Psalm 23

a. Prima Sabbati. Psalmus David XXIII. Domini est terra, et plenitudo eius, orbis terrarum, et universi qui habitant in eo. Quia ipse super maria fundavit eum, et super flumina praeparavit eum.On the first day of the sabbath, a psalm for David. The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof: the world, and all they that dwell therein. For he hath founded it upon the seas; and hath prepared it upon the rivers.
b. Quis ascendet in montem Domini? aut quis stabit in loco sancto eius?Who shall ascend into the mountain of the Lord: or who shall stand in his holy place?
c. Innocens manibus et mundo corde, qui non accepit in vano animam suam, nec iuravit in dolo proximo suo.The innocent in hands, and clean of heart, who hath not taken his soul in vain, nor sworn deceitfully to his neighbor.
d. Hic accipiet benedictionem a Domino, et misericordiam a Deo salutari suo. Haec est generatio quaerentium eum, quaerentium faciem Dei Iacob.He shall receive a blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God his Savior. This is the generation of them that seek him, of them that seek the face of the God of Jacob.
e. Attolite portas principes vestras, et elevamini portae aeternales, et introibit rex gloriae. Quis est iste rex gloriae? Dominus fortis et potens, Dominus potens in praelio. Attolitte portas principes vestras, et elevamini portae aeternales, et introibit rex gloriae. Quis est iste rex gloriae? dominus virtutum, ipse est rex gloriae.Lift up your gates, O ye princes, and be ye lifted up, O eternal gates: and the King of Glory shall enter in. Who is this King of Glory? the Lord who is strong and mighty: the Lord mighty in battle. Lift up your gates, O ye princes, and be ye lifted up, O eternal gates: and the King of Glory shall enter in. Who is this King of Glory? the Lord of hosts, he is the King of Glory.
Posita tribulatione et auxilio divino, hic commendat Psalmista potestatem auxiliantis. Titulus non est novus in Hebraeo; sed in Latino additur in prima sabbati. Ubi sciendum est quod sicut dicitur Exod. 20: Memento ut diem sabbati sanctifices etc., est tertium praeceptum. Sex enim diebus fecit Deus caelum et terram et omnia quae in eis sunt, et in septima requievit; ita et nos debemus pro reverentia septima die requiescere. Unde omnes dies hebdomadae sabbatum appellantur, sicut dies Dominicus dicitur prima sabbati. Matth. ult.: Vespere autem sabbati quae lucescit in prima sabbati. Et deinceps tota hebdomada sabbatum dicitur. Luc. 18: Ieiuno bis in sabbato: unde psalmus hic in prima sabbati commemorat ea quae pertinent ad primam sabbati, idest ad dominicam.Having related (his) distress and the divine help (for which he asked and received), the Psalmist commends here the power of the Helper. The title, On the first day of the sabbath, does not originate with the Hebrew version (of the Psalter), but has been added in the Latin version. It should be noted that this (title) is the third commandment, as is said at Exodus 20: "Remember that thou keep holy the sabbath day". For God made heaven and earth, and everything contained therein, in six days, and rested on the seventh. And just as (He so rested), so too should we, for the sake of reverence, on the seventh day. Hence all the days of the week are called "sabbath" days, as the Lord's day is called "the first day of the sabbath"; Matthew 28: "And in the end of the sabbath, when it began to dawn towards the first day of the week..." And from that time forward, every day of the week has been called the sabbath: Luke 18: "I fast twice in a week (sabbato)." Hence, this psalm On the first day of the sabbath commemorates those things which pertain to the first day of the week, that is to say, the Lord's day.
In qua tria facta sunt: scilicet creatio mundi, productio lucis, et resurrectio Christi, ut in Evangelio habetur Matth. 28. De istis ergo agit Psalmista: scilicet de potentia creantis, et gloria resurgentis; et forte iste psalmus cantabatur in prima sabbati, sed videtur esse disiunctus. Tamen sciendum est, quod tempore David Deus colebatur solum in Iudaea; et David considerans quod Deus est Deus totius terrae, et videns in spiritu prophetico futurum esse quod coleretur in toto mundo, fecit istum psalmum: et de hoc agit hic. Now, three things were done on this day, namely the creation of the world, the production of light, and the resurrection of Christ, as (the latter) is related in the Gospel of Matthew 28. Consequently, the Psalmist treats of these things, namely of the power of the Creator, and the glory of he who rises from the grave. Perhaps this very psalm was sung on the first day of the week. However this would seem to be incongruous. Nevertheless, it should be noted that in David's time, God was worshiped only in Judea. And David, considering that God is the God of all the earth, and seeing, in a prophetic spirit, what would be, that God was being praised in all the world, wrote this very psalm. And concerning this, he acted thus.
