria ad sepulcra.Or, They have called their names, that is, of the dead, in their lands, when carrying food to their sepulchres.
f. Et homo. Supra proposuit psalmista mala quae imminent malis, quantum ad amissionem exteriorum; hic autem ponit quae ex corruptione bonorum interiorum eis imminent: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo proponit malum interioris corruptionis. Secundo ostendit quid ex hoc malo sequitur, ibi, haec via illorum. And man. Previously, the psalmist set forth those evils which threaten the evil as far as concerns the loss of external (things). At this point, he describes those things which threaten them on account of the corruption of interior goods. Concerning this he does two things. First, he sets forth the evil of interior corruption, and second, he shows what follows because of this evil, at, This way of theirs.
Sciendum est autem quod homo est compositus ex natura rationali et sensitiva. Secundum naturam rationalem homo habet similitudinem cum Deo et angelis: Gen. 1: Faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram: Psal. 8: Minuisti eum paulo minus ab angelis. Secundum autem sensitivam naturam habet communicationem cum bestiis. Primo ergo ponit honorem hominis quantum ad hoc quod habet similitudinem cum angelis; unde dicit, homo cum in honore esset. Secundum Philosophum, honor est excellentius quid quam laus: quia laus ordinatur ad aliud; honor autem est per se et in se. One should note that man is a composite of a rational and a sensitive nature. With respect to the former, man has a likeness to God and the angels - Genesis 1: "Let us make man to our image and likeness" and Psalm 8: "Thou hast made him a little less than the angels." However, with respect to his sensitive nature, man participates in (the nature of the other) animals. Therefore, the psalmist first describes the honor of man in so far as he has a likeness to the angels. Hence he says, And man when he was in honor. According to Aristotle, honor is something more excellent than praise, since praise is ordained to another, while honor is (pursued) for and in itself.
Et dicit, esset, scilicet similis ad Deum. Et ex hoc quod haec habet, praemittit tria: quia praemittit quod haec non considerat, scilicet quod sit similis Deo. Secundo, quod declinat in ignorantiam et ignobilitatem bestialem. Tertio quod consequitur actum bestialem. He says, Was, namely, similar to God. And because of this similarity, he puts forth three things. First, that he not consider this, namely, that he is similar to God, second, that he avoid bestial ignorance and ignobility, and third, that he follows after the bestial act.
Quantum ad primum dicit, non intellexit, scilicet quod ad imaginem Dei sit factus: et quod esset aptus ad possidenda caelestia: Sap. 2: Neque speraverunt mercedem iustitiae: nec iudicaverunt honorem animarum sanctarum. With respect to the first, he says, (He) did not understand, namely that he was made in God's image, and that it was fitting (for him) to possess the heavens - Wisdom 2: "They hoped not for the wages of justice, nor esteemed the honor of holy souls."
Quantum ad secundum dicit, comparatus est iumentis. Bruta animalia operantur ex passione; et hoc patet, quia canis statim cum irascitur, clamat, equus cum concupiscit, hinnit; sed non imputatur eis, quia carent ratione. Si ergo homo statim cum concupiscit, sequitur passionem, et iratus percutit, comparatus est in agendo iumentis insipientibus: Ps. 31: Nolite fieri sicut equus et mulus etc. With respect to the second, he says, He is compared to beasts. Brute animals function by way of (their) passions, which is clear (for example, with the) dog which immediately barks when angry, (or) the horse which whinnies when aroused. But this is not imputed to them, since they lack reason. Therefore, if a man immediately follows his passion when aroused, and strikes when angered, He is compared in his activities to the senseless beasts - Psalm 31: "Do not become like the horse and the mule (who have no understanding)."
Quantum ad tertium dicit, et similis factus est illis: nam quando natura brutorum inclinatur ad aliquid, sic utitur passione, et consuetudo vertitur in naturam. Quando homo ergo assuescat secundum passionem vivere, iam vertitur in naturam: et ideo, similis factus est illis, per habitum ex malis operibus aggravatum: Ier. 5: Equi amatores in feminas, et emissarii facti sunt; et ideo dicit Philosophus, quod peior est malus homo quam mala bestia; quia cum malitia habet intellectum, ut diversa mala adinveniat. With respect to the third, he says, And is become like to them. For when a brutes' nature is inclined to something, it(s nature) is accustomed (to this thing) by a passion, and is turned to (this thing) in (its) nature through a habit. Therefore, when man becomes habituated to living according to (his) passions, henceforth he is turned to (them, namely his passions) in (his very) nature. And in this way, he is become like to them, through habit weighed down by evil deeds - Jeremiah 5: "They are become as amorous horses and stallions: (every one neighed after his neighbor's wife)". And thus Aristotle says that the evil man is worse than the evil beasts because when malice or badness possesses intellect, it devises diverse evils.
