Psalm 34

a. Iudica Domine nocentes me; expugna impugnantes me.Judge, O Lord, those who are harming me; overcome those who are attacking me.
b. Apprehende arma et scutum; et exurge in adiutorium mihi. Effunde frameam, et conclude adversus eos, qui persequuntur me: dic animae meae, Salus tua ego sum.Take hold of arms and shield; and rise up to help me. Send forth the spear, and conclude against those who persecute me: say to my soul, "I am you safety."
c. Confundantur et revereantur: et quaerentes animam meam. Avertantur retrorsum, et confundantur: cogitantes mihi mala.Let them be confounded and stand in awe, those who are seeking after my soul. Let them be turned back and confounded, those who are plotting evils against me.
d. Fiant tamquam pulvis ante faciem venti: et angelus Domini coarctans eos. Fiant viae illorum tenebrae et lubricum: et angelus Domini persequens eos.Let them become like dust before the wind, and let the angel of the Lord confine them. Let their way become dark and slippery, the angel of the Lord pursuing them.
e. Quoniam gratis absconderunt mihi interitum laquei sui: supervacue exprobraverunt animam meam.For they have freely concealed their snare of destruction for me, needlessly have they reproached my soul.
f. Veniat illi laqueus quem ignorat, et captio quam abscondit, apprehendat eum: et in laqueum cadat in idipsum.Let the snare which he does not know come upon him, and let the plot which he conceals take hold of him: and into this very snare let him fall.
g. Anima autem mea exultabit in Domino: et delectabitur super salutari suo. Omnia ossa mea dicent, Domine quis similis tibi? Eripiens inopem de manu fortiorum eius, egenum et pauperem a diripientibus eum.But my soul shall exult in the Lord, and shall be delighted in its salvation. All of my bones say, Who is like to you, O Lord? Delivering the helpless from the hand of those stronger than his, the needy and the poor from those despoiling him.
h. Surgentes testes iniqui, quae ignorabam interrogabant me. Retribuebant mihi mala pro bonis, sterilitatem animae meae.Unjust witnesses rising up were questioning me of things of which I had no knowledge. They were repaying me evil for good, the barrenness of my soul.
i. Ego autem cum mihi molesti essent, induebar cilicio. Humiliabam in ieiunio animam meam: et oratio mea in sinu meo convertetur.But I, when they were troubling me, was clothed in a hair-shirt. I humbled my soul with fasting: and my prayer was turned into my bosom.
j. Quasi proximum, et quasi fratrem nostrum sic complacebam: quasi lugens et contristatus, sic humiliabar.As a neighbour and as our brother, so did I please: as one mourning and sorrowful, so was I humbled.
k. Et adversum me laetati sunt, et convenerunt: congregata sunt super me flagella, et ingoravi.And they rejoiced against me, and came together: scourges were brought together upon me, and I did not know.
l. Dissipati sunt, nec compuncti, tentaverunt me, subsannaverunt me subsannatione: frenduerunt super me dentibus suis.They were dissipated and felt no remorse: they tempted me, they mocked me with scorn: they gnashed upon me with their teeth.
m. Domine quando respicies? restituere animam meam a malignitate eorum, a leonibus unicam meam.O Lord, when will you regard me? Restore my soul from their malice, my only soul from the lions.
n. Confitebor tibi in ecclesia magna: in populo gravi laudabo te. Non supergaudeant mihi, qui adversantur mihi inique: qui oderunt me gratis, et annuunt oculis. Quoniam mihi quidem pacifice loquebantur, et in iracundia terrae loquentes, dolos cogitabant. Et dilataverunt super me os suum, dixerunt, Euge, euge, viderunt oculi nostri.I will give thanks to you in the great church: I will praise you to a heavy people. Do not let those who are wrongly opposed to me, rejoice over me, those who have freely hated me and wink their eyes. For indeed they spoke peaceably to me, and speaking in the earth's anger, they devised plots. And they opened wide their mouth against me, and they said, Well done, well done, our eyes have seen.
o. Vidisti Domine, ne sileas: Domine ne discedas a me.You have seen, O Lord, be not silent: do not depart from me, O Lord.
p. Exurge et intende iudicio meo, Deus meus, et Dominus meus in causam meam. Iudica me secundum iustitiam tua Domine Deus meus: et non supergaudeant mihi. Non dicant in cordibus suis, Euge, euge animae nostrae, neque dicant, Devorabimus eum.Rise up and aspire to my judgment, my God and my Lord, in my cause. Judge me, O Lord, my God, according to your justice, and let them not rejoice over me. Let them not say in their hearts, Well done, well done it is to our mind; and let them not say, We will swallow him up.
q. Erubescant, et revereantur simul, qui gratulantur malis meis. Induantur confusione, et reverentia, qui maligna loquuntur super me.Let them blush and be ashamed at the same time, those who rejoice at my evils. Let them be clothed in confusion and shame, those who speak wicked things against me.
r. Exultent et laetentur, qui volunt iustitiam meam, et dicant semper, Magnificetur Dominus, qui volunt pacem servi eius. Et lingue mea meditabitur iustitiam tuam; tota die laudem tuam.Let them exult and be glad, those who desire my justice, and let them always say, "Let the Lord be magnified", those who desire the peace of his servant. And my tongue shall meditate you justice, your praise the whole day long.
a. In Psalmis praecedentibus manifestata est dignitas iustorum; hic autem imploratur auxilium contra persecutiones impiorum: et circa hoc tria facit. Primo enim petit divinum auxilium contra peccatores persequentes. Secundo confitetur sibi huiusmodi tribulationes dari propter peccatum, ibi, Domine ne in furore. Tertio ostendit suam fiduciam quam habet in Deo, ibi, Expectans expectavi.In the preceding Psalms, the dignity of the just was made clear. Here, however, help against the persecutions of the impious is implored, concerning which the psalmist does three things. First, he asks God's help against those sinners persecuting him, second, he acknowledges to himself such tribulations to be given according to sin, at, Rebuke me not, O Lord, in your indignation (Psalm 37), and third, he shows his faithfulness which he has in God, at, With expectation I have waited (Psalm 39).
Circa primum tria facit. Primo enim petit divinum auxilium contra impiorum persectionem. Secundo describit eorum nequitiam, ibi, Dixit iniustus. Tertio ostendit eorum prosperitatem esse contemnendam, ibi, Noli aemulari.Concerning the first, he does three things. First, he asks God's help against the persecution of the impious, second, he describes their wickedness, at, I said: I will take heed to my ways (Psalm 38) and third, he shows their prosperity is to be condemned, at, Be not envious of evildoers (Psalm 36).
Titulus communis est, In finem Psalmus ipsi David. Mystice pertinet ad Christum verum David: et secundum mysticam expositionem est secundus Psalmus eorum qui prolixe loquuntur de passione Christi. Primu fuit, Deus Deus meus respice.The title is general, For the leader, a Psalm for David himself. Mystically, it pertains to Christ, the true David; and according to a mystical exposition, it is the second psalm of those which speak copiously concerning Christ's passion. The first was, My God, my God, look upon me (Psalm 21).
Hic ergo Psalmus sive legatur ex persona David, sive Christi, vel cuiuscumque, duo facit. Primo enim petit impiorum repulsam. Secundo assignat causam, ibi, Surgentes testes.Therefore, whether this psalm is read either with respect to the person of David, Christ, or whomever, it does two things. First, it asks for the rejection of the impious, and second, assigns the cause, at, Witnesses rising up.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo enim petit adversariorum condemnatione. Secundo proponit condemnationis interitum, scilicet eorum culpam, ibi, Quoniam gratis. Tertio assignat fructus condemnationis huius, ibi, Anima autem mea.Concerning the first, he does three things. First, he asks for the condemnation of his enemies, second, he sets forth the destruction of their condemnation, namely their guilt, at For they have freely, and third, he assigns the fruit of this condemnation, at, But my soul.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo enim proponit in generali suam petitionem. Secundo explicat eam, ibi, Apprehende arma etc.Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he proposes his petition in general, and second, explains it, at, Take hold of arms etc.
Circa primum duo petit in generali, scilicet condemnationem eorum, et divinum auxilium, ibi, Expugna. Haec enim duo petit contra duo: nam contra nocentes petit condemnationem, et contra impugnantes petit divinum auxilium.Concerning the first, he asks for two things in general, namely their condemnation, and God's help, at, Overcome. He asks these two in opposition to two concerns: against those harming him, he asks for their condemnation, and against those attacking him, he asks for God's help.
Primo quis impugnat alium. Secundo praevalens ei nocumentum infert. Est ergo hic ordo praeposterus. Quando enim aliquis impugnat alium, non statim meretur condemnationem, sed concitatur impugnatus ad petendum auxilium; quando vero nocet, tunc petit condemnationem.Someone first attacks another, and then, prevailing, inflicts harm on him. Therefore, this order is reversed. For when someone attacks another, he does not immediately merit condemnation, but the one attacked is roused to ask for help. However, when he harms, then the one harmed asks for condemnation.
Et ideo hic distinguit utrumque, quia nocumentum prius est in intentione inferentis: et ideo primo petit condemnationem nocentium. Dicit ergo O Domine iudica nocentes me.And for this reason he here distinguishes both, because harm is prior in the intention of the one who inflicts it; and thus he first asks for the condemnation of those harming. Therefore, he says, Judge, O Lord, those who are harming me.
Est autem triplex iudicum, scilicet condemnationis: Iac. 2. Iudicium sine misericordia illi, qui non fecerit misericordiam. Item purgationis: Nehe. 4. Tempus est ut incipiat iudicium a domo Domini. Item discretionis: Ps. 42. Iudica me Deus, et discerne causam meam.Now, there is a three-fold judgment, namely, of condemnation - James 2: Judgment is without mercy to one who has not shown mercy; of cleansing - 1 Peter 4: For the time is, that judgement should begin at the house of the Lord; and of discrimination - Psalm 42: Judge me God, and discern my cause.
Hic autem agitur de primo. Similis petitio habetur Hier. 2. Tu autem Domine Sabaoth qui iudicas iuste, et probas renes et corda, videam ultionem tuam ex eis.The first is treated of here. A like petition is had at Jeremiah 11: But you, O Lord Sabaoth, who judges rightly, and tries the reins and the hearts, let me see your revenge on them.
Contra Matt. 5. Orate pro persequentibus, et calumniantibus vos.But on the contrary, there is Matthew 5: Pray for those who persecute and malign you.
Respondeo. Dicendum quod in omnibus istis imprecationibus duplex est intellectus. Unus quod dicantur per modum praenunciationis, ut cum dicit, Iudica; quasi dicat, iudicabis.I respond by saying that in every imprecation of this kind, the meaning is two-fold. One which is said by way of prediction, as when he says, Judge; as if he were saying, you will judge.
Vel ut omnia intelligantur prolata non ex zelo vindictae propriae, sed divinae iustitiae, cui se conformant iusti.Or so that all things are understood as brought forth not from the zeal of one's own vengeance, but of God's justice, to which the just conform themselves.
Secundo impugnatus desiderat ut adversario resistat; unde ait, Expugna impugnantes me, fit, scilicet non praevaleant in me: Hier. 20. Dominus mecum est tamquam bellator fortis: Isa. 63. Ego qui loquor iustitiam, et propugnator sum ad salvandum.The second meaning is where, having been attacked, he desires to resist his adversary. And so, he says, Overcome those who are attacking me, (fit ?), namely let them not prevail over me - Jeremiah 20: The Lord is with me as a strong warrior; Isaiah 63: I who speak justice, I am the one who fights in defense of salvation.
b. Consequenter cum dicit, Apprehende arma, explicat petitionem suam. Duo enim petit, scilicet condemnationem nocentium, et expugnationem impugnantium.Consequently, when he says, Take hold of arms, he explains his petition. He asks for two things, namely the condemnation of those doing harm, and the defeat of those attacking.
Et ideo in particulari ista duo explicat. Primo enim explicat secundum. Secundo primum, ibi, Confundantur.And for this reason, he explains these two in detail. First he explains the second, and then, the first, at Let them be confounded.