Dividitur ergo psalmus iste in tres partes. In prima ponit universale eius dominium; in secunda ponit sive ostendit modum quo homines accedunt ad Deum, ibi, quis ascendet; in tertia praedicit futurum cultum Dei per totum mundum, ibi, attollite. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit quod universale est Dei dominium; secundo ponit signum vel causam, ibi, quia ipse super maria.Consequently, this psalm is divided into three parts. In the first, he sets down the whole of His dominion. In the second, he sets down or shows the way in which men come near to God, at, Who shall ascend. In the third, he proclaims the future worship of God (which will extend) throughout all the world, at, Lift up. Concerning the first part, he does two things. First, he shows that God's dominion is universal, and second, sets down a sign or cause, at, For he hath founded it upon the seas.
Vel sic: in psalmo isto agit de tribus. Primo de creatione; secundo de illuminatione, ibi, quis ascendet, tertio de resurrectione, ibi, attollite, sive de resurgentis glorificatione. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ponit creantis potentiam; secundo subdit rationem, ibi, quia ipse super maria. Or (this psalm could be considered) in the following fashion: (the Psalmist) treats of three things in this psalm (namely) of creation, illumination, at, Who shall ascend, and the resurrection, or of the glorification of the one who rises from the grave, at Lift up. Concerning the first (of these), he does two things. First, he sets down the Creator's power, and second, supplies a reason, at, For he hath founded it upon the seas.
Est autem sciendum quod terra potest dupliciter considerari: vel secundum quod est unum elementum, vel secundum quod est habitaculum hominum: et utroque modo est sub divino dominio. Now, it must be noted that "earth" can be considered in a two-fold way, namely insofar as it is one element, or insofar as it is the dwelling place of men. And in both ways they are under the divine power.
Primo modo fuerunt aliqui non extendentes divinam providentiam ad corruptibilia, sed tantum ad caelos. Iob 22: Nubes latibulum eius: circa cardines caeli perambulat, nec nostra considerat. Ezech. 9: Dereliquit terram, et Dominus non videt eam. Psalmus dicit, Mentimini; quia, Domini est terra, scilicet ipsum elementum super quod habet dominium:With respect to the first, there wer some who (argued that) divine providence does not extend to corruptible things, but only to the heavens: Job 22: "The clouds are his covert, and he doth not consider our things, and he walketh about the poles of heaven"; Ezechiel 9: "The Lord hath forsaken the earth, and the Lord seeth (it) not. The Psalm (however) states (that) "You assume this falsely" because The earth is the Lord's, namely, the element itself over which He has power.
Vel terra, idest ecclesia, quae est bona terra quae facit multum fructum.?Or (it could be said that) The earth (refers to) the church, which is good earth that yields much fruit.
Isa. 40: Quis appendit tribus digitis molem terrae, et libravit in pondere montes, et colles in statera. Sed addit, et plenitudo eius. Gen. 1: Terra erat inanis et vacua etc., quia non erat plena arboribus et aliis quae pertinent ad ornatum terrae, sicut plantae et herbae. (Furthermore, there is) Isaiah 40 (which states) "Who hath poised with three fingers the bulk of the earth, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance?" But, (the Psalmist) adds, And the fullness thereof; Genesis 1: "And the earth was void and empty" since it was not yet filled with trees and other things which pertain to the earth's adornment, namely plants and herbs.
Vel, plenitudo terrae, idest plenitudo gratiarum ecclesiae. Et hic est Christus qui attulit omnem gratiarum plenitudinem in se. Eccle. 15: Facies tua plena gratiarum. Ioan. 1: De plenitudine eius omnes accepimus. Or (it could be said that) The earth's fullness (refers to) the fullness of the church's gifts or graces. And this (fullness) is Christ who bore within himself the entire fullness of grace; Ecclesiasticus 15 (?): "Your face is full of grace"; John 1: "And of his fullness we all have received (and grace for grace)."