g. Haec via. Hic ostendit quid sequitur ex hoc malo quod incurrunt, scilicet quod facti sunt bestiales: nam posset aliquis dicere, quod nihil mali inde sequitur. Sed non est ita. Immo aliquid aliud sequitur. Et primo ostendit quid sequitur quantum ad eos. Secundo quantum ad alios. This way. Here, he shows what follows by reason of this evil which they incur, namely that they are made bestial. For someone could say that nothing of evil follows from that circumstance. But it is not so. On the contrary, the one thing follows from the other. First, he shows what follows with respect to them, and second, with respect to others.
Quantum ad eos dicit, haec via, quia scilicet sequitur passiones, est scandalum ipsis, quia interius conturbantur: Ps. 68: Fiat mensa eorum coram ipsis in scandalum. With respect to the former, he says, This way, namely that it follows the passions, is a stumbling block to them, that they are thrown into confusion within - Psalm 68: "Let their table become as a snare before them...a stumbling block."
Item exterius etiam conturbantur, quia puniuntur et infamantur. Philosophus, poenitudine replentur pravi.In like manner, they are thrown into confusion externally, since they are punished and disgraced. (As) Aristotle (states), "The wicked are filled with repentance."
Quantum ad alios sequitur, quod postea in ore suo complacebunt. Et exponitur dupliciter. With respect to (what) follows (with respect) to others, (the psalmist states) And afterwards they shall delight in their mouth. This is explained in two ways.
Uno modo sic. Postquam interius scandalizantur et faciunt mala, vellent quod alii sequerentur eos. Et ideo student aliis complacere, ut trahant eos ad peccandum: Prov. 1: Si te lactaverint peccatores etc. First, after they have been scandalized and have done evil, they desire that others follow them. And in this way, they are eager to be found pleasing to them, so that they might draw them to sinning - Proverbs 1: "(My son,) if sinners shall entice thee, (consent not to them.)"
Alio modo sic reprehendit simulationem: quasi dicat: postea quam iam sic conturbantur et sequuntur mala, in ore suo complacebunt, idest student loqui sancta et blanda: Matth. 23: Vae vobis Scribae et Pharisaei hypocritae, qui similes estis sepulcris dealbatis etc. Usque ad et iniquitatem.Second, (the psalmist) finds fault with (their) pretence. It is as if he were saying, "Afterwards, now that they are thrown into confusion and are following evil things, they shall delight in their mouth, that is, they are eager to speak holy and flattering things - Matthew 23: "Woe to you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites; because you are like to whited sepulchres (which outwardly appear to men beautiful, but within are full of dead men's bones, and of all filthiness.)" Even to wickedness.
Glossa, peiores sunt simulantes quam aperte mali. Sed numquid hoc verum est? Videtur quod non. Isa. 3: Peccatum suum sicut sodoma praedicaverunt. Glossa Hieronymi: Secunda tabula est occulte peccare. The Gloss states that pretenders are worse than the openly evil. But is this true? It would seem not - Isaiah 3: "They have proclaimed (abroad) their sin as Sodom (and they have not hid it)." Jerome's Gloss states "Secunda tabula is to sin secretly."
Dicendum, quod aliud est non publicare peccatum, et aliud est simulare innocentiam: nam publicare peccatum est malum, quia scandalizat alios; sed simulare innocentiam, ut alios trahat ad peccatum, maius malum est. Et de his loquitur hic. It must be said that it is one thing not to make one's sin known, and another to feign innocence. For to make one's sin known is evil, since it scandalizes others. But to feign innocence, so as to draw others to sin, is a worse evil. And it is of this that he speaks here.
Alia littera habet, et in ore suo benedicat Deum. Et exponitur sic. Quamvis interius sint bestiae, tamen labiis exterius benedicent Deum. Isa. 29: Populus hic labiis me honorat etc.Another version has, "He shall bless God in his mouth." This is explained in the following way. Although they are bestial within, nevertheless they bless God externally with their lips - Isaiah 29: "...with their lips (they) glorify me (but their heart is far from me)."
