Psalm 47

a. [Cantici filii core secunda sabbati] Magnus Dominus et laudabilis nimis: in civitate Dei nostri, in monte sancto eius.[of the song of the daughters of Cor (for) the second sabbath] Great is the Lord, and exceedingly to be praised in the city of our God, on his holy mountain.
b. Fundatur exultatione universae terrae, mons Sion, latera Aquilonis, civitas regis magni. Deus in domibus eius cognoscetur, cum suscipiet eam.Mount Sion is founded with the joy of the whole earth, on the sides of the north, the city of the great king. God shall be known in her houses, when he shall receive her.
c. Quoniam ecce reges terrae congregati sunt, convenerunt in unum; ipsi videntes admirati sunt, conturbati sunt, commoti sunt, tremor apprehendit eos. Ibi dolores, ut parturientis: in spiritu vehementi conteres naves Tharsis.For behold the kings of the earth are assembled, have gathered together. When they saw, they wondered, were disturbed and roused - trembling took hold of them. There were pains as of a woman in labour: with a vehement wind, you shall break in pieces the ships of Tharsis.
d. Sicut audivimus, sic vidimus in civitate Domini virtutum, in civitate Dei nostri: Deus fundavit eam in aeternum.As we have heard, so we have seen in the city of the Lord of hosts, in the city of our God: God has founded her for ever.
e. Suscepimus Deus misericordiam tuam, in medio templi tui. Secundum nomen tuum Deus, sic et laus tua in fines terrae; iustitia plena est dextera tua. Laetetur mons Sion, et exultent filiae Iudae, propter iudicia tua Domine.We have received your mercy, O God, in the midst of your temple. According to your name, O God, so also is your praise to the ends of the earth; your right hand is full of justice. Let mount Sion rejoice, and the daughters of Juda be glad, because of your judgments, O Lord.
f. Circumdate Sion, et complectimini eam: narrate in turribus eius. Ponite corda vestra in virtute eius: et distribuite domos eius ut enarretis in progenie altera. Quoniam hic est Deus, Deus noster in aeternum, et in saeculum saeculi: ipse reget nos in saecula.Surround Sion, and encompass her: tell in her towers. Set your hearts on her strength, and distribute her houses that you may relate it to another generation. For this is God, our God in eternity, and for ever and ever: he shall rule us for evermore.
a. Supra Psalmista invitavit gentes ad psallendum Deo de beneficiis Dei; hic autem describit magnam populi, vel civitatis exultationem.In the previous psalm, the psalmist invited the nations to sing praises to God concerning his beneficies. Here, however, he describes the great joy of the people or the city.
Titulus, Psalmus laus cantici filii Core pro secunda Sabbati.The title of the psalm is A praise psalm of the song of the daughters of Cor for the second sabbath.
Apud Iudaeos sabbatum solemnissimum habebatur: et omnes ferias a sabbato vocabant; ita quod dies Dominica vocabatur prima sabbati; dies lunae vocabatur secunda sabbati; et sic de aliis diebus. Dicit ergo, Pro secunda Sabbati: quia Gen. 1. prima die dixit Deus, Fiat lux; secunda die dixit, Fiat firmamentum. Per lucem intelligitur Christus; per firmamentum Ecclesia designatur. Quia ergo agit hic de magnificentia ecclesiae, ideo convenienter dicitur pro secunda sabbati. In Hebraeo tamen, nec in Hieronymo non est pro secunda sabbati.Among the Jews, a most solemn sabbath used to be observed, and all the weekdays were named from the sabbath. So, the Lord's day used to be called the first sabbath, the next day, the second sabbath, and so on with the other days. Thus, he says, For the second sabbath, because in Genesis 1, God said on the first day, Let there be light, and on the second, he said, Let there be a firmament. By "light" in understood Christ, by "firmament", the Church is designated. Thus, because he treats here of the magnificence of the Church, this psalm is suitably called "for the second sabbath". In the Hebrew version, however, but not in Jerome's, there is no 'for the second sabath.'
Dividitur ergo iste in duas partes. Primo enim describit magnificentiam civitatis. Secundo subdit gratiarum actionem, ibi, Suscepimus Deus. Circa primum duo facit. Primo describit magnificentiam civitatis. Secundo inducit testimonium, ibi, Quoniam ecce.The psalm is divided into two parts. The first describes the magnificence of the city, and the second speaks of the action of graces, at, We have received your mercy, O God. Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he describes the magnificence of the city, and second, he introduces his evidence, at, For behold.
Dignitas civitatis dependet a Domino eius: et ideo primo commendat Dominum. Secundo civitatem, ibi, Fundatur. Dominum describit ex propria dignitate, et ex suis operibus.The dignity of a city derives from her Lord. And so, he first commends the Lord, and secondly, the city, at, (It) is founded. He describes the Lord with respect to his own dignity and works.
Ex dignitate, quia, Magnus Dominus: Ps. 85. Quis Deus magnus etc. Et magnitudo eius est immensitas eius bonitatis. Augustinus: In his quae non mole magna sunt, idem est magnum quod bonum esse.On account of his dignity, because, Great is the Lord - Psalm 76: Who is great like our God. And his greatness is the immensity of his goodness. Augustine states: In those things which are great not in bulk, greatness is the same as goodness.