Circa primum quinque proponit, quae sunt necessaria in defensore. Primum est quod se armet: quod hoc tangit dicens, Apprehende arma, et scutum. Arma Dei sunt electi eius: Rom. 6. Exhibete membra vestra arma iustitiae Deo. Unde angeli dicuntur arma Dei, quibus utitur ad pugnandum contra malos: Sap. 5. Pugnabit pro illo orbis terrarum contra insensatos.Concerning the first he sets down five things which are necessary for defense. The first is that he will arm himself, which he mentions saying, Take hold of arms and shield. The arms of God are his choosen ones - Romans 6: Present your members as weapons of justice for God. Thus, the angels are called the weapons of God, whom he uses to fight against the wicked - Wisdom 5: The universe will fight with him against the foolhardy
Scutum Dei proprie est divina protectio, et voluntas sua qua protegit: Ps. 5. Scuto bonae voluntatis tuae coronasti eos. Dicit ergo, Apprehende arma et scutum, idest Mitte sanctos tuos, et tu etiam protege me, bona voluntate tua.The shield of God is especially divine protection and his will, by which he shall defend - Psalm 5: You surround them with the shield of your good will. Therefore, he says, Take hold of arms and shield, that is, Send your holy ones and protect me by your good will.
Vel, Arma et scutum, sunt virtutes: Sap. 3. Induet pro thorace iustitiam, sumet scutum inexpugnabile aequitatem.Or, Arms and shield are virtues - Isaiah 59: He will put on justice as a breast-plate, he will grasp the shield of impregnable justice.
Secundum est, quod procedat ad bellum; et ideo dicit, Exurge in adiutorium mihi. Deus dicitur dormire, quando homo est in tribulationibus, et non sentit auxilium divinum: Matt. 8. Motus magnus factus est in mari, ita ut navicula operiretur fluctibus, ubi erant discipuli, ipse vero dormiebat, et concitaverunt eum dicentes: Domine salva nos, perimus. Et surgens imperavit ventis, et mari, et facta est tranquillitas magna; Ps. 41. Exurge quare obdormis Domine.The second thing is that he goes forward into battle. And thus he says, Rise up to help me. God is said to sleep when man is in distress and does not experience divine help - Matthew 8: A great storm arose on the sea, such that the boat was labouring upon the waves. The disciples were there, but Jesus was sleeping. They woke him, saying: "O Lord, save us! We are perishing!"...And getting up, he commanded the winds and the sea, and a great calm came to be; Psalm 43: Arise! Why are you asleep, O Lord?
Tertium est exemptio gladii; et ideo dicit, Effunde frameam, Hieronymus habet, Evagina gladium. Framea idem est, quod gladius. Veruntamen, Effunde, hic designat abundantiam divinae vindictae.The third is the drawing of the sword. And so he says, Send forth the spear. Jerome has Unsheathe the sword. Spear is the same as sword. Nevertheless, Send forth, designates here the abundance of divine vengeance.
Glossa, Effunde frameam, idest multiplica vindictam: Zac. 15. Framea suscitare super pastorem meum, et super virum cohaerentem mihi. Framea potest intelligi vel vindicta Dei, vel anima Christi, vel quilibet iustus, qui sunt gladius Dei contra malos: 1 Cor. 2. Spiritualis autem diiudicat omnia.Send forth the spear, that is (in the Gloss) numerous punishments - Zac. 13: Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the man that cleaveth to me. Spear can be understood as the vengeance of God, the soul of Christ, or all the just, who are God's sword against the wicked - 1 Cor. 2: The spiritual person however judges of all things.
Quartum est percussio; et ideo dicit, Et conclude etc. Hieronymus habet, Et praeoccupa ex adverso persequentes me; quasi dicat, Prius percutias, quam sibi cavere possint. Et hoc etiam proprie dicitur concludi, quasi non potest evadere: Iob 10. Cum sit nemo qui de manu tua possit eruere.The fourth is the blow. And thus he says, And conclude etc. Jerome has, And block the way against those pursuing me, as if he were saying, Strike, before they are able to gaurd against you. And this is also properly said to be concluded, as if one is unable to escape - Job 10: Even though there is no one who can rescue me from your hand.
Vel concludi quis dicitur, quando convincitur de falsitate: unde, Conclude, ait; quasi dicat, convince eos ut errorem suum cognoscant.Or, one is said to be concluded when one is convicted of falseness; and so he states, Conclude, as if he were saying, Convict them so that they might know their error.
Quintum est, ut eripiatur ille qui protegitur: unde dicit, Dic animae mea, salus tua ego sum; quasi dicat, Per effectum manifesta, ut per inspirationem cognoscam te esse salutem animae meae: Ps. 84. Audiam quid loquatur in me Dominus Deus: Isa. 43. Ego Dominus, et non est absque me salvator.The fifth is so that he who is shielded may be saved. And thus he says, Say to my soul, I am your safety, as if he were saying, Show this clearly through a sign, so that through inspiration, I might know you to be the safety of my soul - Psalm 84: I will listen to what the Lord God says to me; Isaiah 43: I am the Lord, and there is no saviour besides me.
c. Consequenter cum dicit, Confundantur, agit de condemnatione nocentium. Et primo petit eorum condemnationem. Secundo adhibet similitudinem, ibi, Fiant tamquam pulvis etc.Consequently, when he says Let them be confounded, he treats of the condemnation of the wicked. First he seeks their condemnation and second, he employs a similitude, at, Let them become like dust etc.
Circa primum duo petit in condemnationem contra duo, quae mali persequentes intendunt. Principaliter enim intendunt eum totaliter destruere: Ps. 82. Non memoretur nomen Israel ultra. Secundo intendunt, quod saltem inferant ei aliqua mala, et de utroque petit eos condemnari. Secundum, ibi, Avertantur.Concerning the first, he seeks in condemnation two things contrary to two which his evil persecutors intend. For they intend primarily to destroy him completely - Psalm 82: Let the name of Israel be remembered no more - and, second, they intend at least to bring some sort of evil to him. Concerning both of these he asks that these men be condemned (this latter intention is at Let them be turned).
Circa primum duo facit. Primo enim ponit poenam quam expetit. Secundo subdit eorum demeritum, ibi, Quaerentes animam meam.Concerning the first he does two things. First he determines the punishment which he longs for, and second, applies their demerit, at, Those who are seeking after my soul.
Poenam petit duplicem, scilicet confusionem, et timorem. Confusio autem consistit in hoc quod non potest quis suum implere intentum. Secundum est, quod deficiens a proposito, timet ne incidat, vel in similem poenam, vel in manus adversarii. Et ideo dicit quantum ad primum, Confundantur; et quantum ad secundum, Revereantur, idest timeant similem poenam.He seeks a two-fold punishment, namely consternation and fear. The former exists when someone is not able to fulfill his intention, and the latter, when lacking purpose, he fears lest he fall into either a similar punishment, or the hands of his adversary. And so, with respect to the first, he says, Let them be confounded; and with respect to the second, Let them stand in awe, that is, let them fear a similar punishment.
Simile habetur Hier. 17. Confundantur qui me persequuntur, et non confundar ego etc. Hoc etiam potest reduci ut intelligatur esse dictum pro confusione eorum, de bona scilicet confusione, et de bono timore, ut salubriter confundantur ad poenitentiam.A similar example is had at Jeremiah 17: Let them be confounded who persecute me, and let me not be confounded etc. This can also be taken so that it is understood to be said for the sake of their consternation, that is to say, concerning good consternation and good fear, so that they be advantageously confounded towards repentance.
Et revereantur, idest timeant poenas, etiam si meritum eorum contradicat, quia sunt quaerentes animam meam.And let them stand in awe, that is, let them fear punishment, even if it contradicts their merit, because they are seeking after my soul.
De secundo dicit, Avertantur. Et circa hoc duo facit. Primo enim petit ut impediantur a proposito. Secundo, quod confundantur impediti, ibi, Et confundantur.Concerning the second he says, Let them be turned back. He does two things about this. First, he prays so that they be hindered in their intention, and then, having been hindered, that they be confounded, at, And let them be confounded.
Dicit ergo, Avertantur retrorsum, non valentes proficere in eo quod intendunt, sed, Deficiant, in posterius, et ex hoc confundantur. Potest etiam ad bonum reduci, Avertantur retrorsum, ut me sequantur: Mar. 8. Vade retro Satana. Therefore he says, Let them be turned back, not being able to advance in that which they intend, but Let them fail, in the future, and let them be confounded for this reason. It can also be taken in a good sense - Let them be turned back, so that they may follow me - Mark 8: Get behind me Satan.
Et confundantur, de peccatis suis: Rom. 6. Quem fructum habuistis in illis, in quibus nunc erubescitis. Cogitantes mihi mala: Hier. 18. Tu scis Domine omne consilium eorum adversum me in mortem.And let them be confounded, concerning their sin - Romans 6: What fruit did you have from those things of which you are now ashamed? Those who are plotting evils against me; Jeremiah 18: You, O Lord, know all their counsel against me unto death.
d. Deinde cum dicit, Fiant, adhibet similitudinem. Et primo quantum ad primum. Secundo quantum ad secundum, ibi, Fiant viae illorum.Next when he says, Let them become, he employs a similitude. He treats of this one first, and then another, at, Let their way.
Dicit ergo, Fiant tamquam pulvis. Petit namque primo iudicium contra eos, qui quaerebant eum totaliter destruere; et ideo similitudinem adhibet de re, quae totaliter destruitur, scilicet de pulvere.Therefore he says, Let them become like dust. For indeed he first desires justice against those who were seeking to destroy him totally. And thus he employs a similitude concerning a thing which is totally destroyed, namely dust.
Dispositio enim pulveris ex tribus contingit, ex pulveris scilicet dispositione; quia siccus est pulvis, et in minima divisus: et ideo facile dispergibilis est.The condition of dust comes as a consequence of three (aspects resulting from) its disposition; for dust is dry, and is divided into the smallest of bits. It is thus easily scattered.
Et ideo dicit, Fiant tamquam pulvis, ut sicut pulvis comminutus est in multis propter defectum humoris, ita sint et impii.And thus he says, Let them become like dust, so that just as dust is broken into many bits according to a lack of moisture, so too let the impious be.
Alia ratio est ventus commovens: unde ait, Ante faciem venti. Ventus quandoque significat tribulationem: Io. 27. Tollet eum ventus urens etc. Quandoque ipsam tentationem peccati: Is. 64. Iniquitates vestrae quasi ventus abstulerunt vos.Another aspect is the driving wind. And thus he says, before the wind. Sometimes, the wind signifies tribulation - Job 27: The storm wind seizes him etc. At other times, it signifies the trial itself of sin - Isaiah 64: Our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.
Tertio ex impulsu alicuius impellentis ventum: unde ait, Et angelus Domini coarctans eos, scilicet ad hoc ut totaliter dispergantur: nam sicut per auxilium angelorum aliqua prosperantur virtute maiori, ita ex angelis bonis, vel malis contingit quod tribulationes magis gravantur: nam Deus quandoque punit etiam per bonos angelos peccatores: Is. 37. Egressus est angelus Domini, et percussit in castris Assyriorum centum octogintaquinque millia etc.The third is from the impetus of an impelling wind. Thus he says, And let the angel of the Lord confine them, to this end, namely, that they be totally scattered. For just as some are made prosperous in greater virtue through the help of angels, so too it happens that they suffer tribulations in a higher degree from good or bad angels. For sometimes God also punishes sinners by means of good angels - Isaiah 37: The angel of the Lord went out and slew a hundred and eighty five thousand in the camp of the Assyrians.
Deinde cum dicit, Fiant viae illorum, ponitur similitudo de secundo impedimento, idest de processu viae; et tria impedimenta ponit in via. Next when he says, Let their way become, he sets down the similitude concerning the second impediment, that is, concerning the progression of their way. And he describes three impediments in their path.
Primum est tenebrae: quia tunc de facili quis impingit. Fiant ergo viae illorum, idest processus, Tenebrae.The first impediment is that of darkness, because at that time, anyone easily stumbles.
Therefore, Let their way, that is their progress, become dark.
