Psalm 29

1. [Psalmus XXIX: [1] Cantici in dedicatione domus David.] Exaltabo te, Domine, quoniam suscepisti me: nec delectasti inimicos meos super me.1. [Psalm 29: [2] A psalm of a canticle, at the dedication of David's house.]
2. I will extol thee, O Lord, for thou hast upheld me: and hast not made my enemies to rejoice over me.
2. Domine, Deus meus, clamavi ad te, et sanasti me. Domine, eduxisti ab inferno animam meam; salvasti me a descendentibus in lacum.(3) O Lord my God, I have cried to thee, and thou hast healed me.
(4) Thou hast brought forth, O Lord, my soul from hell: thou hast saved me from them that go down into the pit.
3. Psallite Domino sancti ejus: et confitemini memoriae sanctitatis ejus.(5) Sing to the Lord, O ye his saints: and give praise to the memory of his holiness.
4. Quoniam ira in indignatione ejus, et vita in voluntate ejus. Ad vesperum demorabitur fletus, et ad matutinum laetitia.(6) For wrath is in his indignation; and life in his good will. In the evening weeping shall have place, and in the morning gladness.
5. Ego autem dixi in abundantia mea: non movebor in aeternum. Domine, in voluntate tua praestitisti decori meo virtutem. Avertisti faciem tuam a me, et factus sum conturbatus.(7) And in my abundance I said: I shall never be moved.
(8) O Lord, in thy favor (will), [3] thou gavest strength to my beauty. [4] Thou turnedst away thy face from me, and I became troubled.
6. Ad te, Domine, clamabo, et ad Deum meum deprecabor.(9) To thee, O Lord, will I cry: and I will make supplication to my God.
7. Quae utilitas in sanguine meo, dum descendo in corruptionem? Numquid confitebitur tibi pulvis, aut annunciabit veritatem tuam?(10) What profit is there in my blood, whilst I go down to corruption? Shall dust confess to thee, or declare thy truth?
8. Audivit Dominus, et misertus est mei: Dominus factus est adjutor meus. Convertisti planctum meum in gaudium mihi: conscidisti saccum meum, et circumdedisti me laetitia.(11) The Lord hath heard, and hath had mercy on me: the Lord became my helper.
(12) Thou hast turned for me my mourning into joy: thou hast cut my sackcloth, and hast compassed me with gladness:
9. Ut cantet tibi gloria mea, et non compungar: Domine Deus meus, in aeternum confitebor tibi.(13) To the end that my glory may sing to thee, and I may not have regret: O Lord my God, I will give praise to thee for ever.
1.[5] In praecedenti Psalmo hortatus est Propheta alios ad gratiarum actiones; hic autem ipse gratias agit. 1.[6] In the preceding Psalm the Prophet exhorted others to acts of thanksgiving, but here he himself gives thanks.
Titulus, Psalmus cantici in dedicatione domus David. Sicut supra dictum est, Psalmi cantici dicuntur, quia prius cantabatur, et post sequebatur psalmus: quasi, psalmus sequens canticum.The title, A Psalm of a canticle at the dedication of David's house. As was said above, psalms are designated "of a canticle" because first [a canticle] used to be sung, and afterwards a psalm followed: as if to say, the psalm follows the canticle. [7]
Sed legimus quod David domum Deo non dedicavit, quia prohibitus fuit per Nathan a Domino, 2 Reg. 7. Sed hic non dicitur domus Domini, sed David. Legitur 2 Regum 5, quod post mortem Saulis cepit Hierusalem, et ibi fecit domum suam. Et consuetum est, quod quando quis intrat domum, facit solemnitatem. Et posset dici quod tunc iste Psalmus cantatus fuit ab ipso David, quando primo intravit domum illam novam ut inhabitaret ibi. Yet we read that David did not dedicate the house to God, because he had been prohibited by the Lord through Nathan (2 Kings [2 Samuel] 7). [8] Yet this is not called the house of the Lord, but of David. In 2 Kings [2 Samuel] 5 we read that after the death of Saul he took possession of Jerusalem, and there he built his home. And it is customary that when someone enters a house, he makes a celebration. And it could be said that at that time this Psalm was sung by David himself, when he first entered that new house in order to dwell there.
Tamen melius intelligitur quod referatur ad mysterium domus David, idest Christi, qui est Ecclesiae caput et corpus. Nevertheless, it is better understood as referring to the mystery of the house of David, that is, of Christ, who is the head and body of the Church.
Et haec eadem dicitur tabernaculum. Supra dictum est, Pro consummatione tabernaculi; hic autem, In dedicatione domus. Tabernaculum est militantium: et sic praesens ecclesia dicitur tabernaculum. Apoc. 21: Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus etc. Domus est quiescentium: sic ecclesia expectat quietem patriae: Psal. 121: In domum domini ibimus. And this same [house] is called a tabernacle. Above it was said, For the completion of the tabernacle; but here, At the dedication of the house. A tabernacle is associated with those who struggle: and thus the present Church [the Church militant] is called a tabernacle. Rev 21 [:3]: "Behold the tabernacle of God with men," etc. A house is associated with those who rest: thus the Church awaits the rest of heaven. Ps 121 [:1]: "We shall go into the house of the Lord."
Utraque haec habet constructionem, quae fuit in ordinatione suae Incarnationis: et dedicationem, quae fuit in resurrectione, quando corpus Christi indutum est gloria immortalitatis. Super corpus Christi continue construitur; et per conversionem fidelium dedicabitur, quando erit in gloria. Each of these has a construction that pertained to the ordination of his Incarnation; and a dedication, that [has been ordered to] the resurrection, when the body of Christ was clothed with the glory of immortality. Upon the body of Christ it is continually built up; and through the conversion of the faithful it will be dedicated, when it will be in glory.
Psalmus iste dividitur in duas partes. In prima in generali commemorat beneficia pro quibus gratias agit. Secundo in speciali, ibi, Ego autem dixi. This Psalm is divided into two parts. In the first he recalls the benefits for which he gives thanks in general. In the second, [he recalls the benefits for which he gives thanks] in particular: And [in my abundance] I said.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo agit gratias de propriis beneficiis. Secundo invitat alios ad gratias agendas de communibus, ibi, Psallite Domino sancti ejus. [I.] [9] Concerning the first he does two things. First, he gives thanks for his own benefits. Second, he invites others to thanksgiving in common: Sing to the Lord, O ye his saints.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo ponit gratiarum actionem. Secundo commemorat beneficia, ibi, Quoniam suscepisti me. Tertio exponit, ibi, Domine Deus. [I.A.] Concerning the first he does three things. First, he places an act of thanksgiving. Second, he recalls benefits: For thou hast upheld me. Third, he explains: O Lord [my] God.
Dicit ergo, Domine, exaltabo te, non faciendo te altiorem, sed confitendo et laudando tuam altitudinem: Eccl. 43: Benedicentes Dominum, exaltate illum quantum potestis. [I.A.1.] Thus he says: I will extol thee, O Lord, not by making you higher, but by confessing and praising your loftiness: Ecclus [Sir] 43 [:33]: "Blessing the Lord, exalt him as much as you can."