Vel aliter. Benedicent Deum de malis quae fecerunt. Or one could say that they bless God concerning the evils which they have done.
Hieronymus habet: Post eos iustitiae eorum current: quasi dicat: non intellexit, et similis factus est bestiis, et inde scandalizantur, et ideo fit, quia voluerunt esse bestiae. Ideo, post eos, idest in finem comedentur a bestiis, idest a daemonibus; quasi dicat: current post daemones in inferno. Jerome has "Their justices run after them", as if to say, "He did not understand, and became like unto the beasts, and from that moment on they were scandalized and thus it happens because they wanted to be bestial." Thus, "After them", that is, in the end they will be consumed by the beasts, that is, by the demons, as if to say, "They ran after the demons into hell."
h. Sicut oves. Hic ponit mala quae evenient peccatoribus post hanc vitam. Et quia tria mala iam dixit: scilicet quod sunt similes bestiis, quod contemnunt sapientiam, tertium est quod confidunt in virtute. Like sheep. At this point, he describes those evils which will befall sinners after this life, and (this) because he has already stated that there are three evils, namely that they are like unto the beasts, that they despise wisdom, and that they trust in their own strength.
Et contra primum dicit: quia isti sunt sicut bestiae, dignum est quod sicut bestiae puniantur; unde dicit, sicut oves in inferno positi sunt. Oves non habent auxilium a natura ad se defendendum, et ideo expositae sunt ad caedem. Psal. 43: Aestimati sumus sicut oves occisionis. Quia ergo mali in inferno sunt omnino poenis expositi, ideo sunt sicut oves. Ierem. 12: Congrega eos sicut gregem ad victimam. Against the first (of these evils) he says that because they themselves are like beasts, it is appropriate that they be punished like beasts. Thus he say, They are laid in hell like sheep. Sheep are not naturally supplied by nature to defend themselves, and are thus exposed to slaughter - Psalm 43: "We are counted as sheep for the slaughter." Therefore, since the evil in hell are wholly exposed to punishment, they are thus like sheep - Jeremiah 12: "Gather them together as sheep for a sacrifice."
Item oves tonduntur, et tonsae occiduntur: ita prius tonduntur a lana mali, et privantur sive expoliantur exterioribus bonis, et postea occiduntur in inferno, mors depascet eos: Apocalyp. 21: Pars eorum est sulphur.Again, sheep are shorn and those shorn are killed. Thus, they are first shorn of the wool of evil, (that is, they) are deprived or stripped of their external goods, and after this they are killed in hell, Death shall feed upon them - Apocalypse 21: "They shall have their portion in the pool burning with fire (and brimstone, which is the second death)."
Hic depascet eos: et dicit, depascet, quia etsi mors inferat poenam, non tamen totaliter auferet; sed reservat semper ad poenam. This (death) shall feed upon them: and he says, Shall feed upon them, because although death inflicts punishment, nevertheless it does not completely remove it, but preserves it for the future.
Vel, mors, idest diabolus: Apoc. 6: Nomen illi mors: depascet eos, idest deducet de pascuis ad pascua, idest de poenis ad poenas. Iob 24: Ad calorem nimium transiet ab aquis nivium. Or, Death, that is the devil - Apocalypse 6: "(And behold a pale horse, and he that sat upon him) his name was Death (and hell followed after him) - Shall feed upon them, that is, he shall lead (them) from pasture to pasture, that is, from punishment to punishment - Job 24: "Let him pass from the snow waters to excessive heat (and his sin even to hell)."
Alia littera habet, mors pastor eorum erit. Et loquitur sic. In vita ista sunt sicut oves deputandi ad infernum; et diabolus est pastor eorum. Another version has, Death shall be their shepherd. And the psalmist speaks in this way. In this very life they are like the sheep deserving to be assigned to hell, and the devil is their shepherd.
Et dominabuntur. Hoc est contra illud quod dixit supra, quod videntur sapientes simul mori cum insipientibus; hic dicit quod iusti dominabuntur eorum, scilicet malorum. Vel sapientes, qui vocantur iusti in matutino, idest in die iudicii, quando accipient iudiciariam potestatem. Malach. 4: Calcabitis impios cum fuerint cinis sub planta pedum vestrorum. And they shall have dominion. This is contrary to that which he said previously, that the wise are seen to die along with the foolish. Here, he says that The just shall have dominion over them, namely the evil. Or, the wise, who are called The just...in the morning, that is, on the day of judgment, when they will take up judicial power - Malachai 4: "And you shall tread down the wicked when they shall be ashes under the sole of your feet."