Ex operibus, quia, Laudabilis nimis. Laus proprie respicit opera. Et dicit, Nimis, quia quantumcumque laudes eum, adhuc deficis a laude eius: Eccl. 43. Glorificantes Deum quantumcumque potestis, praevalebit adhuc: et hoc licet in tota creatura pateat, spiritualiter tamen apparet in beneficiis gratiae quibus constituta est ecclesia. Et ideo dicit, In civitate Dei nostri, scilicet ecclesiae: Apoc. 21. Vidi civitatem sanctam Hierusalem etc. Et haec civitas, scilicet ecclesia, sita est, In monte sancto eius. Hic mons est Christus: Isa. 2. Erit mons domus Domini. De hac civitate dicitur Matth. 5. Non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita.On account of his works, because, (he is) exceedingly to be praised. Praise properly regards works. And he says, Exceedingly, because however you praise him, you still fall short in praising him - Ecclesiasticus 43: Glorifying God as much as ever you can, he will still far exceed. And although he is manifest in all his creatures, nevertheless he spiritually appears in the benifices of grace by which the Church was established. And so he says, In the city of our God, namely the Church - Apoc. 21: I saw the holy city Jerusalem etc. And this city, namely the Church, is situated, On his holy mountain. This mountain is Christ - Isaiah 2: (And is the last days) the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be (prepared on the top of mountains). Of this city it is said at Matthew 5: A city seated on a mountain cannot be hid.
b. Fundatur. Hic commendat civitatem tripliciter. Primo ex amplitudine, vel iucunditate. Secundo ex dispositione. Tertio ex sapientia civium.(Mount Sion) is founded. At this point, he commends the city in a three-fold way. First, on account of its size or pleasantness, second, its condition, and third, the widsom of its citizens.
Dicit ergo, Fundatur exultatione universae terrae; quasi dicat, Fundata est in monte, idest Christo. Sed numquid haec fundatio pertinet ad unam terram tantum? Non, sed redundat in gaudium universae terrae, quia omnes percipiunt gaudium huius fundationis: Ps. 65. Iubilate Deo omnis terra, psalmum dicite etc. Isa. 51. Venient in Sion laudantes; Thre. 1. Haecine est urbs perfecti decoris?Therefore, he says, (Mount Sion) is founded with the joy of the whole earth; it is as if he were saying, It has been founded on the mountain, that is, on Christ. But does not this foundation pertain to one land only? No, rather it overflows in joy to all lands, because all are aware of the joy of its foundation - Psalm 65: Shout with joy to God all the earth, sing a psalm etc.; Isaiah 51: They will come into Sion singing praise; Lamentations 2: Is this the city of perfect beauty?
Alia litera habet, Fundator; quasi dicat, Magnus Dominus. Et dico Dominus, qui est fundator huius civitatis. Et hoc, In exultatione.Another version has, The founder, as if he were saying, Great is the Lord. And I say the Lord, who is the founder of this city. And this, with joy.
Mons Sion latera aquilonis, idest deposita in latere montis Sion ad aquilonem. Sion signat Iudaeos, aquilo vero signat gentiles idolatras. Haec ergo civitas est composita ex Iudaeis et Gentilibus.Mount Sion...on the sides of the north, that is situated on the side of Mount Sion to the north. "Sion" signifies the Jews, but "north" signifies the idolatrous gentiles. Therefore, this city is made up of Jews and Gentiles.
Hieronymus aliter habet, et competit mysterio sponsae, Germinet gaudio universae terrae montis Sion, in lateribus aquilonis civitatulae regis magni. Et exponitur secundum mysterium. Haec civitas laudatur ex civilitate quam colit, et ex humanitate Christi quam assumpsit. Dico, quod est magna; et hoc est ex ipso specioso germine, idest Christo. Et hoc est gaudium universae terrae.Jerome has a different version, and it corresponds to the mystery of the spouse - Let him produce with joy for the whole world mount Sion, on the sides of the north of the great king's town. And he explains according to the mystery. This city is praised on account of its government which he tends, and on account of Christ's humanity which he accepted. I say that she (the city) is great, and this is on account of her own splendid fruit, namely Christ. And this is joy for the whole world.
In Hebraeo habetur, Decorus nimis exultationis, scilicet Christus, et hoc est in monte Sion.In the Hebrew version is found, Exceedingly suitable of joy, namely Christ, and this is on mount Sion.
Deus in domibus eius cognoscetur. Hic commendat civitatem a sapientia civium: vera namque sapientia consistit in Dei cognitione: Hier. 9. In hoc glorietur qui gloriatur, scire, et nosse me. Et ideo commendat eam ex hoc, quod Deus in ea cognoscitur, et dicit, Deus in domibus eius cognoscetur.God shall be known in her houses. At this point, he commends the city on account of the wisdom of her citizens. For true wisdom consists in the knowledge of God - Jeremiah 9: Let him that glories, glory in this, that he understand and know me. And thus he commends her (the city) for this reason, that God is known in her, and he says, God shall be known in her houses.
Est autem triplex cognitio Dei, quia hoc potest referri ad statum civitatis Hierusalem, et ad ecclesiam, et ad futuram gloriam.There is, however, a three-fold knowledge of God, since this can be referred to the condition of the city of Jerusalem, to the Church and to (her) future glory.