Et assignat duo beneficia, quare exaltat: unum ex parte Dei, et aliud ex parte inimicorum: et secundum est effectus primi. [I.A.2.] And he indicates two benefits on account of which he exalts: one on God's part, and the other on the part of his enemies; and the second is the effect of the first.
Ex parte Dei, quia Suscepisti me in tuam protectionem, quando elegit eum et protexit, ut habetur 1 Reg. 16, usque in finem. Vel Deus suscipit justos, quando unit sibi, qui per unionem caritatis adhaerent sibi. Sed Christum hominem univit sibi suscipiendo in unitatem perfectam: Psal. 3: Tu autem Domine susceptor meus es etc. [I.A.2.a.] On God's part, because Thou hast upheld me in your protection, when he chose and protected him, as is said in 1 Kgs [1 Sam] 16, up to the end. Or, God sustains the just, when he unites to himself those who cling to him through the union of charity. But he united to himself the man Christ by sustaining him in perfect unity: Ps 3 [:4]: "But thou, O Lord, art my protector," etc.
Ex parte inimicorum: quia, Non delectasti. Hoc enim non est odiosum valde quod inimici gaudeant de eo; quia non gaudent nisi de malo suo, et nullus optat malum nisi sibi exoso: Eccl. 18: Si praestes concupiscentias ejus animae tuae, faciet te in gaudium inimicis tuis. Sed certum est quod David non venit in gaudium inimicis, quia Saul non est assecutus propositum suum de eo. [I.A.2.b.] On the part of his enemies: because, Thou hast not made [my enemies] to rejoice [over me]. Indeed, it is not very troublesome that his enemies rejoice over him; because they do not rejoice except in their own evil, and no one wishes evil except upon one hated by oneself: [10] Ecclus [Sir] 18 [:31]: "If thou give to thy soul her desires, she will make thee a joy to thy enemies." But it is certain that David did not become the joy of his enemies, because Saul did not achieve his plans for him.
De Christo autem non videtur: Matth. 27: insultabant enim ei jam crucifixo: Vah qui destruis templum Dei etc. Item, etiam viris justis mali insultant, et laetantur super eos: Job 30: Derident me juniores tempore, nunc in eorum canticum versus sum, et factus sum in proverbium eis. Sed dicendum, quod si ad horam Judaei de Christo gavisi sunt, non tamen finaliter: quia Christo resurgente nomen ejus magis invaluit: Mich. 7: Ne laeteris inimica mea, quia cecidi; consurgam.Concerning Christ, however, this does not appear to be the case: Matt 27 [:40]: they were insulting him even when [he was] crucified: "Vah, thou that destroyest the temple of God," etc. Likewise, the wicked also insult just men, and rejoice over them: Job 30 [:1a, 9]: "But now the younger in time scorn me. [. . .] Now I am turned into their song, and am become their byword." But it must be said that if to this hour the Jews had rejoiced concerning Christ, they will not ultimately do so: because when Christ had risen, his name prevailed all the more: Mic 7 [:8]: "Rejoice not, thou, my enemy, over me, because I am fallen: I shall arise."
2. Deinde cum dicit, Domine Deus meus, ostendit quomodo liberatus sit. Et primo a malis interioribus. Secundo ab exterioribus, ibi, Domine eduxisti. [I.A.3.] 2. Thereafter, when he says: O Lord my God, he indicates how he was freed. First, from interior evils. Second, from exterior ones: Thou hast brought forth, O Lord.
Malum interius est infirmitas, vel corporalis vel spiritualis. Haec duo potuerunt esse in David et in nobis, sed in Christo non nisi corporalis, propter passibilitatem: et ideo dicit, Clamavi, scilicet David: Ps. 119: Ad Dominum, cum tribularer, clamavi. Item Christus clamavit, etsi inquantum Deus sit exauditor: Hebr. 5: Cum clamore valido et lacrymis etc. Sequitur, Et sanasti me. Dicit quia ab utraque infirmitate; Christum vero sanavit a corporali solum passibilitate. [I.A.3.a.] Interior evil is infirmity, either bodily or spiritual. These two could exist in David and in us, but not in Christ unless it is bodily, according to [his] passibility: and for that reason he, namely David, says, I have cried: Ps 119 [:1]: "In my trouble I cried to the Lord." In like manner, Christ cried, though inasmuch as he is God he is the one who hearkens: Heb 5 [:7]: "With a strong cry and tears," etc. [The psalmist] continues, And thou hast healed me. He says this because [he suffers] from both infirmities; but [God] has healed Christ only of his bodily passibility.
Consequenter dicit se esse liberatum ab exterioribus malis, Domine eduxisti. Et primo ab imminentibus. Secundo ab illis a quibus est praeservatus, ibi, Salvasti. [I.A.3.b.] Subsequently he says that he has been freed from exterior evils: Thou hast brought forth, O Lord. And first, from imminent [evils]. Second, from those from which he was preserved: Thou hast saved.
Dicit ergo, Domine eduxisti etc. Hoc ad litteram non potest intelligi de David: quia non erat erutus de inferno, quando hunc Psalmum fecit. Potest intelligi de eo secundum metaphoram, quasi liberatus sit a mortali periculo. Sed ad litteram intelligitur de Christo, cujus anima educta est de inferno a Deo: Psal. 15: Ne derelinquas animam meam in inferno. Item convenit illis qui per Christum resuscitati sunt: Zach. 9: Tu autem in sanguine testamenti tui eduxisti vinctos tuos de lacu in quo non erat aqua. [I.A.3.b.i.] Thus he says, Thou hast brought forth, O Lord, etc. This cannot be literally understood of David, because he was not freed from hell when he composed this Psalm. It could be understood of him in a metaphorical sense, as if he was freed from a mortal danger. But it is literally understood of Christ, whose soul was drawn out of hell by God: Ps 15 [:10]: "Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell." Likewise, it is fitting to those who were resurrected through Christ: Zech 9 [:11]: "Thou also by the blood of thy testament hast sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein is no water."
Secundo dicit se praeservatum a mortali periculo, cum subdit, Salvasti me a descendentibus in lacum. Ad litteram lacus accipitur pro concavitate: mos enim fuit antiquitus quod sepeliebantur in profundis concavitatibus: Salvasti me, ait, a descendentibus in lacum; quasi dicat, Liberasti me a periculis mortis. Sed de Christo exponitur optime, quia per lacum intelligitur damnatio aeterna: quia licet Christus descenderit in infernum; non tamen illuc descendit tamquam ad damnationem, sed ut liberaret eos qui erant in lacu; quasi dicat, Dedisti mihi, ut non assimilarer descendentibus in lacum: Psal. 87: Factus sum sicut homo sine adjutorio, inter mortuos liber. Vel, In lacum, idest in peccatum; immunis enim fuit a peccato.[I.A.3.b.ii.] Second, he says that he was preserved from a mortal danger, when he adds: Thou hast saved me from them that go down into the pit. In the literal sense, "pit" is taken for a hollow: for it was an ancient custom that they were buried in deep hollows: Thou hast saved me, he says, from them that go down into the pit; as if to say, You have freed me from the dangers of death. But it is explained best of Christ, because by "pit" is understood eternal damnation: for even though Christ descended into hell, he did not descend there as if to damnation, but in order to free those who were in the pit; as if to say, You have delivered me, in order that I might not be like those that go down into the pit: Ps 87 [:5]: "I am become as a man without help, free among the dead." Or, In the pit, that is, in sin; for he was immune from sin.