Et auxilium eorum. Hoc est illud quod dixit, et in multitudine divitiarum etc.: quasi dicat: auxilium eorum quod erat ab amicis et divitiis eorum, veterascet, idest peribit in inferno. Isa. 10: Ad cuius fugietis auxilium? Iob 6: Ecce non est auxilium mihi in me. And their help. This is that which he has said, And glory in the multitude of their riches. It is as if he were saying, "Their help, which was from their friends and their riches, shall decay," that is, will perish in hell - Isaiah 10: "To whom will ye flee for help?" Job 6: "Behold there is no help for me."
A gloria eorum, idest iuxta gloriam eorum. Apocalyps. 18: Quantum glorificavit se, tantum etc. From their glory, that is, along with their glory - Apocalypse 18: "As much as she hath glorified herself (and lived in delicacies, so much torment and sorrow give ye to her...)"
Verumtamen redimet animam meam; quasi dicat: mali ista habent; sed ego liberabor ab istis. Et per quid? Per effusionem sanguinis Christi. Redimet de manu inferi, idest de manu diaboli, sub qua erant homines ante adventum Christi. Oseae 13: De morte redimam eos.But (God) will redeem my soul, as if to say "The evil have those things, but I myself will be liberated from them." And by what (means)? By the shedding of Christ's blood. He shall redeem (my soul) from the hand of hell, that is, from the hand of the devil, under which men have been before Christ's advent - Hosea 13: "I will redeem them from death."
Cum acceperit me, idest cum acceperit animam meam. Hebr. 2: Nusquam angelos apprehendit, sed semen Abrahae. When he shall receive me, that is, when he shall receive my soul - Hebrews 2: "For no where doth he take hold of the angels: but of the seed of Abraham he taketh hold."
i. Ne timueris. Supra psalmista ostendit quid sit homini timendum in mundo; hic ostendit quid sit non timendum, scilicet prosperitas impiorum. Et primo monet ut non timeamus propter prosperitatem malorum; secundo assignat rationem, ibi, quoniam cum interierit.Be not thou afraid. Previously, the psalmist showed what should be feared by man in the world. Here, he shows what is not to be feared. First, he warns lest we should fear the prosperity of the wicked, and second, he assigns the reason, at, For when he shall die.
Prosperitas malorum duo habet: scilicet abundantiam divitiarum, et sublimitatem gloriae. Quantum ad primum dicit, ne timueris cum dives factus fuerit homo. Quantum ad secundum, et cum multiplicata fuerit gloria domus suae.The prosperity of the wicked has two meanings, namely the abundance of riches, and the loftiness of renown. With respect to the former, he says, Be not thou afraid, when a man shall be made rich, and with respect to the latter, he says, And when the glory of his house shall be increased.
Et dicit, homo. Homo constat ex duplici natura: scilicet animali et rationali. Et quandoque sumitur pro una, quandoque pro alia. Hic sumitur pro animalitate; quasi dicat: si homo animalis dives factus fuerit: tales enim saepe ditantur. Iob 21: Quare impii vivunt, sublimati sunt, confortati sunt divitiis? Item ibidem 12: Abundant tabernacula praedonum: si ista scilicet videris, ne timueris. He says, Man. Man is established (exists) by reason of a two-fold nature, namely animal and rational. And at times, he is understood with respect to the one, and at other times, with respect to the other. Here, he is understood with respect to his animality, as if the psalmist is saying, "If a bestial man should become rich (do not take this amiss, for) such men often will become rich" - Job 21: "Why then do the wicked live, are they advanced, and strengthened with riches?" Again, at Job 12: "The tabernacles of robbers abound" - if you see such, Be thou not afraid.
Duplex potest esse causa timoris. Una, ne desaeviant in homines: alia, ne ex hoc scandalizentur boni, et deficiant a spe, secundum illud Psalm. 72: Mei autem pene moti sunt pedes.... et dixi: ergo sine causa iustificavi cor meum; quasi dicat: ex quo tot bona Deus facit malis, videtur quod non curet de nobis, secundum illud Malach. 3: Vanus est qui servit Deo, et quod emolumentum habemus, quia custodivimus praecepta Domini?The cause of fear can be two-fold, namely, that they not rave furiously at men, and second, that by this (fear) they not scandalize the good, and deflect them from hope, according to Psalm 72: "But my feet were almost moved...And I said: Then have I in vain justified my heart," as if to say, "on account of the fact that God does so much good for the evil, it would seem that he does not care for us," according to Malachai 3: "He laboureth in vain that serveth God, and what profit is it that we have kept his ordinances, and that we have walked sorrowful before the Lord of hosts?"