Una ergo cognitio de Deo est figuralis, et obscura; et haec cognitio fuit in veteri testamento, et talis cognitio fuit in civitate illa, scilicet Hierusalem, et in populo Iudaico: Ps. 75. Notus in Iudaea Deus etc. Et secundum hoc dicitur, Deus in domibus eius cognoscetur.Therefore, there is a knowledge of God which is figurative and obscure. And this knowledge is found in the Old Testament. It is that sort of knowledge which was found in that city, namely Jerusalem, and in the Jewish people - Psalm 75: God is known in Judea etc. And according to this, it is said that God shall be known in her houses.
Hieronymus habet, Deus agnitus est etc. scilicet non in uno loco, sed omnibus domibus, et civitatibus. Jerome has, God has been understood, that is, not in one place, but in every house and city.
Et dicit, In domibus: nam apud Athenas cognoscebatur Deus: Act. 17. In ipso vivimus, movemur, et sumus: Ad Rom. 1. Invisibilia Dei etc. Sed non cognoscebatur in domibus, sed in scholis apud aliquos, sed in gente illa omnes cognoscebant Deum.And he says, In houses: for God was known among the Athenians - Acts 17: In whom we live, move and have our being; Romans 1: The invisible things of God etc. But he was not known in the houses, but rather among those in the academies. But in that nation, all knew God.
Alia est cognitio realis, sed obscura, et imperfecta; et haec est cognitio qua Deus cognoscitur per fidem: 1. Cor. 13. Videmus nunc per speculum etc. et sic Deus in domibus cognoscitur cognitione reali, sed fidei: 2. Cor. 3. Nos autem revelata facie gloriam Domini contemplantes.There is another knowledge of God which is real, but obscure and incomplete. And this is knowledge by which God is known through faith- 1 Cor. 13: We see now through a glass darkly etc. And thus, God is known in the houses with a real knowledge, but in faith - 2 Cor. 3: But we beholding the glory of the Lord with open face etc.
Et dicit, In domibus: quia tota universalis ecclesia continet sub se multas ecclesias, et multa collegia, quarum quaelibet domus dicitur habere cognitionem Dei: Hier. 31. Me omnes cognoscent a minimo usque ad maximum.And he says, In houses: for the entire universal Church contains under itself many churches, and many assemblies, of which every house is said to have a knowledge of God - Jeremiah 31: They all shall know me from the least of them even to the greatest.
Alia est realis, quae est cognitio perfecta, et aperta: 1. Cor. 13. Tunc cognoscam, sicut et cognitus sum in domibus caelestis Hierusalem.Finally, there is that knowledge of God which is real, complete and clear - 1 Cor. 13: Then I shall know, even as I am known in the houses of the heavenly Jerusalem.
Et dicuntur plures domus diversi ordines sanctorum, scilicet apostolorum, martyrum, confessorum, et virginum etc. Ioan. 4. In domo Patris mei mansiones multae sunt. Et secundum hoc dicitur in Psalterio Romano: Deus in gradibus eius cognoscetur: quia non omnes aequaliter cognoscent, sed erunt diversi gradus cognitionis secundum quosdam: 1. Cor. 15. Stella differt a stella in claritiate. The several houses are said of the diverse orders of the holy, namely, of the apostles, the martyrs, the confessors, the virgins, and so on - John 4: In my Father's house there are many mansions. And in relation to this, it is said in the Roman Psalter that God will be known in his degrees: for not everyone will know equally, but, with respect to some, there will be diverse grades of knowing - 1 Cor. 15: For star differs from star in clarity.
Sed hoc erit, cum suscipiet eam, ad adiuvandum: quia ipse est susceptor, et auxiliator noster.But this will be, When he shall receive her, to help her. For he himself is our guardian and helper.
Alia autem litera habet, in auxiliando.However, another version has, in helping.
c. Quoniam. Hic probat dignitatem civitatis per testimonium. Et primo inducit testes. Secundo eorum probitatem. Tertio ipsorum confessionem.For. At this point, he shows the dignity of the city through evidence. He first introduces witnesses, then their honesty, and finally their actual acknowledgement.
Ad hoc quod testimonium sit credibile, tria sunt necessaria, scilicet dignitas testium, ut sint testes auctoritatis: quia si sint leves, eorum testimonium non debet approbari.For evidence to be credible, three things are necessary. First, the dignity of one's witnesses, that they be authoritative. For if they are capricious, their evidence ought not to be accepted.
Item numerositas, et concordia; et haec tria sunt in istis testibus, quia sunt magnae dignitatis: quia, Reges terrae, unus fuit Constantinus, alius fuit Iustinianus, et Carolus Magnus qui ecclesiam firmaverunt privilegiis.Second, their great number, and third, their concordance. And these three things are in these very witnesses, because they are of great dignity, The kings of the earth; one was Constantine, another Justinian, and the third was Charlemagne, all of whom strengthened the Church in its privileges.
Item multi fuerunt, quia congregati sunt de diversis nationibus, et temporibus. Possunt etiam per reges intelligi sapientes, et iusti, qui testimonium perhibuerunt ecclesiae conversi ad fidem: Ps. 46. Prinicipes populorum.Again, they were many, because they were assembled from different nations, and times. Also, by "kings" can be understood wise and just men who, having converted to the faith, bore witness to the Church - Psalm 46: The princes of the peoples.