3. Deinde cum dicit, Psallite Domino sancti ejus etc., inducit alios primo ad gratiarum actionem. Secundo commemorat beneficia, ibi, Quoniam ira in indignatione ejus. [I.B.] 3. Thereafter, when he says: Sing to the Lord, O ye his saints, etc., he first brings others to an act of thanksgiving. Second, he recalls benefits: For wrath is in his indignation.
Ubi duo facit: quia primo ostendit qui sunt qui gratias Deo debent. Secundo de quo, ibi, Confitemini. [I.B.1.] [In treating acts of thanksgiving] he does two things: because first, he shows who they are who owe gratitude to God. Second, from what cause: Give praise.
Dicit ergo, Psallite. Ecce qualiter Psalmus cantici. Psallite, inquam vos sancti: quia Eccl. 15: Non est speciosa laus in ore peccatoris: Apoc. 19: Laudem dicite Deo nostro omnes sancti ejus. [I.B.1.a.] Thus he says, Sing. Notice the manner in which the Psalm is of a canticle. Sing, I say, you his saints: because Ecclus [Sir] 15 [:9]: "Praise is not seemly in the mouth of a sinner." Rev 19 [:5]: "Give praise to our God, all ye his servants." [11]
Sed de quo? Confitemini, gratias agendo, memoriae sanctitatis ejus. Uno modo memoriae potest intelligi, quia Deus memor est nostri: Hier. 2: Recordatus sum tui, etc. Et dicit, Sanctitatis ejus. Et dupliciter potest intelligi: vel quia haec memoria provenit ex sanctitate, idest ex misericordia et bonitate sua: Levit. 11: Sancti estote, quia ego sanctus sum: vel quia memor est nostri ut sanctificet nos: Levit. 20: Ego Dominus qui sanctifico vos. Alio modo, memoriae, scilicet nostrae, quia nos recordamur sanctitatis Dei; quasi dicat, confitemini commemorando sanctitatem ejus: Isa. 63: Miserationum Domini recordabor.[I.B.1.b.] But from what cause? Give praise, by rendering thanks, to the memory of his holiness. In one way, to the memory can be understood in the sense that God is mindful of us: Jer 2 [:2]: "I have remembered thee," etc. He also says, Of his holiness. This can be understood in two ways: either because this memory arises from [his] holiness, that is, from his mercy and goodness: Lev 11 [:44]: "Be holy because I am holy;" or because he is mindful of us that he may sanctify us: Lev 20 [:8]: "I am the Lord that sanctify you." In another way, to the memory [can be understood of] our [memory], because we remember the holiness of God; as if to say, give praise by recalling his holiness: Isa 63 [:7]: "I will remember the tender mercies of the Lord."
4. Secundo, cum dicit, Quoniam ira, commemorat beneficia omnibus exhibita. Ubi duo facit. Primo proponit haec beneficia, quae spectant ad Dei clementiam. Secundo clementiae ejus ostendit signum, ibi, Ad vesperum. [I.B.2.] 4. Second, when he says, For wrath, he recalls the benefits presented to all, in which he does two things. First, he sets forth these benefits, which rely upon the clemency of God. Second, he shows the sign of his clemency: In the evening.
Dicit ergo, Quoniam ira etc. Misericordia Dei non est sine justitia; ideo ponit primo justitiam. Secundo misericordiam: justitiam, cum dicit, Quoniam ira. Hic ira accipitur pro effectu irae, idest pro vindicta; indignatio vero non pro commotione irae in Deo, sed pro justitia Dei, secundum quam detestatur impium: quia Sap. 14: Similiter odio sunt Deo impius et impietas ejus; quasi dicat, In indignatione ejus, idest Dei justitia judicante peccata in ira, idest vindicta. Hieronymus planius, Quoniam ad momentum est ira ejus; quasi dicat, Si aliquando irascatur suis, hoc est ad correctionem brevi tempore: Isa. 54: In momento indignationis abscondi etc. Ezech. 18: Nolo mortem peccatoris morientis. Hieronymus, Vita in propitiatione ejus; quasi dicat, Punit ad momentum, et post repropitiatur, et reddit vitam: Job 5: Percutit, et manus ejus medetur. [I.B.2.a.] Thus he says, For wrath, etc. The mercy of God is not without justice; therefore, he sets justice forth first, and mercy second: justice, when he says, For wrath. Here, wrath is taken for an effect of wrath, that is, for vengeance; but indignation should not be taken as the disturbance (or passion) of wrath in God, but as the justice of God, inasmuch as he detests the impious: because Wis 14 [:9]: "To God the wicked and his wickedness are hateful alike;" as if to say, In his indignation; that is, the justice of God while judging sins in wrath, which is vengeance. [One version of] Jerome is more clear: "For His wrath is for a moment ;" [12] as if to say, Whenever he is angry with his own, it is for their correction, for a brief time. Isa 54 [:8]: "In a moment of indignation I have hid," etc. Ezek 18 [:32]: "For I desire not the death of the sinner that dieth." [13] [One version of] Jerome [reads], "Life in his propitiation," [14] as if to say, He punishes for a moment, and afterward pardons and restores life: Job 5 [:18]: "He striketh, and his hands shall heal."
Ostendit autem clementiae et misericordiae ejus signum secundum litteram, cum subdit, Ad vesperum demorabitur; quasi dicat, In brevi tempore Dominus a tristitia ducit ad consolationem: quia si aliquis tristis sit vespere, mane erit laetus. Triplex autem ratio assignari potest, quare vespere tristitia insit, et mane laetitia. [I.B.2.b.] He shows a sign of his clemency and mercy according to the literal sense, when he adds, In the evening [weeping] shall have place; as if to say, In a brief time the Lord leads from sadness to consolation: because if someone is sad in the evening, in the morning he will be joyful. Three reasons can be given for why there is sadness in the evening, and joy in the morning.
Una est ex exteriori dispositione: quia vespere principium est tenebrarum, quae contristant; mane vero lucis, quae laetificat: unde caeci ut laetentur cantant: Tob. 5: Quale gaudium mihi erit, qui in tenebris sedeo, et lumen caeli non video? [I.B.2.b.i.] One [reason arises] from the exterior disposition: for, the evening is the beginning of darkness, which brings sadness; but the morning [is the beginning of] light, which brings joy: this is why the blind sing in order to rejoice: Tob 5 [:12]: "What manner of joy shall be to me, who sit in darkness, and see not the light of heaven?"
Secundo ex interiori: mane est hora sanguinis, qua homo disponitur ad gaudium; vespere est hora melancholiae, qua homo disponitur ad tristitiam. [I.B.2.b.ii.] The second is from the interior [disposition]: the morning is the time of blood, which disposes man to joy; evening is the time of melancholy, which disposes man to sadness. [15]
Tertio ex natura somni. Somnus enim est quies animalium: unde tristitia per somnum quietatur. [I.B.2.b.iii.] The third is from the nature of sleep. For, sleep is the repose of animals: this is why sadness is quelled through sleep.