Quantum ad secundum dicit, et cum multiplicata fuerit gloria domus eius. Eccl. 9: Non zeles gloriam et opus peccatoris. Psal. 36: Vidi impium etc. With respect to the other (way in which fear can be understood), he says, And when the glory of his house shall be increased - Ecclesiasticus 9: "Envy not the glory and riches of a sinner"; Psalm 36: "I have seen the wicked (highly exalted and lifted up like the cedars of Libanus).
Quoniam cum interierit. Hic assignatur ratio, quare non sunt timendi mali si divites fiant. Primo, quia quandoque omnibus exterioribus bonis privabuntur; secundo etiam omnibus interioribus bonis deficient. Secunda ibi, quia anima eius. For when he shall die. Here he assigns the reason why the evil, if they have become rich, are not to be feared. First, because at some point they will be stripped of all external goods, and second, that they will lose all interior goods as well. The latter (is discussed) at For...his soul.
Ideo dicit, non sunt timendi, quia Deus reservat tibi maiora. Haec autem quae dantur istis sunt transitoria. Et ostendit primo, quod divitiae transeunt; dicens, quoniam cum interierit, scilicet dives, non sumet omnia, idest nihil ex omnibus quae habuit, poterit habere. Iob 27: Dives cum dormierit, nihil secum auferet. 1 Tim. ultim.: Nihil intulimus in hunc mundum: haud dubium, quia nec auferre quid poterimus. Thus he says they are not to be feared since God reserves greater things for you. However, these things which are given to them are transitory. And he shows first that riches are passing, saying, For when he shall die, namely the rich man, He shall take nothing away, that is, from all the things that he possessed, he will be able to have not one thing. Job 27: "The rich man when he shall sleep shall take away nothing with him." 1 Timothy 6: "For we brought nothing into this world: and certainly we can carry nothing out."
Secundo ostendit defectum gloriae hominis peccatoris, neque descendet cum eo gloria eius; quia tunc gloria eius finitur cum carne, et reservatur ei ignominia in inferno. Oseae 4: Gloriam eorum in ignominiam commutabo. Apocal. 18: Glorificavit se etc. Secondly, he shows the sinner's loss of man's glory (at) Nor shall his glory descend with him. For at that time his glory is terminated with his body, and shame in hell is reserved for him. Hosea 4: "I will change their glory into shame." Apocalypse 18: "(As much as) she hath glorified herself (and lived in delicacies, so much torment and sorrow give ye to her)."
k. Quia anima eius in vita ipsius benedicetur: confitebitur tibi cum benefeceris ei. Hic ponit primo defectum interiorum pertinentium ad corpus; secundo ad animam, ibi, et introibit. Primo ergo ostendit, quod post hanc vitam deficit eis bonum corporis; secundo ostendit quod finitur bonum virtutis, si quod habuerunt. For in his lifetime his soul will be blessed: and he will praise thee when thou shalt do well to him. Here, the psalmist describes, first, the interior loss pertaining to the body, and secondly, that which pertains to the soul, at, And he shall go. First, therefore, he shows that after this life, the good of the body is lost to them, and second, that whatever they have had of the good of virtue is ended.
Dicit ergo, quia anima eius. Sicut homo sumitur aliquando pro natura animali, aliquando pro rationali, ita anima sumitur dupliciter. Quandoque pro vita rationali, ut Deuteronom. 6, diliges dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo, ex tota anima tua. Quandoque pro animali vita. Luc. 12: Anima mea, habes bona etc. Thus, he says, For his soul. Just as man is sometimes understood with respect to his animal nature, and at other times, with respect to his rational nature, so too the soul is understood in a two-fold way. At times, with respect to the rational life, as (it is so understood at) Deuteronomy 6 (where it is said) "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul." At other times, (it is understood) with respect to the animal (or sensitive) life: Luke 12: "(And I will say to) my soul: Soul, thou hast much goods (laid up for many years take thy rest; eat, drink, make good cheer)."