Secundum est, quod sit lubrica et disposita ad casum: Thren. 4. Lubricaverunt vestigia vestra in itinere viarum nostrarum.The second is that it be slippery and suitable for their downfall - Lamentations 4: Your steps have slipped in the way of our streets.
Et tertium est, quod sit aliquis persequens et cogens, ut magis corruat. Et angelus Domini etc. Prov. 17. Angelus crudelis contra eum mittetur. Dicit ergo, Fiant viae illorum tenebrae, ignorantiae: Ps. 81. Nescierunt, neque intellexerunt, in tenebris ambulant. Et lubricum, idest vitia carnalia in quibus de facili cadunt.And the third is that there be someone pursuing and constraining them, so as to destroy them more completely. The angel of the Lord etc. Proverbs 17: (On rebellion alone is the wicked man bent, but) an unmerciful angel will be sent against him. Therefore he says, Let their way become dark, of ignorance - Psalm 81: They did not know, nor did they understand; they walk about in darkness. ...and slippery, that is, the carnal vices into which they easily fall.
Et angelus Domini persequens eos. Ipse daemon tentans ad peccandum, vel angelus bonus permittens cadere, ut humiliati fortiores resurgant.The angel of the Lord pursuing them - an evil spirit leading them to sin, or a good angel permitting them to fall, so that having been humiliated they may rise again stronger.
e. Supra Psalmista petiit, quod nocentes iudicarentur, et expugnantes in expugnatione venirent; hic autem ostendit, quomodo merito haec patiantur. Et primo ponit culpam. Secundo poenam, ibi, Veniat illis.Previously, the Psalmist desired that those harming him be judged and that those assaulting him fall themselves into direct assault. Here, however, he shows how they deservedly suffer these things. First, he places blame, and then punishment, at, Let it come upon him.
Circa primum proponit primo malitiae interpretationem. Secundo executionem, ibi, Supervaeue. In primo ponuntur tria, quae aggravant culpam.Concerning the first, he sets forth first an explanation of their malice, and second, their actions, at, Needlessly. With respect to the first, three things are set down which add to the weight of their guilt.
Primum est iniquitas; et ideo dicit, Gratis. Secundum est fraus; et ideo dicit, Absconderunt. Tertium est crudelitas; et ideo dicit, Interitum laquei sui.The first is their iniquity; and thus he says, Freely. The second is their fraud; and thus he says, They have concealed. The third is their cruelty; and thus he says, Their snare of destruction.
Dicit ergo, Quoniam gratis. Si aliquis intentat malum contra se nocentem, non videtur totaliter iniquum; sed quando contra eum qui in nullo nocuit, hoc omnino est iniquum: et hoc est quod dicit, Gratias, scilicet sine offensa quam fecerim: Io. 15. Odio habuerunt me gratis: Isa. 52. Assur absque ulla causa calumniatus est eum.Therefore he says, For freely. If someone intends evil against another person who harms him, this does not seem to be totally unjust. But when one intends evil against another who in no way has harmed him, this is wholly unjust. And this is why he says, Freely, that is to say, without displeasure at what I had done - John 15: They have hated me freely; Isaiah 52: The Assyrian has oppressed him without any cause.
Fraus vero notatur, cum dicit, Absconderunt mihi, quia scilicet per fraudem intentant mala mihi: Thren. 3. Ursus insidians factus est mihi, leo in absconditis: Ps. 9. Insidiatur quasi leo in spelunca sua.Their fraud, however, is noted when he says, They have concealed for me, because they intend evil for me by means, namely, of fraud - Lamentations 3: He has become to me as a bear lying in wait, as a lion in concealed places; Psalm 9: He lies in wait like a lion in his lair.
Crudelitatem autem ostendit, quia parant insidias ad mortem: unde ait, Interitum laquei sui, idest abscondunt laqueum ad mortem: Prov. 1. Veni nobiscum, insidiemur sanguini, abscondamus tendiculas contra insontem, frustra deglutiamus cum etc.He shows their cruelty, because they prepare a trap leading to death. And so he says, Their snare of destruction, that is they carefully hide a snare leading to death - Proverbs 1: Come with us, let us lie in wait for blood, let us carefully conceal a small snare for the innocent, let us devour for no purpose when etc.
Secundo, cum dicit, Supervacue exprobraverunt, ponitur executio, similiter sine causa. Dicit autem Exprobraverunt, quia opprobria intulerunt. Est autem opprobrium, quando quis imponit crimen alicui, quod est contra eius honorem.Secondly, when he says, Needlessly have they reproached, he sets forth their action, likewise without purpose. He says They have reproached, because they have inflicted opprobriums. An opprobrium is when someone imputes an offense to another, which is contrary to the latter's honor.
Aliquando imponitur crimen alicui, ut confundatur et abiiciatur. Aliqundo vero ut perdat vitam, et hoc est contra animam eius; et ideo dicit, Animam meam; quasi dicat, Propter hoc fecerunt, ut totaliter me vita privarent. Sic Iudaei Christo imposuerunt crimina morte digna: Luc. 23. Commovit populum, docens per universam Iudaeam: Ps. 68. Improperia exprobrantium tibi ceciderunt super me.Sometimes an offense is imputed to another so that he be confounded and humbled. At other times, however, so that he might lose his life. And this is against his soul, for which reason he says, My soul, as if he were saying, On account of this did they act, so that they might deprive me totally of my life. In this way did the Jews impute offences to Christ worthy of death - Luke 23: He is stirring up the people, teaching throughout all Judea; Psalm 68: The insults of those who revile you fell upon me.
Sed hoc, Supervacue, idest sine causa, sicut supra dictum est, scilicet gratis: Io. 8. Quis ex vobis arguet me de peccato? Ergo, Supervacue, imposuerunt ei peccatum.But this, Needlessly, that is, without purpose, as was said above, namely, freely - John 8: Which of you can accuse me of sin? Therefore, Needlessly, did they impute sin to him.
Vel, Supervacue, idest frustra, quantum ad eorum intentionem: quia intendebant fidem eius destruere: Io. 11. Quid facimus quia hic homo multa signa facit? Si dimittimus etc.Or, Needlessly, that is in vain, with respect to their intention, because they were intending to destroy his faith - John 11: What are we doing, for this man performs many signs? If we let him alone etc.
Tamen hoc consilium fuit supervacue, quia totus mundus post eius mortem ad fidem conversus est. Nevertheless, this counsel was taken needlessly, because the whole world was converted to the faith after his death.
f. Consequenter cum dicit, Veniat illi laqueus quem etc. Ponitur poena conveniens culpae: et hoc, quia eodem iudicio iudicantur, quo iudicare volebant: Matt. 7. In quo iudicio iudicaveritis, iudicabimini. Consequently when he says, Let the snare come upon him which etc., he sets down the punishment suitable to their guilt; and this because they are judged by the same justice by which they chose to judge - Matthew 7: With that judgment you judge, you shall be judged.
Isti fraudulenter intendebant mortem ipsius, ideo Psalmista petit contra eos, vel conformando voluntatem suam voluntati divinae, vel praenunciando. Et petit tria, scilicet quod laqueus eis praeparetur, quod capiantur, quod non evadant.These very men were fraudulently intending the death of that very man; for that reason, the Psalmist entreats against them, either that his own will be conformed to the divine will, or that he be forewarned. And he asks for three things, namely that a snare be prepared for them, that they be captured, and that they not evade it.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Veniat illi laqueus, scilicet populo, vel ei qui principalis est inter eos. Laqueus hic tripliciter potest intelligi.With respect to the first, he says, Let the snare come upon him, namely the people, or he who is first among them. This snare can be understood in three ways.
Vel propter laqueum poenae, quia propter mortem Christi illaqueati sunt: Isa. 8. Offendent ex eis plurimi, et cadent, et conterentur, et irretientur, et capientur: quia captivi sunt apud omnes gentes.First, according to the snare of punishment, because they were ensnared on account of Christ's death - Isaiah 8: And very many of them shall stumble and fall, and shall be broken into pieces, and shall be snared and taken: because they have been taken captive before all nations.
Quem ignoraverunt, dicit, quia nec suspicari quidem poterant talem poenam: Luc. 2. Erit enim pressura magna super terram, et ira populo huic, et cadent in ore gladii, et captivi ducentur in omnes gentes: Matt. 24. Erit enim tunc tribulatio magna, qualis nunquam fuit ab initio mundi usque modo, neque fiet.Which they did not know, he says, because they were not able to suspect the kind of punishment - Luke 21: For there will be great distress over the land, and wrath upon this people, and they will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led away as captives to all the nations; Matthew 24: For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been seen from the beginning of the world until now, nor will be.
Vel de laqueo culpae: Tim. ult. Qui volunt divites fieri, incident in tentationem, et in laqueum diaboli; quasi dicat, Veniat illi laqueus culpae quem praevidere non potest; quia peccatori non videtur quod sit ligatus, sed quod faciat voluntatem suam; in veritate tamen laqueatus est, quia Prov. 5. Funibus peccatorum suorum constringitur.Or, second, concerning the snare of blame - 1 Timothy 6: Those who seek to become rich, fall into temptation and into the snare of the devil; as if he were saying, Let the snare of blame which he cannot foresee come to him; because it does not appear to the sinner that he is bound, but that he does as he wills; however in truth he has been bound, because as Proverbs 5 states, By the ropes of his own sin he will be bound.
Vel de laqueo iustitiae; quasi dicat, Veniat illi laqueus, constringens ad bonum. Quem ignoraverunt, quia 1 Cor. 2. Animalis homo non percipit ea, quae sunt spiritus.Or, third, concerning the snare of justice; as if he were saying, Let the snare come upon him, binding him to good. Which they did not know, because 1 Cor. 2: The sensual man does not perceive those things which are of the spirit.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et captio quam abscondit apprehendat eum, idest capiatur, sicut in abscondito me voluit capere: Prov. 5. Iniquitates suae capiunt impium.With respect to the second (thing for which the Psalmist asks), he says, And let the plot which he conceals take hold of him, that is let him be captured, just as he wanted to capture me in secret - Proverbs 5: Their very own iniquities capture the impious.
Quantum ad tertium dicit, In laqueum cadat, idest deiiciatur a laqueo, ut inde se non eximat, In idipsum, idest in laqueo, quem paravit in aliis: Ps. 9. In laqueo suo humiliavit eum, inclinabit se, et cadet, cum etc. Sic evenit Iudaeis, quia ipsi Christum gentibus tradiderunt, gentibus postmodum traditi sunt.With respect to the third, he says, And into this very snare let him fall, that is, let him be overthrown by the snare, so that he does not free himself from it, into this very snare, that is, into the snare which he prepared for others - Psalm 9: He has humbled him in his own snare, he will turn back to himself and fall, when etc. In such a manner did this happen to the Jews, because they themselves handed Christ over to the gentiles, and afterwards they were handed over to the gentiles.
g. Deinde cum dicit, Anima autem mea exultabit in Domino, et delectabitur super etc. Ponit fructum condemnationis impiorum.Then, when he says, But my soul shall exult in the Lord, and shall be delighted in etc., he describes the fruit of the condemnation of the wicked.
Et ponit fructum ex parte sua duplicem. Primo exultationis specialis. Secundo reverentiae divinae, ibi, Omnia ossa mea.And he determines this fruit with respect to himself in a two-fold way. First, of a particular exaltation, and second, of divine reverence, at, All of my bones.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo enim ponit exultationem ex Dei iudicio provenientem. Secundo materiam exultationis, ibi, Et delectabitur.Concerning the first he does two things. First, he sets down the exaltation arising out of the judgement of God, and second, the subject matter of his exaltation, at, And my soul shall be delighted.
Dicit ergo, Peto ut sic fiat, sed cum hoc feceris, Anima mea exultabit in Domino Iesu meo. Et ratio huius est, quia per eum adeptus sum salutem: unde dicit, Et delectabitur super salutari suo, idest super Christum, vel super salutem factam per Christum: Luc. 1. Exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo. Et potest hoc referri ad ecclesiam.And so he says, I pray that it be done, but when you have done it, My soul shall exalt in Jesus my Lord. The reason for this is that through him I have received salvation: and thus he says, And my soul shall be delighted in its salvation, that is, in Christ, or in salvation effected through Christ - Luke 1: My spirit shall exalt in God my Saviour. And this can be referred to the Church.