Mystice littera est plana: quia, Ad vesperum Dominicae sepulturae fuit tristitia, quia adhuc fideles flebant mortem Christi. Sed Ad matutinum, propter nuncium resurrectionis, laetitia. Si ad totum genus humanum referatur, sic, Ad vesperum, idest peccatum primi parentis, tristitia; quia, ut habetur Genes. 3, post meridiem vergente jam sole ad occasum peccavit Adam. Et iste fletus non potest dici brevis, quia etiam post reparationem gratiae manent reliquiae ejus. Sed in matutino, idest in Christo, laetitia. Vel vespere quando lux spiritualis incipit in homine deficere, et tunc in eo, est fletus; sed quando relucet in eo, tunc est gaudium: Psal. 5: Mane astabo tibi, et videbo.In the mystical sense the text is clear: for, In the evening of the Lord's interment there was sadness, because the faithful were still weeping at the death of Christ. But in the morning, because of the announcement of [his] resurrection, [there was] gladness. If this is applied to the entire human race, then in this case, In the evening, that is, [at the time of the] sin of the first parents, [there was] sadness; because, as is said in Genesis 3, it was after midday, when the sun was already setting, on the occasion when Adam sinned. And this weeping cannot be called brief, because even after the restoration of grace, its remnants persist. But in the morning, that is, in Christ, [there is] joy. Or, in the evening, when the spiritual light in man begins to fade, then there is weeping in him; but when it shines in him, then there is joy: Ps 5 [:5]: "In the morning I will stand before thee, and will see."
5. Ego autem dixi in abundantia. Supra gratias egit de beneficiis divinis, hic autem prosequitur totum ordinem quomodo hoc sit adeptus. Ubi tria facit. Primo ponit processum suae directionis. Secundo suum recursum ad orationem, Ad te Domine clamabo. Tertio ostendit orationis exauditionem, ibi, Audivit Dominus. [II.] 5. And in my abundance I said. Above, [the psalmist] gave thanks for the divine benefits, but here he explains the process by which they are acquired. Here he does three things. First, he explains the progression of his guidance. Second, his recourse to prayer, To thee, O Lord, will I cry. Third, he shows the hearkening to [his] prayer: The Lord hath heard.
Secundum Glossam prima intelliguntur de Christo, et de quolibet homine. [II.A.] According to the Gloss, [this abundance] is understood foremost of Christ, and [then] of anyone.
Et primo exponamus quomodo intelliguntur de quolibet homine: Eccl. 10: Initium omnis peccati superbia. Et ideo in processu directionis primo ponitur praesumptio de se confidentium. Secundo falsitas praesumptionis, ibi, Domine in voluntate. Tertio praesumptionis poena, ibi, Avertisti faciem tuam a me. [II.A.1.] First, let us explain how this is understood of anyone: Ecclus [Sir] 10 [:15]: "Pride is the beginning of all sin." For that reason, in the progression of his guidance he first explains the presumption of those who have confidence in themselves. Second, the falsity of presumption: O Lord, in [thy] favor [will]. Third, the punishment for presumption: Thou turnedst away thy face from me.
Dicit ergo, Ego dixi, idest corde praesumpsi, in abundantia, corporalis prosperitatis: Non movebor, idest non deficiam: Apoc. 18: Sedebo [16] regina etc. Eccl. 11: In die bonorum ne immemor sis etc. Vel In abundantia, spiritualium bonorum, sicut Adam erat in paradiso: Ezech. 28: Plenus sapientia, perfectus decore in deliciis. Et in hac abundantia dicunt, Non movebor. Contra quod dicitur 1 Corinth. 10: Qui se existimat stare, videat ne cadat. [II.A.1.a.] Thus he says, I said­that is, I presumed in my heart; in [my] abundance of bodily prosperity: I shall never be moved­that is, I will not fail: Rev 18 [:7]: "I sit a queen," etc. Ecclus [Sir] 11 [:27]: "In the day of good things be not unmindful," etc. Or, In [my] abundance [can be understood] of spiritual goods, as Adam was in paradise: Ezek 28 [:12-13a]: "Full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. [Thou wast] in the pleasures [of the paradise of God]." And in this abundance they say, I shall never be moved. Against this it is said in 1 Cor 10 [:12]: "He that thinketh himself to stand, let him take heed lest he fall."
Falsitatem praesumptionis ostendit cum dicit, Domine in voluntate tua etc. Decor hominis temporaliter est prosperitas temporalis: ideo comparatur flori: Isa. 40: Omnis caro fenum. Hic autem decor de sui natura non habet virtutem per mensuram, sicut habetur Jac. 1: Sicut flos feni pertransibit. Exortus enim est sol cum ardore, et arefecit fenum, et flos ejus decidit, et decor vultus ejus deperiit: ita et dives etc. Sed unde habet virtutem et firmitatem et constantiam? Certe, ex voluntate Dei. Et ideo dixi, sed praesumptuose, quia Non movebor. Sed non est ita; immo quamdiu tibi placuit, Praestitisti decori meo virtutem. Bene in perpetuum, quia haec sanctis in patria sunt aeterna; hic autem ad velle suum. Item decor potest accipi pro virtute spirituali: Prov. ult.: Fortitudo et decor etc. Hic etiam ex sui natura non est fortis: quia habemus hunc decorem in vasis fictilibus, 2 Cor. 4, Luc. ult.: Sedete in civitate, donec induamini virtute ex alto. Et ideo dicit, Praestitisti decori meo virtutem, sed in voluntate tua: Rom. 9: Cujus vult miseretur. [II.A.1.b.] He shows the falsity of presumption when he says, O Lord, in thy favor [will], etc. The beauty of man in this life is temporal prosperity; for that reason, it is compared to a flower: Isa 40 [:6]: "All flesh is grass." But here [in this life] the beauty of his own nature does not have the capacity to be measured, as is said in Jas 1 [:10]: "As the flower of the grass shall he pass away. For the sun rose with a burning heat, and parched the grass, and the flower thereof fell off, and the beauty of the shape thereof perished: so also [shall] the rich man [fade away in his ways]." But from where does he have his strength and stability and constancy? Certainly, from the favor [will] of God. And therefore I said, although presumptuously, that I shall never be moved. But this is not so; on the contrary, as long as it pleased you, Thou gavest strength to my beauty. Perfectly in eternity, because these [goods] are eternal for the saints in heaven, but here [these goods] are [subject] to his will. Similarly, beauty may be taken for spiritual strength: Prov 31 [:25]: "Strength and beauty," etc. Even here, it is not strong on account of its own nature: for we possess this beauty "in earthen vessels," 2 Cor 4 [:7]; Luke 24 [:49]: "Stay you in the city till you be endued with power from on high." And for this reason he says, Thou gavest strength to my beauty, but in thy favor [will]: Rom 9 [:18]: "He hath mercy on whom he will."