Item sunt concordes, Convenerunt in unum, scilicet testimonium et sententiam: Ps. 108. In conveniendo populos in unum, et reges etc.Again, they are concordant, They have gathered together, namely in witness and opinion - Psalm 101: When the people assemble together, and kings etc.
Potest iterum aliter exponi; tamen prima expositio est literalis, quia in Hieronymo habetur, Testati sunt.Again, this can be explained in other ways; but the first exposition is literal, because The have borne witness is in Jerome's version.
In graeco habetur, Suscipient eam, scilicet ad defendendum. Et hoc necessarium est, Quoniam ecce reges terrae congregati sunt, convenerunt in unum, scilicet contra ecclesiam. Et isti qui aliquando testimonium perhibent, aliquando contra ecclesiam fuerunt, et aliquando persecuti sunt eam: postea eam firmaverunt.The greek version has, They will help her, namely so as to defend (her). And this is necessary, For behold the kings of the earth are assembled, have gathered together, namely against the Church. And these are the very ones who will at some point bear witness - at some time they were against the Church, and at other times they persecuted her: thereafter, they strengthened her.
Ipsi videntes. Hic describit eorum probitatem, ubi septem fuerunt. Primum visio, idest cognitio fidei; unde dicit, Ipsi videntes, idest cognoscentes per fidem miracula quae Christus, et apostoli faciebant: Isa. 62. Videbunt gentes iustum tuum, et cuncti reges inclytum tuum.When they saw. Here, their honesty is described in seven ways. First, there is vision, that is, the understanding of (or brought about by) faith. Thus he says, When they saw, that is, when they understood through faith the miracles which Christ and the apostles performed - Isaiah 62: The gentiles will see your just one, and all kings your glorious one.
Secundum est admiratio in his quae videntur, quia sunt supra sensum, et rationem humanam: Isa. 60. Videbis, et afflues, et mirabitur, et dilatabitur cor tuum: Ps. 138. Mirabilia opera tua.Second, there is wonder in those things which were seen, because they are above human sense and reason - Isaiah 60: (Then) shall you see, and abound, and your heart shall wonder and be enlarged; Psalm 138: Wonderful are your works.
Tertium est conturbatio pro peccatis. Propter secundum, Admirati sunt. Propter tertium, Conturbati sunt: Ps. 59. Commovisti terram, et conturbasti eam.Third, there is disturbance on account of sins. Because of the second, They wondered. Because of the third, They were disturbed - Psalm 59: You have shaken the ground, and have disturbed it.
Quartum est commotio. Aliquando quis conturbatur de peccato, et labitur in desperationem, vel persistit in malo; sed isti commoti sunt ad poenitentiam: Isa. 24. Commotione commovebitur terra.Fourth, there is a rousing (or stirring). At times, one is disturbed by sin, and then falls into despair, or persists in evil. But these people (those of the city) are roused to repentance - Isaiah 24: With trembling the earth shall be moved.
Quintum est, quia haec commotio debet esse cum timore Dei, ut non attribuat sibi quod per se moveatur ad bonum, sed Deo; et ideo dicit, Tremor apprehendit eos: Ps. 2 Servite Domino in timore.The fifth is that this rousing ought to take place accompanied by the fear of God, so that the person being roused does not attribute to himself that he is moved to the good by himself, but rather by God. And so, he says, Trembling took hold of them - Psalm 2: Serve the Lord with fear.
Hic dolor, et tremor est fructuosus; unde dicit, Ibi dolores ut parturientis, qui convertuntur in gaudium propter spem prolis, et fructus: Isa. 26. A timore tuo Domine concepimus, et peperimus spiritum salutis (Vulgate has "sic facti sumus a facie tua Domine. Concepimus et quasi parturivimus est peperimus spiritum. Salutes non fecimus in terra). Et hoc est sextum.This pain and trembling are fruitful. Thus he says, There were pains as of a woman in labour, which are turned into joy on account of the hope and fruit of offspring - Isaiah 26: From fear from you, O Lord, we have conceived, and have brought forth the spirit of deliverance. And this is the sixth.
Septimum est, In spiritu vehementi conteres naves Tharsis, idest mare universaliter, et sic conteres naves maris.The seventh is, With a vehement wind, you shall break in pieces the ships of Tharsis, that is, the sea in general. And so, you shall break in pieces the ships of the sea.
Vel dicendum, quod ibi est una provincia quae Cilicia vocatur, et Tharsis est metropolis eius, ubi natus est Paulus, et ex illa civitate tota regio nominatur Tharsis, et ibi sunt multae naves: vel sicut in mari mediterraneo primi navigantes fecerunt Carthaginem, et isti simul pugnantes cum Tyriis praevaluerunt. Et ideo Tharsis vocatur totum mare mundi.Or it ought to be said that there is a province which is called Cilicia, and Tharsis (where Paul was born) is its capital. On account of that city, the whole region is called Tharsis and there were many ships there. Or, again, as the first sailors on the Mediterranean Sea, they (the people of Cilicia) built Carthage and, fighting together with the Tyrians, enjoyed great power. And thus, Tharsis is called the world's entire sea.
Per naves quae ad negotiandum vadunt, signatur cupiditas, et hoc est abundantia rerum mundi. Et sicut naves fluctuant in mari, ita divites fluctuant in rebus mundi.By "ships", which they were eager to trade, is signified "greediness", and this is an abundance of the things of the world. And as ships swell upon the sea, so too do the rich in worldly things.