Consequenter cum dicit, Omnia ossa mea, ponitur secundus fructus, qui est reverentiae divinae: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo enim ponit reverentiam ad Deum. Secundo rationem assignat, ibi, Eripiens.Consequently, when he says, All of my bones, the second fruit is determined, which is of divine reverence. And concerning this he does two things. First, he describes this reverence for God, and second, he indicates the reason for it, at, Delivering.
Dicit ergo, Omnia ossa mea, Omnis fortitudo hominis Deo comparata debilitas est: unde quanto quis plus habet de cognitione Dei, tanto minus esse suam virtutem intelligit.And so, he says, All of my bones. All of man's strength is weakeness when compared to God: and thus the more knowledge someone has of God, the less he estimates his own ability to be.
Sed quia posset credi quod illud quod infirmum est in nobis, sit Deo incomparabile, non tamen quod est firmum, ostendit non sic esse, quia omne quantumcumque firmum est, Deo incomparabile est. Sunt enim illa infinita, ista vero finita; et ideo dicit, Omnia ossa mea, idest virtutes: per ossa quippe intelligitur virtus.But because it could be believed that what is feeble in us, is incomparable to God, not, however, what is strong, he shows it not to be thus, because anything which is strong, is incomparable to God, however great it is. For those things (of God) are limitless, while these other things (of man) are limited. And thus he says, All of my bones, that is, capacities. For indeed by 'bones' is understood capacity.
Vel apostoli dicent, Quis similis tui: Iob 28. Non adaequabitur ei aurum, vel vitrum: non commutabuntur pro eo vasa auri.Or, they are said of the apostle, who is like to you - Job 28: Gold or crystal will not be compared to him: nor will vessels of gold be exchanged for him.
Vel ex persona dicentis, Omnia ossa mea, idest quicquid virtuosum est in me.Or, of the person speaking, All of my bones, that is, whatever is virtuous in me.
Vel cognitio veritatis.Or, the knowledge of truth.
Vel fervor, charitas et huiusmodi.Or, fervor, charity, and other such things.
Dicit, Domine quis similis tui, ex hoc asseritur, quod nihil est Deo comparabile.He says, O Lord, who is like to you, since it is asserted that nothing is comparable to God.
Sed contra. Videtur quod aliquid sit simile Deo. Unde Gen.1. Faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram.On the other hand, it seems that there is something comparable to God. Thus Genesis 1: Let us make man to our own image and likeness.
Respondeo. Dicendum. Similia dicuntur quae habent eandem formam et characterem. Sed est duplex similitudo.I respond by saying that things are said to be similar which have the same form and character. But similitude is two-fold.
Una, quae facit similes perfecte, quando scilicet duo participant eandem formam unius rationis.One, which makes things perfectly alike, namely when two things share the same form of one nature.
Quaedam vero similitudo dissimilium, quando videlicet forma invenitur in aliquo vere, et in aliquo per remotam participationem: et sic istud est simile illi, non quia habeat eandem formam, sed quia accedit ad hoc secundum debilem participationem.However, there is a certain similitude between dissimilar things, namely when a form is really found in one thing, and in another by a remote participation: and thus the latter is similiar to the former, not because it has the same form, but because it approaches it according to an imperfect participation.
Et sic quae de Deo et de homine dicuntur similia, de homine dicuntur per remota; quasi dicat, Deus est et tu, sed tuum esse est participatum, suum vero essentiale, et similiter de aliis. Et ideo haec similitudo est dissimilium.And it is in this way that similar things are said of God and of man, namely by remote participation of the latter in the former. It is as if he were saying, Both God and you exist, but your existence is by participation, while His is of His very essence, and likewise concerning other things. And for that reason, this similitude is of dissimilar things.
Et quae dicit, manifestat per effectum. Fortis enim videtur aliquis, quando liberat aliquem debilem a potente, hoc enim est magnae fortitudinis. Et haec facit Deus in mundo isto.And what he says, he makes clear through effect. For someone appears powerful when he frees a weak person from the mighty. And God does this is our own world.
Fortes sunt divites: Prov. 18. Substantia divitis, urbs roboris etc. Deus autem liberat pauperes ab eis. Divites namque primo invadunt pauperes. Secundo expoliant debiles; sed Deus ab his liberat eos.Powerful men are rich - Proverbs 18: The substance of the rich man is the city of his strength etc. God, however, frees the poor from him. For rich men first attack the poor, and then despoil the weak; but God frees them both from the rich.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Eripiens inopem, sine ope, De manu fortiorum eius.With respect to the first he says, Delivering the helpless, without means, From the hand of those stronger than his.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et egenum et pauperem a diripientibus eum. Egenus dicitur quis, quasi egens necessariis; sed pauper, quasi nihil habens in pera.With respect to the second he says, And the needy and the poor from those despoiling him. The needy is said to be anyone wanting, as it were, in necessary things; but the poor, having nothing in their purse.
Et idem sunt ista tria, scilicet inops, egenus, et pauper: Prov. 28. Leo rugiens, et ursus esuriens, princeps impius super populum pauperem: Ezech. 22. Princips eius in medio illius, quasi lupi rapientes praedam.And these three are the same, namely, the helpless, the needy and the poor - Proverbs 28: (As) a roaring lion, and a hungry bear, (so is) a wicked prince over the poor people; Ezechiel 22: Her princes in the midst of her, are like wolves ravening the prey.
h. Secunda pars principalis est. Superius Psalmista petivit impiorum repulsam; hic autem assignat causam. Et primo prosequitur eorum malitiam. Secundo petit divinum auxilium, ibi, Domine quando respecies.The second part (of this psalm) is of first importance. Above, the Psalmist prayed for the repulsion of the impious. Here, however, he assigns the reason. First, he assails their malice, and second, seeks divine help, at, Lord, when will you regard me?
Circa primum duo facit. Primo enim ostendit eorum iniquitatem. Secundo eorum pertinaciam in malum, ibi, Ego autem cum mihi molesti. Iniquitatem ostendit primo quantum ad falsitatem. Secundo quantum ad ingratitudinem, ibi, Retribuebant.Concerning the first he does two things. First, he shows their wickedness, and second, their persistence in evil, at, But I, when they were troubling me. He shows their wickedness first with respect to their falseness, and second with respect to their ingratitude, at, They were repaying.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Surgentes testes iniqui, sicut principes Iudaeorum, et inducti ab eis, sicut populus quae ignorabant scientia probationis; quasi dicat, Quae non approbabam, Interrogabant me, quia scilicet faciebant accusationem de peccatis quae non approbabam: 1 Cor. 5. Eum qui non noverat peccatum, pro nobis etc.Therefore, with respect to the first, he says, Unjust witnesses rising up, like the leaders of the Jews and those led by them (like the people who were ignorant of the skill of proof); it is as if he were saying, Concerning things to which I did not assent, they were questioning me, namely because they were making an indictment concerning sins to which I did not assent - 2 Cor. 5: Him, who knew no sin, for us etc.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Retribuebant mihi mala pro bonis, factis eis in veteri testamento: Mich. 6. Popule meus quid feci tibi etc. Et in novo testamento, quia caecos illuminavit, et alia multa beneficia eis contulit: Io. 10. Multa bona opera ostendi vobis ex Patre meo; Hier. 18. Numquid redditur pro bono malum etc.With respect to the second he says, They were repaying me evil for good, by those things done in the Old Testament - Micheas 6: O my people, what have I done to you etc. And in the New Testament, because he gave sight to the blind, and bestowed many other blessings upon them - John 10: I have shown many good works to you from my Father; Jeremiah 18: Shall evil be rendered for good etc.
Et quae mala, Sterilitatem animae meae. Alludit ei parabolae Isa. 5. de vinea quam plantavit electa, quae fecit labruscas. Populus Iudaeorum plantatus fuit ad bonum fructum faciendum, sed sterilis factus est. Et hanc sterilitatem ostendit populus contra animam Christi, quam expetierunt. Et ideo dicit, Sterilitatem animae meae.And those evil things, the barrenness of my soul. He makes an allusion to a parable at Isaiah 5 concerning an excellent vineyard which he planted, and which became wild. The people of Israel were planted so as to produce good fruit, but they became barren. And this barrenness shows the people to be contrary to the soul of Christ, which they longed for. And so he says, The barrenness of my soul.
i. Supra Psalmista praemisit Iudaeorum nequitiam; hic autem ostendit eorum pertinaciam, qua perdurant in malo. Et reprobatur pertinacia aliorum, ex eo quod nullo remedio reducuntur ad bonum.Previously, the Psalmist presented the wickedness of the Jews. Here, however, he shows their persistence, by which they endure in evil. And the persistence of others is condemned for this reason that by no means are they led to good by it.
Est autem duplex remedium, quo aliqui solent revocari ad bonum. Primo per sanctitatem eius quem persequuntur. Secundo ex divino flagello.The means by which some are usually called back to good is two-fold. First, through the sanctity of him whom they persecute, and second, through severe divine punishment.
Primo ergo ostendit eorum pertinaciam ex eo quod non sunt revocati per sanctitatem. Secundum, ibi, Dissipati.Therefore he first shows their persistence in that they are not called back through sanctity. The second he discusses at They were dissipated.
Circa primum duo facit. Pro primo ponit sanctitatem suam contra tribulationes. Secundo pertinaciam eorum in malum, ibi, Et adversum me.Concerning the first he does two things. For the first, he describes his own sanctity in contrast to his tribulations, and second, their persistence in evil, at, And against me.
Circa primum facit tria, secundum quod sanctitas in tribus consistit, scilicet in carnis maceratione, in spiritus devotione, et affectus pietate.Concerning the first he does three things, insofar as sanctity consists in three things, namely in mortification of the body, devotion of the spirit, and devoutness of one's desire.
Et haec tria ponit Psalmista per ordinem: nam primo ait de carnis maceratione. Secundo de spiritus devotione, Et oratio mea. Tertio de affectus pietate, ibi, Quasi proximum.The Psalmist describes these three in order: for he speaks first concerning the body's mortification, second, of the spirit's devotion, at, And my prayer, and third, of desire's devoutness, at, As a neighbour.
Circa primum duo facit. Quia enim caro indiget tegumento et alimento, afflictio carnis habet fieri, vel asperitate tegumenti, vel subtractione alimenti. Et ideo primo dicit quod affligitur tegumento aspero. Secundo alimento subtracto, ibi, Et humiliabam.Concerning the first he does two things. Since the flesh needs clothing and food, an affliction of the flesh has to arise either from the coarseness of one's clothing, or from the removal of food. And so he says first that he is afflicted by course clothing, and second, by removed food, at, And I humbled.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Ego autem cum mihi molesti essent, induebar cilicio. Hic cilicium metaphorice dicitur, si exponatur de Christo, quia non legitur portasse cilicium. Hoc autem fit de pilis caprarum. Et in lege hircus caprarum immolabatur pro peccato; et ideo cilicium signat peccatum. Christus ergo dicitur portare cilicium: quia indutus est carne non peccatrice quidem, sed habente similitudinem carnis peccati. Et nos etiam portare cilicium debemus, idest poenitentiam de peccatis: Isa. 3. Erit pro fascia pectorali cilicium.Therefore concerning the first he says, But I, when they were troubling me, was clothed in a hair-shirt. Hair-shirt is said metaphorically here, if it is interpreted concerning Christ, since he is not known to have worn a hair shirt. Now, this is made from the hair of she goats. And in the law, the mate of the she-goat was sacrificed for sin; and for this reason, the hair-shirt signifies sin. Therefore, Christ is said to wear a hair-shirt, since he has been clothed in flesh, indeed not sinful, but having the likeness of fallen flesh. We too ought to wear a hair-shirt, that is, repentance for our sins - Isaiah 3: And instead of a fine dress, there will be a hair-shirt.
Quantum vero ad secundum dicit, Et humiliabam in ieiunio animam meam; quasi dicat, Non solum tegumento aspero afflixi carnem meam, sed et alimento, dum illud a me subtraxi ieiunando. De ieiunio corporali Christi habetur Matt. 4.However, concerning the second he says, And I humbled my soul in fasting; as if he were saying, Not only have I afflicted my body with course clothing, but with food, when I removed it from me by fasting. Concerning Christ's corporeal fasting, see Matthew 4.