Et hoc probat per effectum: quia quando Avertisti faciem tuam, perii. Dicitur autem Deus avertere faciem suam ab homine, ut eum non videat, vel ut non videatur ab eo. Videt autem omnes simplici visione et notitia; sed quosdam visione misericordiae: Ps. 24: Respice in me, et miserere mei. Avertisti ergo faciem tuam a me, ne mei miserearis. Et statim, Factus sum conturbatus, vel spiritualiter incidendo in peccatum, vel temporaliter in adversitatem. Vel, Avertisti faciem tuam, ne videaris a me. Et hoc videtur sonare littera Hieronymi. In adversis quibuscumque fortitudo hominis est habere oculos ad Deum: Psal. 76: Memor fui Dei, et delectatus sum. Avertisti ergo ne viderem. Et factus sum conturbatus. [II.A.1.c.] He proves this through the effect: because when Thou turnedst away thy face, I perished. God is said to turn his face away from man in order that he may not see him, or that he may not be seen by him. Now he sees all [men] with a simple vision and knowledge, but [he sees] some with a vision of mercy: Ps 24 [:16]: "Look thou upon me, and have mercy on me." You have turned therefore your face from me, so as not to take pity on me. And immediately I fell into trouble, either spiritually by falling into sin, or temporally by falling into adversity. Or, You have turned your face away, lest you be seen by me. And this seems to agree with the text of Jerome. In all adversities the strength of man consists in turning his eyes toward God: Ps 76 [:4] "I remembered God, and was delighted." Thus, you have turned away lest I see you. And I became troubled.
Sed si exponatur de Christo tunc in hoc, Ego dixi, non quidem praesumptuose, sed scientiae certitudine, in abundantia mea, idest virtutum et gratiarum: Joan. 1: Vidimus gloriam ejus, gloriam quasi unigeniti a Patre. Non movebor, a voluntate Dei: Joan. 8: Quae placita sunt ei, facio semper. Et hoc, quia, Praestitisti decori meo virtutem, scilicet faciendi miracula, et resistendi adversariis: Rom. 1: Praedestinatus est Filius Dei in virtute. Et hoc patet: quia quando Avertisti faciem tuam a me: in passione: Psal. 21: Deus Deus meus, quare me dereliquisti, factus sum conturbatus, non in ratione, sed in sensualitate: Joan. 12: Nunc anima mea turbata est.[II.A.2.] But if this is applied to Christ, then when he says For myself I said, [he does not speak] presumptuously, but with the certainty of knowledge; in my abundance, that is, of virtues and graces: John 1 [:14] "And we saw his glory, the glory as it were of the only begotten of the Father." I shall never be moved, on account of the will of God: "I always do what pleases him." And this [is] because thou gavest strength to my beauty, namely, for accomplishing miracles, and resisting adversaries: Rom 1 [:4] "Who was predestinated the Son of God in power." And this is manifest, for when Thou turnedst away thy face from me, in the Passion: Ps 21 [:2] "O God, my God, look upon me: why hast thou forsaken me," I became troubled; not in my reason, but in my sensibility: John 12 [:27] "Now is my soul troubled."
6. Ad te. Consequenter recurrit ad orationem cum dicit, Ad te Domine, clamabo etc. Et primo ponit orationem. Secundo assignat rationem, ibi, Quae utilitas. Tertio ostendit orationis exauditionem, ibi, Audivit Dominus. [II.B.] 6. To thee. Consequently, he takes recourse to prayer when he says: To thee, O Lord, will I cry, etc. First, he explains [his] prayer. Second, he gives a reason: What profit is there. Third, he shows the hearkening to [his] prayer: The Lord hath heard.
Circa primum duo facit. Quia primo orat pro amotione mali. Secundo pro assecutione boni, ibi, Et ad Deum meum deprecabor. [II.B.1.] With respect to the first, [explaining his prayer,] he does two things. For, he prays first for the removal of evil. Second, [he prays] for the attainment of good: And I will make supplication to my God.
Dicit ergo, Ad te Domine clamabo, ut clamor intelligatur oratio quae fit ad remotionem mali, in Christo passionis, in peccatore peccati, in homine adversitatis. [II.B.1.a.] Thus he says, To thee, O Lord, will I cry, in order that my cry may be understood as a prayer made to remove evil: in Christ, [the removal] of his Passion; in the sinner, of his [state of] sin; in man, of his [state of] adversity.
Et ad Deum meum deprecabor. Deprecatio est propter bonum dandum: Christo scilicet gloriam, peccatori gratiam, homini afflicto prosperitatem. Vel clamor referatur ad afflictionem cordis, deprecatio ad assiduitatem orationis: Jac. ult.: Multum valet deprecatio justi assidua.[II.B.1.b.] And I will make supplication to my God. A supplication is made for the purpose of being given a good: for Christ, glory; for the sinner, grace; for the afflicted man, prosperity. Or, the word cry refers to the affliction of the heart; the word supplication to the constancy of the prayer: Jas 5 [:16] "For the continual prayer of a just man availeth much."
7. Deinde cum dicit, Quae utilitas in sanguine. Dupliciter assignat. Et primo in universali. Secundo in speciali, ibi, Numquid confitebitur. [II.B.2.] 7. Thereafter, when he says, What profit is there in my blood, he indicates this in two ways. First, in a universal manner. Second, in a particular manner: Shall [dust] confess.
Dicit ergo, Quae utilitas? Si de Christo exponatur, in sanguine Christi maxima fuit utilitas: Matth. 26: Pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum. Sed si cito resuscitatus non fuisset, sed ejus resurrectio fuisset dilata usque ad finem mundi, nulla utilitas fuisset in eo, vel et jam si corpus ejus fuisset totaliter putrefactum. Sed numquid suffecit passio ad salutem? Sic. Sed si hoc non fuisset, scilicet quod non surrexisset, et cito, non fuisset credita ejus divinitas: et sic homines non fuissent utilitatem consecuti. [II.B.2.a.] Thus he says, What profit is there? If this is applied to Christ, his blood was of maximum usefulness: Matt 26 [:28]: "Which shall be shed for many unto remission of sins." Yet if he had not been immediately resurrected, and if his resurrection had been delayed until the end of the world, there would have been no utility in it, and it would have been the same if his body had been totally corrupted. But did not his Passion suffice for our salvation? Yes. Yet if this event had not taken place­that is, if he had not arisen, and quickly­his divinity would not have been believed; and thus men would not have obtained the salutary good.
In speciali ostendit, dicens Numquid confitebitur tibi. Dupliciter dicitur pulvis. Uno modo pulvis peccatorum intelligitur: Psalm. 1: Tamquam pulvis quem projicit ventus a facie terrae. Per mortem Christi peccatores, qui pulvis sunt, ad duo bona post resurrectionem pervenerunt; ut scilicet confiterentur peccata sua: Act. 2: His auditis compuncti sunt corde etc. Et ideo dicit, Numquid confitebitur tibi pulvis? scilicet peccator, si descendam in corruptionem putrefactionis; quasi dicat, Non. Aliud bonum est confessio veritatis fidei; unde, Aut annunciabit veritatem tuam? Vel numquid pulvis resolutus ex corpore, modo erit materia, ut per Apostolos confiteantur tibi populi veritatem, vel ipsi Apostoli veritatem tuam? Si exponatur de homine, tunc sic: Numquid confitebitur, idest si moriar, non potero te laudare.[II.B.2.b.] He shows this in particular, saying Shall [dust] confess to thee. Dust is spoken of in two ways. In one way, dust is understood of sinners: Ps 1 [:4]: "Like the dust, which the wind driveth from the face of the earth." Through the death of Christ sinners, who are dust, have gained two goods after the resurrection: [the first is] that they confess their sins: Acts 2 [:37]: "Now when they had heard these things, they had compunction in their heart," etc. For that reason, he says, Shall dust confess to thee?, that is to say, the sinner, if he descends into the corruption of putrefaction; as if to say, No. The other good is the confession of the truth of the faith; whence [he also says], Or declare thy truth? Or the dust resulting from the decomposition of the body; will it presently be [of such capacity] that people confess to you the truth through [the intermediary of] the Apostles, or that the Apostles themselves [confess] your truth? If by dust is understood that of man, then the sense is the following: Shall [dust] confess; that is, if I should die, I will not be able to praise you.