Sed quando convertitur homo ad poenitentiam, tunc naves, idest cupiditates huius mundi, conteruntur. Sed in spiritu vehementi, scilicet in Spiritu sancto: Abdiae 1. Iuxta est dies Domini super gentes: Isa. 23. Ululate naves maris.But when a man is turned to repentance, then the ships, that is, the desires of this world, are wrecked. But with a vehement wind, namely with the Holy Spirit - Abdias 1: For the day of the Lord is at hand upon the nations; Isaiah 23: Howl, ye ships of the sea.
Sed secundum Cassiodorum per hoc designatur totum tempus incarnationis Christi. Deus cognoscetur in domibus eius cum suscipiet eam, idest humanam naturam in unitate personae: Isa. 52. Propter hoc sciet populus nomen meum. Et quare? Quoniam ecce reges terrae congregati sunt: convenerunt in unum.But according to Cassiodorus, by this is designated the entire time of Christ's incarnation. God is known in his homes when he receives it, that is, human nature into the unity of (his) person - Isaiah 52: On account of this the people shall know my name. And why? Because behold the kings of the earth are assembled, have gathered together.
Reges, scilicet principes Iudaeorum et scribae populi congregati sunt ab Herode sciscitante ab eis ubi Christus nasceretur, Et convenerunt in unum, scilicet quod natus erat in Bethlehem.The kings, namely the leaders of the Jews and the scribes of the people, are assembled by Herod asking them where Christ was born, and have gathered together, namely that he had been born in Bethlehem.
Et videntes sic, sicut prophetae dixerunt, Admirati sunt, commoti sunt, quia Herodes turbatus est, et omnis Hierosolyma cum eo, Matth. 3.And those seeing in this manner, wondered and were disturbed (as the prophets had said), because Herod was troubled, and all of Jerusalem with him - Matthew 3.
Et commoti sunt, aliqui ad fidem. Et tantus fuit pavor ut corpus tremeret, Tremor apprehendit eos: et, Ibi fuerunt dolores, ut parturientis, propter necem infantium occisorum ab Herode: Et in spiritu vehementi, quia in furore mittens occidit omnes pueros a bimatu et infra, idest a duobus annis, et infra.And they were disturbed, some towards faith. And the dread was so great that the body trembled - Trembling took hold of them - and, There were pains as of a woman in labour, on account of the slaughter of the innocents killed by Herod. With a vehement wind, because ordering in anger, he killed all the boys two years of age and younger.
Et in furore fecit comburi omnes naves Tharsis, idest in Tharso Ciliciae, quas credebat magos per aliam viam revertentes portasse in patriam suam. Propterea dicit, In spiritu vehementi.And in his anger, he ordered all the ships of Tharsis to be burned, that is, in Tharsis of Cilicia, which ships he believed had borne the Magi (returning by another route) to their homeland. Therefore he says, With a vehement wind.
d. Sicut audivimus. Hic ponitur confessio, et testimonium testium. Et primo confitentur veritatem eius quod audierunt.As we have heard. Here, he sets forth their acknowledgment and the testimony of the witnesses. And first, they acknowledge his truth which they have heard.
Sicut audivimus, per praedicationem apostolorum: Ita et vidimus, idest percepimus verum esse. Hoc dixerunt quando conversi sunt ad Christum.As we have heard, through the declaration of the apostles; So we have seen, that is, we have understood (it) to be true. They said this when they had turned to Christ.
Vel ut sit conversio Iudaeorum: Nos audivimus per prophetas, et ecce iam vidimus. Sed contingit aliquando quod aliquis audit aliquid magnum, et non credit sic esse, donec experiatur: et hoc Iacob dixit Gen. 28. Vere locus iste sanctus est etc. 2. Reg. 10. Regina Saba quae venit experiri sicut audierat, non tamen credebat tantam sapientiam Salomonis: quae plura incredibilia vidit in eo quam audisset. Et sic sunt isti qui vident plura, quam audiant antequam ad fidem veniant.Or, as it is the acknowledgement of the Jews: We ourselves have heard through the prophets, and, behold, we now see. However, it sometimes happens that one hears something great, and does not believe it to be so, until it is experienced. Jacob says this at Genesis 28: Truly this very place is holy etc.; 3 Kings 10: The Queen of Saba, who came to experience as she had heard, did not yet believe the entire wisdom of Solomon, who saw more incredible things in him than the things that she had heard. And so there are those who see more things than they have heard before they have come to faith.
Et ubi videmus? In civitate Domini virtutum, scilicet coelestium. Ubi ostendit quod potest re illuc perducere. Et ne credatur quod sit altus ne tu possis ire ad eum, dicit, In civitate Dei nostri; quasi dicat, Sic est Deus virtutum, quod tamen est Deus noster.And where will we see? In the city of the Lord of hosts, namely, of the heavenly hosts. Where he shows that in reality He (God) can lead (one) to that place. And lest one believe that he is lofty and that you cannot go to him, he says, In the city of our God, as if to say, Thus is the God of hosts, who nevertheless is our God.