Potest etiam dici de spirituali ieiunio Christi. Christus enim desiderabat salutem humanam. Haec est illa aqua, quam petiit a Samaritana, Io. 4. Et in cruce ait, Sitio, Io. 19. Sed ieiunabat ad hoc, quia invenit homines longe a salute.This can also be said of Christ's spiritual fasting. For Christ longed for the salvation of mankind. This is that water which he asked for from the Samaritan at John 4. And on the cross he said, I thirst - John 19. But he used to fast for this purpose, because he found men to be far from salvation.
Si autem dicatur in persona iusti, tunc dupliciter potest intelligi. Uno modo, quod ieiunium sit causa humilitatis in iusto: et per animam intelligatur via carnalis, ut sit sensus, Humiliabam etc. idest superbiam carnalis vitae humiliabam macerando eam: Ps. 93. Genua mea infirmata sunt etc. Iudi. 8. Humiliemus illis animas nostras in spiritu etc.However, if it is said of the just person, then it can be understood in a two-fold way. In one way, that fasting is the cause of humility in the just: and by 'soul' is understood the way of flesh, so that it would be (the life) of sense, I humbled etc., that is, I humbled the pride of carnal life by mortifying it - Psalm 109: My knees were weakened (through fasting) etc.; Judith 8: Let us humble our souls to them in spirit etc.
Item potest dici, quando humilitas est socia ieiunii, quia quando ieiunio non iungitur humilitas, illud ieiunium non est Deo acceptum: Isa. 58. Quare ieiunavimus, et non aspexisti etc. Quando vero humilitas ieiunio iungitur, tale ieiunium est Deo gratum. Et ideo dicit, Humiliabam in ieiunio.Again, it can be said when humility is a companion of fasting; because when humility is not joined to fasting, that fasting is not accepted by God - Isaiah 58: Why have we fasted, and you have not regarded etc. However, when humility is joined to fasting, that sort of fasting is pleasing to God. And thus he says, I humbled (my soul) in fasting.
Sed quia nihil valet humiliare carnem nisi impinguet spiritum et confortet, hostis enim debilitandus est, et pugnator fortificandus, spiritus autem confortatur per orationem; ideo addidit, Et oratio mea in sinu meo convertetur: Tob. 12. Bona est oratio cum ieiunio.But since nothing is able to humble the flesh unless it strikes against and strengthens the spirit, the enemy is to be weakened, and the fighter to be strengthened. But the spirit is stregthened through prayer; thus, he adds, And my prayer was turned into my bosom - Tobias 12: Prayer is good with fasting.
Oratio est speciale praesidium in tribulatione: Iac. ult. Tristatur aliquis vestrum, oret aequo animo, et psallat: Ps. 76. Renuit consolari anima mea, memor fui etc.Prayer is a particular help in tribulation - James 5: Is any of you sad? Let him pray and sing psalms with a right soul; Psalm 76: My soul refused to be consoled, remembering etc.
Sed dicit, In sinu meo convertetur. Si de Christo accipiatur, intelligitur dupliciter. Uno modo, ut referatur ad Deum quem adorat: quia ad Patrem in cuius sinu erat: Io. 1. Unigenitur filius qui est in sinu Patris. Alio modo, ut referatur ad illos pro quibus orabat, quia orabat pro his, qui erant in sinu Christi.But he says, It was turned into my bosom. If this is taken with respect to Christ, it is understood in a two-fold way. In one way, so that it is referred to God whom he adores, to the Father in whose bosom he was - John 1: the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father. In another way, so that it is referred to those for whom he was praying, because he was praying for these which were in the bosom of Christ.
Sinus autem Christi est secretum Dei, et hoc est propositum praedestinationis: unde pro praedestinatis orabat Io. 17. Ego pro eis rogo, non pro mundo. Si autem referatur ad iustum aliquem qui orat pro alio, non semper obtinet pro eo: Hie. 7. Tu ergo noli orare pro populo hoc etc., quia scilicet peccata eius non merentur exaudiri. Tamen exauditur pro seipso, cum oratio sua efficitur meritoria; unde, In sinu, idest ad me ipsum: Io. 10. Pax vestra ad vos revertatur.However, the bosom of Christ is God's mystery, and this is the aim of predestination: and so he used to pray on behalf of their predestination - John 17: I pray for them, not for the world. However, if it is referred to a just person who prays for another, he does not always obtain on his behalf - Jeremiah 7: Therefore do not pray for this people etc., namely, because his sins do not deserve to be listened to. Nevertheless, he is listened to on his own behalf, when his prayer is proved deserving; and so, Into my bosom, that is, to the very bosom in me - Matthew 10: Your peace shall return to you.
j. Sed verum est quod praedicta utilia sunt, parum tamen valent nisi habeat aliquis pium affectum ad proximum; et ideo subiungit, Quasi proximum.It is true that the aforesaid are useful; nevertheless they have little power unless someone has a devout desire for his neighbour; and thus he adds, As a neighbour.
Affectus autem ad proximum ostenditur in duobus, scilicet in complacentia boni alterius, et in displicentia mali: Rom. 12. Gaudete cum gaudentibus, et flete cum flentibus. Primum ostendit cum dicit, Quasi proximum. Secundum cum subdit, Quasi lugens.A desire for one's neighbour is shown in two ways, namely in one's pleasure at another's good, and in one's displeasure at another's evil - Romans 12: Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep. The first he indicates when he says, As a neighbour, the second, when he adds, As one mourning.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Quasi proximum. Haec constructio est mirabilis, quia non habent hi accusativi, unde regantur. Glossa, Casus pro casu ponitur, accusativus scilicet pro ablativo; quasi dicat, Sic complacebam mihi in eis, quasi in proximo et in fratre.Therefore, with respect to the first, he says, As a neighbour. This construction is extraordinary because these accusatives do not hold, and therefore are governed. The Gloss states that, One case is set forth instead of another, namely the accusative instead of the ablative; as if he were saying, Thus I was greatly pleased in these, just as in a neighbour and a brother.
Vel secundum Hieronumum, et de est hic unum Ad: sic enim habet Hieronumus, Quasi ad amicum et quasi ad fratrem meum.Or, according to Jerome, it concerns this one word to: Jerome thus has, Somewhat like to a friend and my brother
Vel dicitur, Quasi sic complacebam, Deo, habens me ad eos, sicut ad proximos, ad fratres: Iudaei namque fuerunt proximi Christo, quia cum eis conversabatur: Baruch 3. Post haec in terris visus est, et cum hominibus conversatus est. Fuerunt et fratres eius per originem: Rom. 9. Ex quibus Christus secundum carnem: Io. 4. Salus ex Iudaeis est. Sed Iob 30. Frater fui draconum, et socius struthionum.Or, it is meant, As if I was thus greatly pleasing, to God, directing me to them, as to neighbours and brothers; for the Jews were neighbours to Christ because he used to converse with them - Baruch 3:Afterwards he was seen upon earth, and conversed with men. They became his brother through lineage - Romans 9: Of whom Christ, according to the flesh; John 4: Salvation is of the Jews. But Job 30: I was the brother of dragons, and companion of ostriches.
Quantum ad secundum, scilicet displicentiam in malis, dicit, Quasi lugens etc. Hoc maxime fuit in Christo Luc. 19. quando flevit super civitatem.With respect to the second, namely one's displeasure at another's evil, he says, As one mourning etc. This most especially pertains to Christ at Luke 19, when he wept over the city.
Et dicit, Lugens. Luctus enim est planctus pro mortuis. Tunc ergo homo luget pro aliis, quando plorat mala eorum, quae ipsi non sentiunt velut morui. Peccatores namque in peccatis mortui sunt, nec sentiunt mala sua; sed iusti inde dolent ex compassione: Hier. 9. Quis dabit capiti meo aquam etc.And he says, One mourning. Mourning is a wailing for the dead. At that time, therefore, a man weeps for others, when he laments their evils, which they themselves do not feel being deceased. Sinners indeed have died in their sins, nor do they feel their own evils; but the just grieve from compassion - Jeremiah 9: Who will give water to my head etc.
Aliquando etiam dolet quis pro malis alicuius, quae et iam in se sentit. Et hoc est contristari. Unde Hieronymus habet pulchrius, Quasi lugens mater tristis incurvabar, scilicet super eos; quasi dicat, Dolebam de eis, sicut si essem eorum mater.Sometimes, one also grieves on behalf of another's evil, which he himself now feels. And this is to be saddened. Jerome thus has a more beautiful translation, As a mourning dejected mother, I was reduced, namely over these; as if he were saying, I grieved over these, just as if I were their mother.
k. Hanc ergo sanctitatem affectus ostendi eis per quam debuissent converti, sed amplius obstinati sunt; quia, Et adversum me laetati sunt et convenerunt.I thus showed them this sanctity of desire through which they ought to have been converted, but instead they were even more determined; because They rejoiced against me and came together.
Et circa hoc duo facit. Primo posuit eorum malitiam. Secundo suam patientiam, ibi, Et ignoravi. Circa primum tria facit. Ponit enim tria, quae in Christi passione fuerunt. Primo ponitur Iudaeorum in malo iucunditas. Secundo eorum consensus in malum, ibi, Et convenerunt. Tertio dura Christi afflictio, ibi, Et congregata sunt etc.Concerning this he does two things. First he describes their malice, and second, his own patience, at, And I did not know. Concerning the first he does three things, that is to say, he describes three things which happened during Christ's passion. First is described the Jews' enjoyment in evil, second, their consent to evil, at, And they came together, and third, Christ's severe suffering, at, Were brought together etc.
Dicit ergo, Adversum me laetati sunt, insultando in morte: Thren. 1. Omnes inimici mei audierunt malum meum. Lactati sunt etc. Therefore, he says, They rejoiced against me, by being insolent during my death - Lamentations 1: All of my enemies have heard of my evil. They have rejoiced etc.
Contra quod dicitur Prov. 24. Cum exciderit inimicus tuus, ne gaudeas etc.The contrary is declared at Proverbs 24: When your enemy falls, do not be glad etc.
Et convenerunt etc. Ecce consensus eorum in malum. Convenerunt enim principes in mortem Christi ad invicem, et cum plebe, et Iudaei cum gentibus: Ps. 2. Astiterunt reges terrae, et principes convenerunt in unum.And they came together etc. Behold their consent to evil. For the leaders came together in the death of Christ, mutually with the plebs and the Jewish people - Psalm 2: The kings of the earth stood up, and the princes met together.
Et congregata sunt super me flagella. Ecce afflictio Christi dura: quia a Iudaeis et gentibus caesus fuit: Thren. 2. Multi gemitus mei etc. In Hebraeo habetur, Congregati sunt super me flagellantes.And scourges were brought together upon me. Behold the severe suffering of Christ: because he was slaughtered by the Jews and the Gentiles - Lamentations 1: For my sighs are many etc. In the Hebrew version, it is rendered, Flagellators were brought together upon me.
Deinde cum dicit, Et ignoravi, ostenditur patientia Christi: quia, Ignoravi, idest ad modum ignorantis me habui, tacendo scilicet, et non loquendo: Ps. 17. Ego tamquam surdus non audiebam etc. Isa. 53. Sicut ovis ad occisionem ducetur etc. Hier. 11. Ego quasi agnus mansuetus qui portatur ad victimam, et non cognovi etc.Then when he says, I did not know, Christ's patience is shown: because, I did not know, that is, according to the manner I had of not knowing, namely by being silent and not speaking - Psalm 37: But I, as a deaf man, heard not, etc. Isaiah 53: He shall be lead as a sheep to the slaughter etc. Jeremiah 11: And I was as a meek lamb, that is carried to be a victim: and I knew not etc.
Vel, Ignoravi, secundum aestimationem eorum: quia eis videbar quod nescirem consilia eorum.Or, I did not know, according to their opinion: because I seemed to them not to know their plans.