8. Tertio cum dicit, Audivit Dominus, ostendit orationis exauditionem. Et primo ponitur exauditio. Secundo exauditionis modus, ibi, Et misertus. Tertio fructus, Ut cantet. [II.C.] 8. Third, when he says, The Lord hath heard, he shows the hearkening to his prayer. First, he explains the hearkening. Second, the mode of [this] hearkening: And hath had mercy. Third, its fruit: To the end that [my glory] may sing.
Dicit ergo, Audivit Dominus etc. Dixerat supra, Clamabo; hic autem dicit se exauditum, Audivit enim Dominus, quia exaudivit: Isa. penul.: Eritque antequam clament, ego exaudiam, adhuc illis loquentibus ego audiam: Joan. 11: Pater, gratias ago tibi, quoniam exaudisti me: ego autem sciebam quia tu semper me audis. [II.C.1.] [17] Thus he says, The Lord hath heard, etc. He has said above, Will I cry; but here he says that he has been heard, for The Lord hath heard, because he has hearkened: Isa 65 [:24]: "And it shall come to pass, that before they call, I will hear; as they are yet speaking, I will hear." John 11 [:41-42]: "Father, I give thee thanks that thou hast heard me. And I knew that thou hearest me always."
Deinde ponitur modus: Et misertus est mei. Et primo ipsum modum ostendit. Secundo exponit, ibi, Convertisti etc. [II.C.2.] In the next place he explains the mode: And hath had mercy on me. First, he shows the mode itself. Second, he explains [it]: Thou hast turned, etc.
Dicit Glossa, Clamabo, contra mala, et deprecabor pro bonis; et in utroque sum exauditus. Quia quantum ad primum, Misertus est mei, removendo omne malum poenalitatis. Quantum ad secundum, Dominus factus est mihi adjutor. Et quod consecutus sum gloriam immortalitatis: Psalm. 27: Adjutor meus et protector meus; in ipso speravit cor meum, et auditus sum. Et floruit caro mea. [II.C.2.a.] The Gloss says, Will I cry, against evils, and I will make supplication for good things; in both of these I have been heard. For, with respect to the first: He hath had mercy on me, by removing all the evil of punishment. With respect to the second: The Lord became my helper. Moreover, in that I have obtained the glory of immortality: Ps 27 [:7]: "The Lord is my helper and my protector: in him hath my heart confided, and I have been helped. And my flesh hath flourished."
Exponit modum, cum dicit, Convertisti. Secundum quod loquitur de Christo, duo dicit. Primo enim ostenditur commutatio de malis ad bonum, quantum ad interiora. Secundo quantum ad exteriora, ibi, Conscidisti. [II.C.2.b.] He explains the mode when he says, Thou hast turned. Inasmuch as he speaks of Christ he says two things. For, first is shown the change from evil to good, with respect to interior things. Second, with respect to exterior things: Thou hast cut.
Christus planctum habuit in tempore passionis in se: quia, Tristis est anima mea etc. Matth. 26. Et in suis, Joan. 16: Quia plorabitis et flebitis etc. Hunc planctum convertisti, ait, in gaudium resurrectionis. Quantum ad se: Psalm. 20: Domine, in virtute tua laetabitur rex, scilicet Christus. Quantum ad suos: quia Gavisi sunt discipuli viso Domino, Joan. 20. [II.C.2.b.i.] Christ uttered a lament unto himself at the time of his Passion, for [he said]: "My soul is sorrowful," etc. (Matt 26 [:38]). Also, on behalf of his own [disciples], John 16 [:20]: "That you shall lament and weep," etc. Thou hast turned this groan, he says, into joy of the resurrection. With respect to himself: Ps 20 [:2]: "In thy strength, O Lord, the king shall joy," namely, Christ. With respect to his [disciples]: because "The disciples therefore were glad, when they saw the Lord" (John 20 [:20]).
Secundo ostenditur commutatio facta de malis ad bona, quantum ad exteriora: quia, Conscidisti. Saccus est pannus austerus, et imponitur renibus tempore tristitiae, et fit de pilis caprarum. Sic saccus est caro Christi secundum quod habet similitudinem carnis peccati. Caprae enim et haedi peccatores significant: quia pro peccatis offerebantur, ut habetur in Glossa. Concidisti saccum meum, idest scindi permisisti clavis et lancea, et restituisti mihi immortalitatem: et ideo dicit Circumdedisti. Vel de quolibet justo potest intelligi planctum commutatum in gaudium: Joan. 16: Tristitia vestra vertetur in gaudium: Tob. 3: Post lamentationem et fletum exultationem infundis.[II.C.2.b.ii.] Second is shown the change from evil to good, with respect to exterior things: for, Thou hast cut. Sackcloth is an austere material which one fixes to the loins at the time of sadness and is made from goat hair. Thus sackcloth is the flesh of Christ inasmuch as it resembles the flesh of sin. For goats and kid goats signify sinners, because they were offered for sins, as is said in the Gloss. Thou hast cut my sackcloth­that is, you have permitted cutting by nails and lance, and have restored to me immortality: and for that reason he says [Thou] hast compassed. Or, a lament changed into joy can be understood of any just person: John 16 [:20]: "Your sorrow shall be turned into joy." Tob 3 [:22]: "After tears and weeping thou pourest in joyfulness."
9. Deinde cum dicit, Ut cantet, ponitur fructus exauditionis. Fructus autem est gloria Dei; et quod cedat ad gloriam Dei, dupliciter potest intelligi, vel de gloria resurrectionis Christi, vel de gloria sanctorum; unde dicit, Gloria mea, mihi data in resurrectione, vel danda sanctis in patria, Cantet tibi, idest sit tibi mea laus: Joan. 17: Ut filius tuus clarificet te, et hoc sit in perpetuum; unde dicit, Domine Deus meus in aeternum confitebor tibi: Psalm. 83: Beati qui habitant in domo tua: in saecula saeculorum laudabunt te. [II.C.3.] 9. Thereafter, when he says, To the end that [my glory] may sing, he explains the fruit of the hearkening. The fruit is the glory of God; and the fact that he yields to the glory of God can be understood in two ways­either concerning the glory of Christ's resurrection, or the glory of the saints; whence he says, My glory, given to me at the resurrection, or to be given to the saints in heaven; May sing to thee­that is, may my praise be for you: John 17 [:1]: "That thy Son may glorify thee," and may this last for ever; whence he says, O Lord my God, I will give praise to thee: Ps 83 [5]: "Blessed are they that dwell in thy house, O Lord: they shall praise thee for ever and ever."