Et iste fundavit eam, scilicet civitatem istam non ad tempus, sed in aeternum: Eccl. 26. Fundamenta aeterna super petram solidam.And he has founded her, namely this very city, not in time, but in eternity - Eccl. 26: As everlasting foundations upon a solid rock.
e. Suscepimus. Supra posuit Psalmista magnalia civitatis; hic autem ponit gratiarum actionem: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponitur gratiarum actio. Secundo invitantur homines ad considerandum adhuc magnalia istius civitatis, ibi, Circumdate.We have received. Previously, the Psalmist described the great things of the city. Here, he describes the action of graces. And concerning this, he does two things. First, he determines the action of graces, and second, people are invited to consider once again the great things of the city, at, Surround.
Sicut dicitur alibi: Universae viae Domini misericordia, et veritas. Unde gratiarum actio pertinet primo ad effectus divinae misericordiae. Secundo pertinet ad effectus iustitiae, ibi, Iustitia plena est dextera. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit perfectionem divinae misericordiae. Secundo effectum huius perfectionis, ibi, Secundum nomen tuum.Just as it is said elsewhere, The ways of the Lord taken all together are mercy and truth. Hence, the action of graces pertains first to the effect of divine mercy, and second, to the effect of justice, at, Your right hand is full of justice. Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he presents the perfection of divine mercy, and second, the effect of this perfection, at, According to your name.
Hoc secundum superficiem literae legitur ex persona non Iudaeorum, sed admirantium et dicentium, Sicut audivimus etc.With respect to the surface meaning of this text, it is read not according to the persona of the Jews, but of one wondering and saying, As we have heard etc.
Suscepimus Deus misericordiam tuam. Hoc similiter potest legi ex persona Iudaeorum. We have received your mercy O God. This likewise can be read according to the persona of the Jews.
Sed dicit, Suscepimus etc. Misericordia Domini tripliciter accipitur, scilicet effectus gratiae, qui effectus confertur in sacramentis Christi: Tim. 3. Secundum suam misericordiam salvos nos fecit per lavacrum regenerationis etc. Et in ecclesia omnes communiter suscipiunt misericordiam, sed boni cum sacramentis suscipiunt misericordiam, idest gratiam et effectum sacrificii; mali autem suscipiunt tantum sacramentum. Dicunt ergo boni: Nos, Suscepimus misericordiam, idest gratiam tuam, In medio templi tui, in templo, in extremo sunt peccatores, in medio templi sunt virtuosi et iusti.But he says, We have received etc. The mercy of the Lord can be understood in a three-fold way. First, the effect of grace, which effect is conferred in the sacraments of Christ - Titus 3: According to his mercy he saved us by the laver of regeneration etc. And in the Church, everyone in general receives mercy, but the good receive mercy with the sacraments, that is, the grace and effect of the sacrifice. However, the bad receive only the sacrament. Thus, the good say, We ourselves, Have received mercy, that is, your grace, In the midst of your temple; in the temple, sinners are on the outside, the virtuous and the just, in its midst.
Alio modo misericordia est ipse Christus, qui datus est nobis ex Dei misericordia: Quoniam venit tempus miserendi eius.The Lord's mercy can be understood, secondly, as Christ himself, who was given to us because of God's mercy - For the time of his giving mercy has come.
Et sic potest exponi hoc de duplici templo, et de duplici susceptione, scilicet corporalis; et sic haec verba sunt Simeonis iusti. O Deus susceptimus misericordiam tuam, scilicet Christum in ulnas nostras in medio templi tui, scilicet materialis.And so, this can be explained with respect to the two-fold aspect of the temple and of reception, namely of the body. Consequently, these words are of Simeon the just. O God, we have received your mercy, namely Christ, in our arms in the midst of your temple, namely materially.
Item de susceptione fidei; et sic est sensus. O Deus nos suscepimus Christum misericorditer datum per fidem: Iac. 1. In mansuetudine suscipite insitum verbum.Third, the Lord's mercy can be understood with respect to the reception of the faith; and its sense is thus: O God, we ourselves have received Christ, mercifully given through the faith - James 1: With meekness receive the ingrafted word.
In medio templi, idest in consensu ecclesiae, quia qui non suscipiunt communem doctrinam ecclesiae, non suscipiunt hanc misericordiam: Eccl. 15. In medio ecclesiae aperuit os eius.In the midst of your temple, that is, in agreement with the Church. For those who do not accept the general teaching of the Church do not receive this mercy - Eccl. 15: In the midst of the Chruch she shall open his mouth.
Secundum nomen tuum Deus. Hic ponitur effectus huius susceptionis; quasi dicat, Per hoc quod nos nomen tuum suscepimus, laus tua diffusa est in omnem terram. Et hoc, Secundum nomen tuum Deus, qui est essentialiter bonus. Et quicumque cognoscit Deum secundum illam mensuram, laudat eum secundum quod cognoscit eum: et ideo dicit, Secundum nomen tuum Deus, idest secundum cognitionem quam habet de te: Sic et laus tua. Et quia ubique est notus, ratio dicit, In fines terrae: Mal. 1. A solis ortu usque ad occasum, magnum est nomen meum in gentibus.According to your name O God. Here, he sets down the effect of this reception. It is as if he were saying, On account of the fact that we have received your name, your praise has been spread out over the whole world. And this, According to your name O God, who is essentially good. And whoever knows God in that measure, praises him as he knows him. And so he says, According to your name O God, that is, according to the knowledge which he has of you - So also is your praise. And because he is known everywhere, this is the reason he says, To the ends of the earth - Malachi 1: From the rising of the sun, even to its setting, my name is great among the nations.