Alia litera habet, Ignorabant. Ignorabant enim tria, scilicet quem flagellarent, quia si cognovissent, numquam Dominum gloriae crucifixissent, 1. Cor. 2.Another translation has, They did not know. For three things were unknown to them, namely, who they were whipping, because if they knew, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory - 1. Cor. 2.
Item causam quare: Io. 18. Si male locutus sum, testimonium perhibe de malo; si autem bene, cur me caedis.Second, the reason why - John 18: If I have spoken evil, give testimony of the evil; but if well, why do you strike me?
Item effectu iniquitatis: pro hac enim perpetuo sunt privati: Luc. 21. Et ita populo huic.Third, the effect of their sin: for on account of this they are perpetually deprived - Luke 21: And thus upon this people
l. Secundo cum dicit, Dissipati sunt, nec compuncti, ostendit, quod non sunt revocati, nec mutati ad bonum per secundum remedium, quod est flagellum divinum: et circa hoc tria facit. Primo enim ostendit malum quod patiebantur. Secundo defectum compunctionis ipsorum, ibi, Nec compuncti. Tertio eorum obdurationis effectum, ibi, Tentaverunt me etc.Second, when he says, They were dissipated and felt no remorse, he shows that they are not called back, nor changed with regard to good by means of that assistance which is divine punishment. And concerning this he does three things. First, he shows the evil which they were suffering, second, their lack of remorse, at, They knew no remorse, and third, the effect of their persistence, at, They tempted me etc.
Dicit ergo, Dissipati sunt. Hoc dupliciter exponitur: et primo sic, Dissipati sunt, idest corde stupefacti, dum nescirent rationem eorum, quae fiebant, idest miraculorum in passione: quia Matth. 27. Multa corpora sanctorum, quae dormierunt, surrexerunt: et exeuntes de monumentis venerunt in sanctam civitatem, et apparuerunt multis. Obscuratus est sol etc. Unde revertentes percutiebant pectora sua.Therefore, he says, They were dissipated. This is explained in a two-fold way. First, in this way; They were dissipated, that is, they were deadened in their hearts, while they did not know the reason of those things that happened, that is, of the miracles during the passion - because Matthew 27 states that, Many bodies of the saints, that were asleep, arose: and coming out of their tombs, they came into the holy city and appeared to many people. The sun was beclouded etc. Thus, those returning were beating their breasts.
Vel, Dissipati, idest divisi: quia Io. 7. Alii dicebant, quia bonus est, alii autem dicebant, non, sed seducit turbas. Et non sunt compuncti, idest conversi ad poenitentiam. Et hoc patet per effectum, quia tentaverunt me dicentes Io. 10. Si tu es Christus, dic nobis palam.Or, They were dissipated, that is, divided - because John 7 states, For some were saying, He is a good man, but other were saying, No, on the contrary, he seduces the people. And they felt no remorse, that is, were not turned to penance. And this is clear by the result, because they tempted me saying, at John 10: If you are the Christ, tell us plainly.
Vel ad passionem Christi non sunt conversi. Nam post mortem ipsius adhuc insultabant ei, dicentes verba blasphemiae contra Christum, quia dicebant verba irrisionis: Matth. 27. Vah qui destruis templum Dei etc.Or, they were not converted to the passion of Christ. For after his death, they were still insulting him, speaking words of blasphemy against Christ, because they were speaking words of derision - Matthew 27: Oh, you who destroys the temple of God etc.
Et quantum ad hoc dicit, Subsannaverunt me. Subsannatio est irrisio quae fit rugato naso: Isa. 37. Cui exprobrasti, et quem blasphemasti, et super quem exaltasti vocem tuam etc.And with respect to this he says, They mocked me. Mockery is derision which is made with a wrinkled nose - Isaiah 37: Whom have you reproached, and whom have you blasphemed, and against whom have you exalted your voice etc.
Item verba indignationis: Matth. 27. Recordati sumus, quia seductor hic dixit adhuc vivens. Et quantum ad hoc dicit, Frenduerunt etc. Hoc est aprorum qui crudeles sunt, sic et Iudaei: Thren. 2. Frenderunt dentibus, et dixerunt: devorabimus.Again, words of indignation - Matthew 27: We have remembered what this seducer said while he was still living. And with respect to this he says, They gnashed etc. This is of wild boars which are cruel, and thus of the Jews - Lamentations 2: They have gnashed with their teeth, and have said, We will swallow her up.
m. Supra Psalmista ex person Christi, vel iusti, nequitiam persecutorum et pertinaciam ostendit; hic autem contra utrumque invocat Deum.Previously, the Psalmist, in the person of Christ or the just, showed the wickedness and the obstinacy of his persecutors. But here, he invokes God against both.
Et primo petit divinum auxilium. Secundo ostendit divini auxilii fructum, ibi, Confitebor. Circa primum duo facit. Primo petit accelerationem. Secundo ipsum auxilium, Restitue.First, he prays for divine help, and second, he shows the fruit of this help, at, I will give thanks. Concerning the first he does two things. First, he prays for a hastening, and second, the help itself, at Restore.
Dicit ergo, Domine quando respicies. In hoc ergo auxilii accelerationem exprimit et affectum animi non valentis amplius pati moram, quasi in anxietate positi. Et ideo dicit, Domine quando respicies, hoc est enim proprie non ferentis moram: Ps. 41. Quando veniam, et apparebo ante faciem Domini?Therefore, he says, O Lord, when will you regard me? In these words he thus elicits a hastening of help and the desire of a soul not being able to suffer further delay, as if having been placed in distress. For this reason, he says, O Lord, when will you regard me? For this is proper to one not tolerating delay - Psalm 41: When shall I come and appear before the face of the Lord?
Et potest hoc dupliciter intelligi, secundum quod duplex est respectus Dei. Unus est misericordiae quoad iustos ad salutem: Sap. 4. Gratia Dei et misericordia eius in sanctos eius, et respectus eius in electos illius.This can be understood in two ways, insofar as this two-fold way is referred to God. The first is to his mercy with respect to the salvation of the just - Wisdom 4: The grace of God and his mercy upon his holy ones, and his regard upon his choosen.
Alius est quoad malos ad puniendum: Iudith 9. Respice castra Assyriorum nunc sicut castra Aegyptiorum videre dignatus es, quando post servos tuos armati currebant.The second is with respect to the punishment of the wicked - Judith 9: Look upon the camp of the Assyrians now as you were pleased to look upon the camp of the Egyptians, when they pursued, armed, after your servants.
Et de utroque respectu potest intelligi si de Christo exponatur, Domine quando respicies, me, ut resuscites me. Respice et exaudi me Domine Deus meus. Illumina oculos meos, ne unquam obdormiam in morte, ne quando dicat inimicus meus, praevalui adversus eum.And they can be understood in both respects if they are explained concerning Christ - O Lord, when will you regard, me, to restore me. Regard me and hear me, O Lord my God. Illumine my eyes, so that I never fall asleep in death, ever my enemy says, "I prevailed against him".
Vel, Quando respicies, super adversarios meos: Abac. 1. Quare respicis super iniquitates, sive inique agentes, et taces devorante impio iustiorem se.Or, When will you regard, my opponents - Habacuc 1: Why do you regard iniquities, or those acting iniquitously, and remain silent when the impious devours the one who is more just than himself?
Deinde cum dicit, Restitue, ipsum auxilium quod petit, exponit; et in hac petitione dat duo intelligere, primo scilicet necessitatem, quam patiebatur. Secundo malitiam adversariorum, ibi, A malignitate.Then when he says, Restore, he explains that very help for which he prays. And in this petition he gives two things to understand, namely the necessity which he was suffering, and the malice of his opponents, at, From their malice.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Restitue, quia necessitas grandis est, nam periculosa res est, quia in periculo animae. Restitue, inquam, animam meam, corpori scilicet a quo separata fuit in morte, licet a divinitate non fuerit separata: Io. 10. Potestatem habeo ponendi animam meam etc.Therefore with respect to the first, he says, Restore, because the necessity is great, for it is a dangerous situation since he is in peril of his soul. Restore, I say, my soul, namely to my body from which it has become separated in death, even though it has not become separated from God - John 10: I have the power of laying down my soul etc.
Hoc poterat potentia divinitatis, quae non est alia quam potentia Patris: unde ita facit a se quicquid facit, quod tamen habet a Patre.He was capable of this by the divine power, which is not other than the Father's power: so in this way he does through himself whatever he does, which nevertheless he has from the Father.
Hoc etiam dicat quilibet vir iustus, quando est in periculo, vel corporali, vel spirituali; quasi dicat, Libera me a periculis.Every just person also says this when he is in danger, either corporeal or spiritual; as if he were saying, Free me from danger.
Malitia hostium duplex. Primo quantum ad fraudulentiam: unde dicit, A malignitate eorum, quia malitiose contra me procedunt: Io. 2. Vicistis malignum.The enemys' malice is two-fold. First, with respect to their deceit: and so he says, From their malice, because they procede wickedly against me - (?): You conquered the wicked.
Item quantum ad crudelitatem, Et a leonibus, unicam meam, quia anima unica liberatur a leonibus, idest a daemonibus vel tyrannis: Ps. 56. Animam meam eripuit de medio catulorum leonum: Ecc. A rugientibus praeparatis ad escam.Second, with respect to their cruelty, And my only soul from the lions, because only the soul is freed from the lions, that is from demons and tyranny - Psalm 56: He has delivered my soul from the midst of the young lions; Ecclesiasticus 51.: From the roaring of those prepared to devour food.
n. Hic ponit fructum auxilii. Et primo ex parte sua. Secundo ex parte hostium, ibi, Non supergaudeant. Tertio ex parte iustorum, ibi, Exultent.Here he discusses help's fruit, first, on the part of himself, second, on the part of the enemy, at, Do not let them rejoice over me, and third, on the part of the just, at, Let them rejoice.
Fructus ex parte liberati est laus Dei; unde dicit, Confitebor tibi, et laudabo te, quia liberasti me: Ps. 65. Reddam tibi vota mea etc.The fruit on the part of those freed is praise of God; and so he says, I will give thanks to you, and praise you, because you have freed me - Psalm. 65: I will pay my vows to you etc.
Et si referatur ad Christum, fructus resurrectionis Christi est instructio ecclesiae, et fides qua ecclesia confitetur Deum: Rom. 10. Corde creditur ad iustitiam, ore autem confessio fit ad salutem.And if this is referred to Christ, the fruit of Christ's resurrection is the instruction of the Church, and the faith by which the Church confesses God - Romans 10: With the heart we believe unto justice, with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.
Vel describitur ecclesia ex multitudine credentium. Secundo ex virtute eorum.Or, the Church is represented first through the multitude of believers, and second, through their virtue.
Quantum ad primum dicit, In ecclesia magna, quidem numero et diffusione terrarum: Malach.1. Magnum est nomen tuum in gentibus.With respect to the first, he says, In the great church, indeed in its number and its spreading out over the nations - Malachi 1: Great is your name among the gentiles.
Item magna constantia et virtute, quia portae inferni non praevalebunt adversus eam, Matth. 16. Ps. 36. Annuntiavi iustitiam tuam in ecclesia magna.Again, in great constancy and strength, because the gates of hell will not prevail against her, as is said at Matthew 16; Psalm 39: I have declared your justice in the great church.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, In populo gravi laudabo te. Gravitas quandoque sumitur in bono, quandoque in malo, quia similitudinarie est duplex proprietas in corporali gravitate. With respect to the second, he says, I will praise you to a heavy people. Heaviness is sometimes taken in a good or bad sense, because similarly there is a two-fold property to corporeal heaviness.
Una est ponderositatis, quae tendit deorsum, et haec est mala: quia homo dicitur gravis, secundum quod ad terrae ponderositatem et similitudinem tendit: Ps. 4. Filii hominum usquequo gravi corde? Isa. 1. Populo gravi iniquitate, semini nequam, filiis sceleratis.The first property is that of weightiness, which aims downwards, and this is bad, since a person is called heavy insofar as he aims for the weightiness and likeness of earth - Psalm 4: The sons of men always heavy of heart? Isaiah 1: ...a people heavy with iniquity, a vile seed, vicious children...