Endnotes

1. The verse numbers of the Latin text of Psalm 29 are those found in the Paris edition of the Super Psalmos (1876), and correspond to the indented numbers of the sections in St. Thomas' commentary. Note that these verse numbers do not correspond to the verse numbering found in the Douay-Rheims English translation of Psalm 29.

2. The English translations of the text of Psalm 29 and all Bible passages in Thomas' commentary are quoted from the Douay-Rheims version (Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1899 [reprint: Rockford, Ill.: TAN Books and Publishers, Inc., 1971]). The Douay-Rheims verse numbers for Psalm 29 are placed in parentheses in the Psalm text.

3. The Douay-Rheims version translates "voluntate" as "favor" here, even though in the previous verse "voluntate" is translated "will." Since "will" seems to be a better translation of "voluntate" with respect to Thomas' understanding of the word than "favour," "will" will be supplied in brackets after "favor" in the English translation of Thomas' commentary for the sake of clarity.

4. Here, "to my beauty" is a translation of "decori meo" in the Vulgate text, which is a translation of tw/| ka,llei mou in the LXX. The LXX reads the Hebrew word in question as yrId"h]l;, whereas the BHS (4th ed.) text follows the reading yrIr>h;l. . Most modern versions follow the BHS reading. Thus, whereas the Douay-Rheims version translates the passage: "thou gavest strength to my beauty" (Ps 29:8), the RSV translates this passage: "thou hadst established me as a strong mountain" (Ps 30:7).