Vel, In fines terrae, idest in tota ecclesia, quae ubique diffusa est.Or, To the ends of the earth, that is, in the entire Church, which has been spread out everywhere.
Vel quia laus tua vera non est nisi in sanctis qui vere te laudant, quia vere te cognoscunt: Io. 7. Scio eum.Or, because your praise is not genuine except among the holy who truly praise you, because they truly know you - John 7: I know him.
Iustitia plena est dextera tua. Hic commendat iustitiam. Et primo ponit commendationem iustitiae. Secundo ponit eius effectum.You right hand is full of justice. Here, he commends justice. First, he sets forth the commendation of justice, and second, its effect.
Dico ergo quod, Suscepimus misericordiam tuam: et hoc non sine iustitia. Immo, Iustitia plena est dextera tua. Manu Dei dicitur virtus eius operativa. Et Deus habet duas manus, scilicet dexteram qua remunerat bonos, et sinistram qua punit malos: Matt. 25. Statuit oves a dextris etc. In utraque manu est iustitia; sed in sinistra non est plena iustitia, quia punit citra condignum; sed in dextera est plena iustitia, quia abundanter remunerat: Luc. 6. Mensuram bonam etc.; Rom. 8. Existimo quod non sunt condignae passiones etc.And so I say that We have received your mercy, but not without justice. Assuredly, Your right hand is full of justice. By the hand of God is meant his active power. And God has two hands, his right by which he rewards the good, and his left by which he punishes the evil - Matthew 25: he shall set the sheep on his right hand etc. In each hand, there is justice; but in his left hand there is not full justice, because he punishes on the side of the worthy; in his right hand, however, there is full justice, because he rewards abundantly - Luke 6: good measure (and pressed down and shaken together); Romans 8: For I reckon that the sufferings of this time are not worthy (to be compared with the glory to come).
Dextera tua, idest gloria futura, Est plena iustitia, quia ibi nullus est nisi iustus: Isa. 60. Populus tuus omnes iusti.Your right hand, that is, future glory, is full of justice, because there is no one there except the just - Isaiah 60: Your people shall be all just.
Laetetur mons Sion. Hic ponitur effectus iustitiae quem fecit sinistra, et est gemitus; sed effectus iustitiae quem fecit dextera, est laetitia: Ps. 18. Iustitiae Domini rectae laetificantes corda. Supra dixit, quod effectus misericordiae se extendit usque ad fines terrae, hic autem attribuit effectum iustitiae monti Sion, et filiis Iudae. Hoc etiam Apostolus dicit Rom. 23. Dico autem Christum Iesum ministrum fuisse circumcisionis etc. Quia ergo promissus fuit filiae Sion Zach. 9. Exulta satis filia Sion etc.Let Mount Sion rejoice. Here, he sets down the effect of justice which his left hand did, and this is lamentation. But the effect of justice which his right hand accomplished is joy - Psalm 18: The justices of the Lord are right, rejoicing hearts. It was said earlier that the effect of mercy extends itself to the ends of the earth. But here he attributes the effect of justice to Mount Sion and to the daughters of Juda. The Apostle also says this at Romans 15: For I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision etc. Thus, because he has promissed the daughters of Sion - Zacharia 9: Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion etc.
Laetetur mons Sion, quia iustitiae est quod promissio servetur ei. Sed quia non fuit facta promissio gentibus, misericordia fuit quod daretur. Potest tamen dici quod mons Sion dicitur tota Hierusalem.Let Mount Sion rejoice, because it is of justice which promise is kept for her. But since the promise was not made to the nations, mercy was that which was given. However, it can be said that Mount Sion signifies the whole of Jerusalem.
Et exultent filiae Iudae, idest confessionis, idest totus populus Iudaeorum, Exultent. Et hoc faciant, Propter iudicia tua Domine, quia recta sunt.And the daughters of Juda be glad, that is, of acknowledgement, that is, all the people of the Jews, Be glad. And let them do this Because of your judgments O Lord, since they are right.
f. Circumdate. Hic inducit ad diligentiorem considerationem, ut intelligatur quod reges iam aliquando viderunt magnalia; sed tamen David invitat omnes ut plus considerent. Et primo invitat ad hoc. Secundo addit causam invitationis.Surround. Here, he impells us to a more diligent consideration so that it may be understood that the kings have now, by length, seen great things; but nevertheless, David invites all so that they might consider (these things) further. First, he invites them to do this, and second, he adds the cause of the invitation.
Dicit ergo, Circumdate, scilicet ecclesiam militantem, vel triumphantem oculo contemplationis: Cant. 3. Surgam, et circuibo etc. Aliqui circumdant iniquo oculo ecclesiam ad impugnandum, sed nos circumdamus eam ad amandum; et ideo dicit, Complectimini eam, scilicet diligendo: Ps. 25. Domine dilexi decorem domus tuae. Hieronymus habet, Circuite, quasi ite extra, et circuite per vicos, et Narrate in turribus eius.Therefore, he says, Surround, namely the Church militant, or the Church, triumphant with the eye of contemplation - Song of Songs 3: I will rise, and will go about the city etc. Some surround the Church with a wicked eye so as to attack her. But we surround her so as to love her. And thus he says, And encompass her, namely with loving - Psalm 25: I have loved, O Lord, the beauty of they house. Jerome's version has Travel around, go outside as it were, and travel around through the towns, and Tell in her towers.