Alia proprietas est stabilitas, quae opponitur levitati, et non commovetur. Levis homo dicitur, qui movetur omni vento: Eph. 4. Qui stabilis in bono est, dicitur gravis: 1. Cor. 10. Epistolae graves sunt et fortes. Hieronymus habet, In populo forti laudabo te.The other property is firmness, which is opposed to lightness, and is not moved. A person is called light who is moved by every wind - ?: He who is firm in good is called heavy; 2. Cor. 10: (For his) letters (indeed, they say,) are weighty and strong. Jerome has I will praise you among a strong people.
Non supergaudeant mihi inimici mei. Hic ponitur fructus ex parte hostium: ubi petit quod eorum exultatio reprimatur. Et primo proponit hunc fructum. Secundo ponit radicem insultationis, ibi, Adversantur. Tertio ponit radicis commotionem, ibi, Vidisti Domine.Do not let my enemies rejoice over me. Here, the Psalmist describes the fruit on the part of the enemy, where he prays that their exultation be restrained. First, he sets forth the fruit, second, he describes the basis of their insolence, at, Those who are opposed, and third, the excitement of this basis, at, You have seen, O Lord.
Dicit ergo, Non supergaudeant; quasi dicat, Peto restitui; Ut non supergaudeant mihi, quasi vincentes me. Et hoc quia Christo resuscitato eorum gaudium versum est in confusionem.Therefore, he says, Do not let them rejoice over (me), as if he were saying, I pray that I be restored, so that they may not rejoice over me, as if overcoming me. And this because when Christ was resurrected, their joy was turned into confusion.
Vel, Non supergaudeant mihi, in membris meis, quae non sunt gravia, quia sustentantur per Christum: Mich. 8. Non laeteris inimica mea.Or, Do not let them rejoice over me, in my members, which are not heavy, because they are supported through Christ - Mich. 7: Do not rejoice over me, my enemy.
Qui adversantur. Hic ponit causam insultationis. Causa et radix insultationis est triplex. Ex parte cordis, operis, et oris.Those who are opposed. Here he determines the cause of their insolence. This cause or basis is three-fold, namely on the part of their heart, work, and mouth.
Ex parte operis, Illi supergaudeant qui adversantur inique. Si pro iustitia adversarentur, et supergauderent, bonum esset et iustum; sed quia inique gaudent, indecens est: Ps. 35. Iniquitatem meditatus est in cubili suo.On the part of their work, Those who are wrongly opposed, rejoice. If they were opposed and rejoiced for the sake of justice, this would be good and just. But because they rejoice wrongly, it is inappropriate - Psalm 35: He has devised iniquity upon his bed.
Ex parte cordis est odium indebitum; unde dicit, Et qui oderunt me gratis, idest sine causa: Ps. 119. Dum loquebar illis, impugnabant me gratis: Io. 13. Ut impleatur sermo, qui in lege eorum scriptus est, Quia odio habuerunt me gratis: Ps. 34. Retribuebant mala pro bonis.On the part of their heart is undeserved hatred. Thus he says, And those who have freely hated me, that is, without cause - Psalm 119: When I spoke to them, they freely fought against me; John 15: ...that the word may be fulfilled, which was written in their law, "They hated me freely"; Psalm 34: They were repaying evil for good.
Item odium simulantium, quia cum odio cordis, Annuunt oculis. Hoc dupliciter. Uno modo, ad ostendendum palliationem odii, quasi annuentes quod diligerent. Again, assuming hatred, because with the heart's hatred, They wink their eyes. This is two-fold. In one way, to show the aspect of hatred, as it were, assenting to what they esteemed.
Vel annuebant sibi invicem oculis, concitantes se ad malum: Prov. 6. Homo apostata vir inutilis.Or, they were assenting among themselves with their eyes, exciting themselves to evil - Proverbs 6: A man that is an apostate, an unprofitable man
Ex parte oris dupliciter. Primo quantum ad verba fraudulenta. Secundo quantum ad irrisoria.On the part of their mouth, in a two-fold way. First, with respect to fraudulent words, and second, with respect to mockery.
Quantum ad primum dicit, quod in ore. Secundo, quod in corde, In ore verba pacis: unde dicit, Quoniam mihi quidem pacifice loquebantur: Mar. 22. Scimus quia verax es: Ps. 27. Loquuntur pacem proximo suo, mala autem in cordibus eorum.With respect to the first, he says, what is in their mouth, and second, what is in their heart; In their mouth, words of peace. Thus he says, For indeed they spoke peaceably to me - Matthew 22: We know that you are speaking truly; Psalm 27: They speak peace with their neighbour, but evils are in their hearts.
In corde habebant dolos, idest verba dolosa: Hier. 9. Sagitta vulnerans eorum lingua, dolum locuta est. Et hoc, In iracundia terrae, dolos cogitabant, idest habentes iram contra me pro terrenis: Io. 11. Ne forte veniant Romani etc. Hieronymus habet, In rapina terrae verba irrisoria.In their heart they had guile, that is, deceitful words - Jerome 9: Wounding arrows their tongues, he spoke an evil intent. And this, in the earth's anger, they devised plots, that is, having anger against me on behalf of the world - John 11: Lest perhaps the Romans come etc. Jerome has, In the earth's plunder, derisive words.
Qui irridet aliquem, duo facit: quia huiusmodi verba molestant derisum, et laetificant irridentem; et ideo dicit, Dilataverunt super me os suum, quasi audacter et gaudenter loquuntur malum de alio: Isa. 37. Super quem exaltasti vocem tuam, et elevasti in altitudinem oculos tuos?He who mocks another does two things, that they molest the derided one with words of this kind, and mocking, they cheer. Thus he says, They opened wide their mouth against me, as if they spoke evil of another boldly and joyfully - Isaiah 37: ...against whom have you exalted your voice, and lifted up your eyes on high?
Dilataverunt super me os suum. Gaudium eorum ostendit cum dicit, Euge: interiectio congratulantis: Matth. 25. Euge serve bone etc. quasi dicat, sibi ipsis congratulantes de victoria quam videbant se habere de me. Et hoc quia, Viderunt oculi mei, scilicet Christi passionem quam desideraverunt: Matth. 27. Vah qui destruis templum Dei etc. Thren. 2. Haec est dies, quam expectabamus, invenimus, vidimus.They opened wide their mouth against me. He shows their joy when they say, Well done, an interjection of congratulations - Matthew 25: Well done good servant etc., as if he were saying, They are congratulating themselves concerning the victory which they consider themselves to have over me. And this because, My eyes have seen, namely Christ's passion which they had desired - Matthew 27: Oh, you who destroys God's temple etc.; ?: This is the day for which we were waiting, we discover, we see.
o. Supra Psalmista posuit radicem insultationis, quae fuit eorum malitia; hic autem removet illam radicem, sive causam implorans Dei iudicium.Previously, the Psalmist described the basis of their insolence, which was their malice. Here, however, he removes that basis, or cause, invoking God's judgement,
Circa quod tria proponit. Primo cognitionem necessariam ad iudicium praecessisse. Secundo petit iudicium, ibi, Ne sileas. Tertio iudicii effectum, ibi, Non dicant.concerning which he proposes three things. First, the knowledge necessary for judgement to have proceded, second, he prays for judgement, at, Be not silent, and third, the effect of judgement, at, Let them not say.
Iudex non potest iuste ferre sententiam nisi prius instructus de facto. Hoc autem divino iudicio non deest, quia videt ea, quae aguntur ex utraque parte; unde dicit, Vidisti, scilicet eorum malitiam, et meam iustitiam: Hebr. 4. Omnia nuda et aperta sunt oculis eius.A judge cannot justly pass sentence unless informed previously concerning the deed. This, however, is not wanting in divine judgement, because he sees those thing which are done on both sides. Thus he says, You have seen, namely their malice, and my uprightness - Hebrews 4: All things are naked and open to his eyes.
Consequenter petit iudicium divinum. Et primo agit de iudicii dilatione, Secundo petit processum iudicii.Thereupon he prays for divine judgement. First, he acts concerning the delaying of judgement, and second, prays for its advancement.
Quod iudicium differatur, procedit ex duobus, scilicet ex patienti tolerantia defectus iniquorum, et ex hoc quod iudex non diligit eum, pro quo sententia dari debet, et ex hoc excludit eum.That judgement is delayed, derives from two factors, namely by reason of the suffering of the one enduring the failings of the wicked, and that the judge does not care for him, on behalf of whom the sentence ought to be rendered, for which reason he rejects him.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Ne sileas, scilicet eorum malitiam, quam vidisti pertranseundo: Aba. 1. Quare respicis contemptorem, et taces conculcante impio iustiorem se?With respect to the first he says, Be not silent, that is to say, concerning their malice, which you have seen in its taking place - Habacuc 1: Why do you look upon those who despise you, and remain silent when the impious treads under foot the one who is more just than himself?
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Ne discedas a me, quasi non referendo auxilium in necessitate: Osee 11. Vae eis cum recessero ab eis.With respect to the second he says, Do not depart from me, as it were by not rendering aid in necessity - Hosea 9: Woe to them when I shall depart from them.
p. Hic ponit processum iudicii. Tria enim requiruntur in iudicio. Primo, quod iudex sumat iudicandum. Secundo, quod consideret merita causae. Tertio, quod proferat sententiam iustam.Here he describes the advancement of judgement. Three things are required in a judgement. First, that the judge understands what it to be judged, second, that he consider the merits of the affair, and third, that he produce a just sentence.
Quantum ad primum dicit, Exurge, idest a torpore, et assume animum iudicandi: Ps. 43. Exurge, quare obdormis Domine?With respect to the first he says, Rise up, that is from slugishness, and assume the mind of one judging - Psalm 43: Rise up, why do you sleep, O Lord.
Quantum ad secundum dicit duo, quibus debet iudex intendere, debet scilicet iudicium proferendum, et causam super quam debet sententiam ferre; unde dicit, Intende iudicio meo, idest pro me ferendo: Ps. 71. Deus iudicium tuum regi da etc.With respect to the second he says two things, to which the judge ought to aspire, namely the giving of judgment, and to deliver a sentence upon the affair; and so he says, Aspire to my judgement, that is, by delivering (it) on my behalf : Psalm 71: O God, give your judgement to the king etc.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Deus meus et Dominus meus in causam meam. Uno modo, In litem meam: Iob 29. Causam quam nesciebam, diligentissime investigabam.With respect to the second he says, My God and my Lord, in my cause. In one way, In my lawsuit: Job 29: The cause which I did not know, I searched out most diligently.
Vel, In causam, secundum quod causa idem est quod principium, ex quo sequitur aliud; quasi dicat, Intende in causam, pro qua ego patior. Et haec est obedientia Patris: Phil. 2. Factus est obediens usque ad mortem etc.Or, In cause, insofar as cause is the same as a principle, from which another thing follows; as if he were saying, Aspire to the cause, on behalf of which I myself am suffering. And this is obedience to the Father - Philipians 2: Becoming obedient unto death etc.
Item causa est charitas quam habuit ad nos, propter quam causam patiebatur.Again, the cause is the love which he had for us, on account of which cause he suffered.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Iudica me. Una litera habet, Secundum iustitiam tuam; alia litera habet, Iudica me secundum iustitiam meam, primum idem est, ac si diceret, Iudica me, secundum legem tuam et iustitiam: nam iustitia Dei est reddere unicuique secundum merita: et quae non possunt falli et flecti a veritate, Rom. 2. Iudicium Dei est secundum veritatem.With respect to the second he says, Judge me. One version has, According to your justice; another one has, Judge me according to my justice, the same as the first, as if he had said, Judge me, according to your law and justice. For the justice of God is to render to anyone according to his merits, which cannot be deceived and turned from the truth, according to Romans 2. The judgement of God is according to truth.
Secundum iustitiam meam, scilicet quam ego sum secutus. Et potest dici quod idem est iustitia mea et tua, Dei scilicet iustificantis, hominis quasi iustificati, quia iustitia nostra est ex Deo: Rom. 10. Volentes iustitiam suam statuere etc.According to my justice, namely which I myself followed. And it can be said that my justice and your justice are the same, namely of God justifying, and of man justifed, as it were, because our justice is from God - Romans 10: Seeking to establish their own justice etc.