5. Latin text from Thomae Aquinatis Opera Omnia, http://www.tacalumni.org/aquinas/index.php, with added capitalization, italicization, and a few punctuation changes, chiefly following the Paris edition.

6. With respect to this English translation of Thomas' commentary on Psalm 29, three things should be noted : (1) I have relied to some extent on the French translation of Jean-Éric Stroobant de Saint-Éloy, Thomas D'Aquin, Commentaire sur les Psaumes: Introduction, traduction, notes et tables (Paris: Cerf, 1996) 345-53. (2) The biblical verse numbers in brackets have been supplied for the most part from the Paris edition (1876). (3) To help distinguish the progression of the commentary, the biblical passages quoted from Psalm 29 are given in italics, while the biblical passages quoted from other places are given in quotation marks.

7. Here I basically follow Stroobant's translation of this sentence: "Comme on l'a dit plus haut, on appelle psaumes des cantiques, car le cantique était d'abord chanté, et puis suivait le psaume, autrement dit : le psaume suivait le cantique" (345). According to Stroobant (345, n. 1) "Sicut supra dictum est" refers to the beginning of Thomas' commentary on Psalm 4. The Latin text of the pertinent section is as follows:

Quoad primum ergo nota, quod David sicut legitur 2 Reg. 6, faciebat Psalmum metrice, et cantabat ante arcam cum psalterio. Ergo Psalmus dicitur quod cantatur ad psalterium, sed non absque psalterio. In quibusdam autem Psalmis describitur Psalmus David, ubi intelligitur quod est factus ad psalterium. In aliquibus praescribitur canticum David, quia cantabatur sine instrumento. In aliquibus, Psalmus cantici David, vel e converso: eo quod ille Psalmus cantabatur simul voce humana, et ad psalterium. Sed in aliquibus incipiebat unus vel multi voce humana sine instrumento, et unus respondebat cum psalterio; et hi intitulantur canticum Psalmi. In aliquibus vero unus cantabat Psalmum cum psalterio, et alii respondebant sine psalterio: et hi intitulantur Psalmus cantici.

Since from the above quotation from Thomas' commentary on Psalm 4 a "psalm" indicates accompaniment with a psaltery and a "canticle" indicates singing without accompaniment, it would seem that in the last sentence of the above quotation, Thomas seems to be saying that a "psalmus cantici" indicates that first a psalm is sung with a psaltery, and then others respond without the accompaniment of a psaltery: in other words, the canticle follows the psalm. Yet in his commentary on Psalm 29, he seems to say the opposite: this "psalmus cantici" indicates that the psalm follows the canticle.

Thomas is following a tradition of interpretation of Psalm titles that seems to agree that a psalm indicates instrumental accompaniment, whereas a canticle indicates singing without instrumental accompaniment. Both Cassiodorus (Explanation, 31) and Peter Lombard (Commentarium in Psalmos, Psalm 4; PL 191, col. 83) have the same view as Thomas on this score. However, what is meant by a "psalmus cantici" and conversely by a "canticum psalmi" seems to be a more controverted issue. Cassiodorus states: "A psalm-canticle was sung by a chorus joining their voices to follow a musical instrument. But the term is restricted to the choir's rendering of sacred words." Conversely, "A canticle-psalm consisted of the singing of the choir followed by skilful playing of a musical instrument combining to form a single harmony, so that the combination sweetly sounded forth the words of the heavenly hymn" (Explanation, 32). Peter Lombard states: "Quando instrumento praecedente, et voce sequente, dicebatur psalmi canticum, vel canticum psalmi. Quando vero chori vox praecedebat, et instrumentum sequebatur, dicebatur cantici psalmus, vel psalmus cantici" (Commentarium in Psalmos, Psalm 4; PL 191, col. 83). Thus, for Lombard, a "psalmus cantici" indicated that first there was a chorus of voices without accompaniment (a canticle), and then the instrumental accompaniment followed (a psalm).

8. In the versions of the Bible used by Thomas, in the Vulgate, and in the Douay-Rheims version, some of the biblical Books are titled differently than in many modern Bibles:

St. ThomasModern
1 Kings (is equivalent to)1 Samuel
2 Kings2 Samuel
3 Kings1 Kings
4 Kings2 Kings
EcclesiasticusSirach

In this translation, the modern titles (or abbreviated titles) for the biblical Books are given in brackets after Thomas' titles for them. Note, however, that the chapter and verse numbers given in the English translation of Thomas' commentary correspond to the Douay-Rheims version, and do not always correspond to the chapter and verse numbers in more modern English versions of the Bible.

9. These section headings (I, A, 1, a, i, etc.) correspond to Thomas' divisio textus in an attempt to help the reader keep track of Thomas' own outline.

10. This phrase ("nullus optat malum nisi sibi exoso") is difficult to translate. Another possibility than the translation given in the text is: "no one wishes evil except those who hate themselves."

11. While the Douay-Rheims version has "servants" here, "sancti" might be better translated as "saints."

12. This is a quote of Ps 29:6.

13. Here I have taken account of the word "peccatoris" in the translation, but the Douay-Rheims translation of Ezek 18:32 does not give any indication of the word "peccatoris," and instead the verse reads (in its entirety): "For I desire not the death of him that dieth, saith the Lord God, return ye and live." While a different Latin word is used in the Vulgate ("impii" rather than "peccatoris") Thomas may be conflating Ezek 18:32 with Ezek 33:11, which reads, "nolo mortem impii" for that passage, which the Douay-Rheims version translates, "I desire not the death of the wicked."

14. This is also a quote of Ps 29:6. The Vulgate, however, has "repropitiatione" in place of "propitiatione" here.

15. Here Thomas refers to the bodily humors.

16. Here the Vulgate has "sedeo" (present tense) rather than "sedebo" (future tense). While the Douay-Rheims translates this in the present tense, Thomas reads this passage in the future tense: "I will sit [as] a queen."

17. With respect to the divisio textus, this section seems to serve both as II.B.3 and II.C. For, when Thomas announces the outline of the parts of his commentary at the beginning of section II and the beginning of section II.B, he indicates that both II.C and II.B.3 refer to the passage The Lord hath heard.


© Fr. Stephen Alcott, O.P.

The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)