Dicit ergo secundum hoc, quia anima, idest animalis vita eius, in vita ipsius benedicetur; quasi dicat: quicquid habet de divitiis et gloria, totum est in hac vita; et cessante hac vita, deficit eius gloria: et ideo non potest vitae suae benedicere nisi dum vivit.Therefore according to this he says, For his soul, that is, his animal (or sensitive) life, In his lifetime will be blessed, as if to say "Whatever he has of riches and glory, this is entirely in this life." And when this life ceases, he loses his glory; and in this way, in his own lifetime, he cannot benefit except while he is alive.
Item aliquando peccatores laudant Deum, vel faciunt opera de genere bonorum; sed si adversitas immineat, cessat eius laudatio, sive operatio bona. Et ideo convertit se ad Deum dicens: o Deus, iste talis, scilicet peccator, sive aliquis in prosperitate existens, confitebitur tibi, idest laudabit te, cum benefeceris ei, idest dederis sibi bona temporalia quae amat. Prov. 10: Benedictio Domini divites facit. Again, sometimes sinners praise God, or do works of the class of good (works). However, if adversity threatens, he ceases his praise or the doing of good works. And thus he turns himself toward God saying: O God, One of that sort, namely a sinner, or someone existing in prosperity, Will confess you, that is, will praise you, When thou shalt do well to him, that is, when you have given to him temporal goods which he loves - Proverbs 10: "The blessing of the Lord maketh men rich."
Hieronymus: Laudabunt te cum bene sibi fuerit, idest homines laudant et serviunt divitibus, quamdiu suppetunt et prosperantur in divitiis; sed si mutetur fortuna, mutantur, necdum non laudant, sed detrahunt eis. Jerome has "They will praise you when they will have done well for themselves", that is to say, men praise and serve riches as long as they are present to and prosper in riches. However, if their fortune is changed, they are changed, and they do not yet praise but disparage these (riches).
Introibit. Hic ponit defectum spiritualium. Et primo ostendit defectum; secundo ponit ordinem perveniendi ad ipsum defectum, ibi, homo. Et primo ponit defectum culpae; secundo poenae. He shall go. Here he states the loss of spiritual goods. And first he shows this loss, and second, describes the order of arriving at this very loss, at, Man. And first, he describes the loss as a result of guilt, and secondly, the punishment.
Quantum ad primum dicit, introibit, scilicet iste peccator sic dives, et quem laudant omnes, dum bene est ei, introibit dico, usque ad progeniem patrum suorum, scilicet per imitationem, dum omnia mala quae tota sua progenies facit, ipse operatur. Matth. 23: Et vos implete mensuram patrum vestrorum. Ier. 11: Reversi sunt ad iniquitates patrum suorum priores. With respect to the first he says, He shall go, namely, the sinner himself as a rich man, whom all praise while it is well with him, He shall go I say Into the generations of his fathers, namely, through imitation, when he engages himself (in) all of the evils that his descendants effect - Matthew 23: "Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers." Jeremiah 11: "They are returned to the former iniquities of their fathers (who refused to hear my words)."
Vel, introibit etc. Quia patres sui impii sunt in inferno, et iste ibit illuc. Or, He shall go etc. For his impious fathers are in hell, and he himself shall go there.
Quantum ad secundum dicit: et usque in aeternum non videbit lumen: quia quasi, scilicet hic in suo aeterno, scilicet in vita, noluit sequi lumen rationis, ideo, in aeternum non videbit lumen. Iob 15: Non credit quod reverti possit de tenebris ad lumen. Matth. 25: Inutilem servum mittite in tenebras exteriores etc. With respect to the second he says, And he shall never see light. For, as it were, here in his eternity, namely in this lifetime, he did not want to follow the light of reason, and thus will not see light eternal - Job 15: "He believeth not that he may return from darkness to light." Matthew 25: "And the unprofitable servant cast ye out into the exterior darkness."
Et quo ordine? Quia cum esset praeditus lumine rationis, sicut homo in honore constitutus, noluit illo lumine regi, assimilatus est iumentis insipientibus, et ideo facit sicut iumenta, debet deputari occisioni.For although he was endowed with the light of reason, as A man established in honor, he did not want to be ruled by that light, and was made like unto the senseless beasts, and thus as he acted as the beasts, he ought to be condemned to death.

© Stephen Loughlin
(stephen.loughlin@desales.edu)



The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)