Consequenter petit effectum iudicii, Ut non supergaudeant mihi: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo petit insultationis reprehensionem. Secundo petit eorum confusionem, ibi, Erubescant. Whereupon he prays for the effect of judgment, so that they may not rejoice over me: and concerning this he does two things. First, he prays for the censure of insolence, and second, for their shame, at Let them blush.
Exterior exultatio nascitur ex interiori gaudio. Primo ergo petit ut reprimatur eorum gaudium intus. Secundo exterior insultatio.External exultation arises from interior joy. Therefore, he prays first that their joy within, and second that their external insolence, be restrained.
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, Non supergaudeant mihi; quasi dicat, Ita iudicium tuum reprimate eos, ut non gaudeant super me: Thren. 1. Omnes inimici mei audierunt malum meum, et laetati sunt.Therefore, with respect to the first, he says, Let them not rejoice over me; as if he were saying, Restrain them thus in your judgement, so that they do not rejoice over me - Lamentations 1: All my enemies have heard of my evil, and have rejoiced.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Ne dicant in cordibus suis. Insultatio in duobus fit, sicut et gaudium. Gaudium autem vel est de praesentibus bonis, vel de bonis futuris. Similiter insultatio, vel est propter mala iam facta, vel propter fienda.With respect to the second he says, Let them not say in their hearts. Insolence comes to be in two ways, as it does with joy. Joy is either of a present good, or of a future good. Likewise with insolence, it is either because of evils already done, or to be done.
Primo ergo petit removeri insultationem de praeteritis: et ideo dicit, Ne dicant in cordibus suis, euge, euge, animae nostrae, idest non congratuletur anima eius super aliquibus de me, Et dicant animae nostrae, devorabimus eum.Therefore, he first prays that insolence concerning things done in the past be removed. And so he says, Let them not say in their hearts, Well done, well done it is to our mind, that is, let not his soul be pleased over matters concerning me, and let them not say, "We will swallow him up".
Aliquando enim aliquis opprimit aliquem non exultatione, sed surreptione ex infirmitate: et hoc patet quod statim poenitet. Sed quando ex malitia opprimit, tunc gaudet se fecisse: et hoc est quod dicit, Nec dicant, devorabimus eum, scilicet in futurum: Ps. 56. Lingua eorum gladius acutus; Abach. 3. Exultatio eorum, sicut eius qui devorat pauperem in abscondito.Sometimes one oppresses another not by exaltation, but by theft by reason of weakeness. And this is evident when he immediately repents. But when he oppresses by reason of malice, then he rejoices at having done this for himself. And this is what he says, Let them not say, We will swallow him up, namely in the future - Psalm 56: Their tongue a sharp sword; Habacuc 3: Their exaltation was like that of him that devoureth the poor man in secret.
q. Hic petit eorum confusionem: et petit duo correspondentia duobus praemissis, de quibus fit insultatio, scilicet de factis, et fiendis. Primo petit ut confundantur de malis iam factis. Secundo ut confundantur super futuris, ibi, Induantur confusione.Here he prays for their confusion and two things in correspondence with two mentioned previously concerning which insolence arises, namely, from deeds performed and to be done. He prays, first, so that they may be confounded concerning the evil they have already done, and second, so that they may be confounded over future deeds, at, Let them be clothed in confusion.
Primo ergo petit erubescentiam eorum, vel bonam confusionem, vel aeternam: et hoc dicit per modum praenuntiationis, vel conformationis ad Deum: Isa. 6. Servi mei laetabuntur, et vos confundemini.Therefore he first prays for their shame, either a good confusion, or an eternal one. And he says this by way of the mode of something foretold, or of conformity to God - Isaiah 65: My servants shall rejoice, and you shall be confounded.
Secundo petit eorum diffidentiam sive timorem: unde, Et revereantur simul.He prays, secondly, for their unbelief or fear. Hence, And let them be ashamed at the same time.
Vel in bonum, quasi incipiant Deum timere: nam timor initialis et castus proprie reverentia dicitur; et hic timor inducit in salutem: quia, ut dicitur Eccl. Timor Domini initium sapientiae.Or in good, as if they are beginning to fear God. For fear, in the beginning and properly pious, is called reverance. And this fear begins in salvation, because, as it is said at Eccleiasticus 1: The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.
Vel semper sint in timore: Sap. 17. Cum sit timida nequitia, dat testimonium condemnata: Iob. 13. Sonitus terroris semper in auribus eius. Et quare haec eveniant eis, quia gloriantur in malis meis. Consequenter petit confusionem de futuro, et aliqua petit per alium modum, quia idem est confusio quod erubescentia; et sicut illa possunt accipi in bono et in malo, ita hic confusio et reverentia.Or, that they always be in fear - Wisdom 17: Since wickedness is fearful, it gives witness having been condemned; Job 15: The sound of terror is always in his ears. Why these things happen to them is because they rejoice in my misfortunes. Consequently, he prays for their confusion concerning future deeds, and he prays for something by means of another mode, because confusion is the same as shame. And just as those can be taken with respect to good and evil, so too can confusion and reverence.
Sed quod additur, Induantur confusione, aliquid addit. Indumentum enim dicit habitum. Qui ergo simpliciter et in principio timet, non potest dici habere habitum timoris; sed qui firmantur in malo, et desiderant malum: Hier. 17. Duplici contritione contere eos.But because Let them be clothed in confusion is added, he adds something else. For clothing signifies a habit. Therefore, the one who fears in the beginning and in a simple way, cannot be said to have the habit of fear; but rather those who are hardened in their evil, and desire it - Jeremiah 17: ...with a double crushing break them.
Et quare plus petit modo quod affligantur quam ante, quia est maior culpa, quasi scilicet non sunt contenti his quae fecerunt, sed adhuc maligna cogitant contra me.Why he prays in this way that they be more afflicted than before is because of greater blame, as if, namely, they have not been satisfied by those things which they have done, but still plan wicked things against me.
Sicut Iudaei etiam post mortem Christi volebant occultare eius resurrectionem corrumpendo custodes: Prov. 20. Verbum malignum, vanitatem, et verba mendacia longe fac a me: Hieronumus habet, Qui maligna loquuntur contra me: 1 Reg. 2. Nolite multiplicare loqui sublimia, gloriantes.It is just like the Jews, after Christ's death, wanting to conceal his resurrection by bribing the guards - Proverbs 30: Keep wicked and vain speach, and lying words far from me. Jerome has, Those who are speaking wicked things against me - 1 Kings 2: Do not multipy to speak lofty things boasting.
r. Hic est tertius fructus, qui consurgit ex parte divini auxilii: et hic fructus est gaudium sanctorum. Et primo ponit fructum exultationis dicens, Exultent et laetentur.Here is the third fruit, which arises on the part of divine aid. And this fruit is the joy of the holy ones. First he discusses the fruit of exaltation saying, Let them exult and be glad.
Ponit autem pro fructu sanctorum iucunditatem, quia laetitia dicit latitudinem cordis, unde signat interius gaudium: Ps. 118. Dilastasti cor meum. Et haec laetitia est proprie in iustis: Ps. 96. Lux orta est iusto, et rectis corde laetitia.However, he discusses delight instead of the fruit of the holy ones because gladness means a breadth of heart, whence it signifies an interior joy - Psalm 118: You have enlarged my heart. And this gladness is proper to the just - Psalm 96: Light is risen to the just, and joy to the right of heart.
Exultatio dicit gaudium prorumpens exterius ab interiori; et haec exultatio competit iustis: Ps. 32. Exultate iusti in Domino. Et hoc competit rectis; unde dicit, Qui volunt iustitiam meam, scilicet imitari.Exaltation speaks of joy bursting forth from within. And this exaltation belongs to the just - Psalm 32: Exalt, O you just, in the Lord. And this belongs to the upright, whence he says, Those who desire my justice, namely, to imitate it.
Vel si dicatur ex persona David, Volunt iustitiam meam, idest congaudent bonis meis, sic est gaudium cordis, et ex hoc sequitur exultatio oris: Isa. 51. Gaudium et laetitia invenientur in ea, gratiarum actio, et vox laudis. Et ideo subdit, Dicant semper, magnificetur Dominus, idest magnificent Deum sancti.Or, if this is said from the person of David, They desire my justice, that is, they rejoice together in my goods; thus is joy of the heart, from which follows exultation of the mouth - Isaiah 51: Joy and gladness shall be found therein, thanksgiving and the voice of praise. And thus he adds, And let them always say, Let the Lord be magnified, that is, Let the holy ones magnify the Lord.
Non enim secundum veritatem magnum faciendo, sed nuntiando, et praedicando eum magnum: Ps. 33. Magnificate Dominum mecum etc. Eccl. 44. Admirabilis magnificentia eius.Not by making him great according to truth, but by proclaiming and speaking about him - Psalm 33: Magnify the Lord with me etc. Ecclesiasticus 43: His magnificence is wonderful.
Item ibidem: Quis magnificabit eum sicut est? et qui sunt illi qui hoc faciunt? certe, Qui volunt pacem servi eius, scilicet Christi secundum humanam naturam: quam pacem Christus fecit et dat, quia Ipse est pax nostra, qui fecit utraque unum, Eph. 2. Pacem meam do vobis, pacem meam relinquo vobis, Io. 14. Et in me pacem habetis, Io. 17.Again Ecclesiasticus 43: Who shall magnify him as he is...? And who are those who do this? Surely, Those who desire the peace of his servant, namely, Christ according to his human nature: which peace Christ made and gives, because He himself is our peace, who made both one - Ephesians 2; Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you - John 14; (These things I have spoken to you) that in me you may have peace - John 16.
Si autem intelligitur dictum ex persona David, sic est sensus, Qui volunt pacem servi eius, idest illi exultent et laetentur, qui volunt quod servus eius, scilicet ego, habeam pacem.If however what was said is understood concerning the person of David, the sense is thus; Those who desire the peace of his servant, that is, let those exalt and be glad who desire that his servant, namely me, will have peace.
Sed et lingua mea. Hic ostendit quod etiam ipse est particeps gaudii huius; quasi dicat, Non solum illi qui habent gaudium, sed et ego etiam gaudii sanctorum sum particeps.And my tongue. Here he shows that even he is taking part in this joy; it is as if he were saying, Not only those who have joy, but even I am taking part in the joy of the holy ones.
Et de hoc ponit duo. Primo ponit interiorem meditationem. Secundo ponit interiorem laudem.And concerning this he does two things. First, he describes interior meditation, and second, interior praise.
Dicit ergo quantum ab primum, Sed et lingua mea meditabitur iustitiam tuam.Therefore with respect to the first he says, And my tongue shall meditate your justice.
Sed contra. Meditari non pertinet ad linguam, sed ad cor.But on the contrary, to meditate does not pertain to the tongue, but rather to the heart.
Et est triplex responsio. Uno modo lingua meditatur, idest meditata loquitur: Ps. 48. Os meum loquetur sapientiam, scilicet meditatam. Qui est iustus, loquitur ex praemeditatione: sic et sapiens.There is a three-fold response. In one way, the tongue meditates, that is, what has been meditated is spoken - Psalm 48: My tongue will speak wisdom, namely that which has been meditated. He who is just, speaks out of a premeditation, as do the wise.
Alio modo est duplex os, sive duplex locutio, scilicet interius, et exterius: Matth.14. Quae procedunt de ore, scilicet cordis, haec sunt quae coinquinant hominem. Et sic accipitur hic lingua, scilicet interior.In another way, the mouth or speech is twofold, namely interior and exterior - Matthew 14: Whatever procedes from the mouth, that is, the heart, these are what condemn a man. And in this way is this tongue taken, namely interior.
Tertio modo, sic Meditabitur, idest decantabitur, et modulabitur, Tota die laudem tuam, idest semper cogitabit quomodo laudet te: Ps. 33. Benedicam Dominum in omni tempore etc.The third mode, thus It will meditate, that is it will keep singing, and accompany, your praise the whole day long, that is, it will always think of how it will praise you - Psalm 33: I will bless the Lord at all times etc.

© Stephen Loughlin
(sjl1@desales.edu)



The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)