Hic inducit ad considerationem in spirituali. In civitate sunt tria magnifica, scilicet turris, muri, et plateae.At this point, he impells us to a consideration in spiritual terms. There are three eminent things in the city, namely its towers, walls and streets.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Narrate in turribus eius. Hieronymus habet, Mirate turres eius. Turres sunt ad videndum a longe. Turres ergo ecclesiae sunt praelati, et fuerunt Apostoli; quasi dicat, Mirate Apostolos, et praelatos.With respect to the first, he says, Tell in her towers. Jerome has Wonder at her towers. Towers are for seeing at a distance. Thus the towers of the Church are her prelates, and were her Apostles; it is as if he were saying, Wonder at the Apostles and prelates.
Vel, Narrate, idest doctores secundum doctrinam Apostolorum, et doctorum.Or, Tell, that is doctors according to the teachings of the Apostles and of the learned.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Ponite corda vestra in virtute eius. Hieronymus, Ponite cor vestrum in manibus eius. Et hoc est virtus Spiritus sancti, qui protegit hanc civitatem: Luc. ult. Sedete in civitate donec induamini virtute. Haec virtus est dilectio: Cant. 3. Fortis est ut mors dilectio.With respect to the second he says, Set your hearts on her strength. Jerome has, Set your heart in his hands. And this is the power of the Holy Spirit, who defends this city - Luke 24: But stay you in the city till you be endued with power. This power is love - Song of Songs 8: For love is strong as death.
Quantum ad tertium dicit, Et distribuite domos eius. Hieronymus habet, Separate domos eius, distinguite palatia eius. Distinguite, scilicet per rectum iudicium. Sunt enim aliqui qui propter aliquos malos volunt totam ecclesiam damnare. Dicit ergo, Distribuite, idest non debetis bonos propter malos damnare: Gen. 18. Absit a te Domine ut perdas iustum cum impio.With respect to the third he says, And distribute her houses. Jerome has, Separate her houses, distinguish her palaces. Distinguish, namely through right judgment. For there are some who, because of some evil men, want to condemn the entire Church. Thus, he says, Distribute, that is, you ought not to condemn the good because of the bad - Genesis 18: Far be it from you, O Lord, to slay the just with the wicked.
Vel, Distribuite domos eius, scilicet dispensando diversas ecclesias diversis ministris, ut non sit confusio in ecclesia, sicut Paulus fuit Apostolus gentium, et Petrus fuit minister circumcisionis, idest Apostolus Iudaeorum.Or, Distribute her houses, namely by managing different churches with different ministers, so that there is not confusion in the Church, just as Paul was the Apostle of the gentiles, and Peter was the minister of the circumcision, that is, the Apostle of the Jews.
Alia litera habet, Gradus eius, idest ordines diversos: quosdam subdiacones, quosdam diacones, et quosdam sacerdotes: Eph. 4. Et ipse dedit quosdam quidem Apostolos etc.Another version has, Her degrees, that is, her different orders: subdeacons, deacons and priests - Ephesians 4: And he gave some Apostles, etc.
Finis huius considerationis est laus Dei. Et primo ponit quibus nuntietur laus Dei. Secundo, quare nuntietur. Dicit ergo, Ut enarretis, scilicet quae audistis: Isa. 21. Quae audivi a Domino exercituum Deo Israel, nuntiavi vobis: quia quod accepit unus, debet alii communicare: In progenie altera, scilicet peccatoribus.The purpose of this consideration is the praise of God. And first, he sets down to whom the praise of God will be announced, and second, why it will be announced. And so, he says, That you may relate it, namely what you have heard - Isaiah 21: That which I have heard of the Lord of hosts the God of Israel, I have declared unto you: because what one has accepted, ought to be communicated to others, To another generation, namely to sinners.
Vel, Altera, idest futura. Et quid enarretis? Duo: quia omnis praedicatio ad duo debet ordinari, scilicet ad ostendendam Dei magnificentiam, sicut quando praedicat fidem, vel ad annuntiandum beneficia Dei, ut accendatur charitas in eorum cordibus.Or, Another, that is, a future generation. And what will you announce? Two things, since every proclamation should be ordered to two things, namely to show the magnificence of God, just as when he proclaims the faith, or to announce the kindnesses of God, so that charity be inflamed in their hearts.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Quoniam hic est Deus Deus noster: Baruch 3. Hic est Deus noster. Et post haec in terris etc. Hebr. ult. Christus Iesus heri, et hodie, ipse et in saecul.With respect to the first, he says, For this is God, our God - Baruch 3: This is our God...Afterwards he was seen upon earth; Hebrews 13: Jesus Christ, yesterday, and today, and the same forever.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Ipse reget nos in saecula: Matth. ult. Ecce ego vobiscum sum etc. Ps. 22. Dominus regit me, et nihil etc.With respect to the second, he says, He shall rule us forever more - Matthew 28: Behold I am with you always etc; Psalm 22: The Lord ruleth me: and I shall want for nothing.

© Stephen Loughlin
(stephen.loughlin@desales.edu)



The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)