Secundo modo etiam dicitur Dei orbis terrarum, idest nostra terra habitabilis. Et universi qui habitant in ea, idest omnes habitatores eius. Ps. 9: Iudicabit orbem terrae in aequitate, et populos in iustitia. Isa. 45: Non in vanum creavi eam (scilicet terram) ut habitaretur formavi eam. In the second way, the world is said to be of God, namely (as) our earthly dwelling place. And all they that dwell therein, namely all its inhabitants; Psalm 9: "He shall judge the world in equity, and the people in justice"; Isaiah 45: "Not in vain have I created it", namely the earth, "I formed it to be inhabited."
Centrum est infimus locus in mundo, ad quod terra gravitate sua tendit et omnia alia cedunt sibi: et dicit Psalm. 103: Qui fundavit terram super stabilitatem suam, quia per gravitatem tendit illuc: et super nihilum, quia nihil sibi subsidet; et Isa. 40, dicit: Appendit tribus digitis molem terrae, frigiditate et partium suarum continuitate. Sed quia terra est elementum, et ex ea cum aliis elementis fit mixtum; terra autem est sicca et frigida, unde nec ex motu nec ex fluxu pars una continuatur, alteri indiget humore continente et continuante, et sic fundatur vel confirmatur super aquas; et quia in qualibet parte terrae quasi fit generatio aquarum, tota terra fere potest dici fundari super aquam: propter quod dicit, ipse super maria fundavit eam. (Now,) "center" refers to the lowest place in the universe, to which the earth in its heaviness tends, as well as all other things subject to (the earth). And the psalm says "He who founded the earth upon its firmness" because through its heaviness it tends thither (that is, to the center): and (it, the center, is founded) upon nothing, because nothing remains to it (to tend to - it is the lowest place in the universe). (Now,) Isaiah 40 states that "He hath poised with three fingers the bulk of the earth" in the coldness and the combination of its parts. But since the earth is an element, and from (the element), (the earth as such) is made when (the element is) mixed with the other elements [but the earth is dry and cold. Hence neither from motion or flow is a single part combined], (the earth as such) requires a preserving and a combining humor. And it is in this way that (the earth) is founded or confirmed upon the waters: and because in each part of earth (the element) the generation of water is, as it were, made, the whole of the earth could perhaps be said to be founded upon water, on account of which the Psalmist says, For he hath founded it upon the seas.
Vel sicut fundamentum continet aedificium, sic aqua continet terram, ne discontinuetur.Or, as the foundation combines or hold the building together, or as water "contains" the earth, so that it not be separated or disconnected.
Discontinuatio etiam terrae facit quod aqua quae liquida est et gravis, fluat quasi per totam terram.Furthermore, the discontinuities in the (surface of the) earth (river-beds, springs, deep depressions that become lakes and seas - ed.) makes water, which latter is liquid and heavy, flow, as it were, through the earth as such.
Item per orbem designatur ecclesia et omnes habitantes in ea, scilicet fideles; et omnes sumus Christi: et sive vivimus, sive morimur, Domini sumus, ut Apostolus dicit Rom. 14. Again, by earth (as sphere) is designated the church and all that dwell in it, namely the faithful. And we are all of Christ: and whether we live or die, we are of the Lord, as the Apostle says at Romans 14.
Consequenter reddit causam supradictorum, quia scilicet, super maria fundavit eam; quasi dicat: illud est artificis, quod ipse artifex facit. Sed Deus fecit terram et ea quae sunt in terra. Ergo ipsius est terra et plenitudo eius. Consequently, he reveals the cause of the aforesaid, namely because He hath founded it upon the seas. It is as if he were saying, "That (thing) is of the artist, which the artist himself makes." But God made the earth and those things which are upon it. Therefore, the earth is of Him and of his plenitude.
Sed quidam dicunt, quod non est providentia Dei in rebus terrenis. But some say that God's providence does not (extend to) earthly things.
Sed contra hoc est signum magnae providentiae dispositio aquarum ad terram, quia elementa levia debent esse super graviora. Similiter ergo sicut aer circumdat aquam, ita aqua debet circumdare terram. Et philosophi assignant super hoc multas causas. Sed causa est providentia divina, ut ibi esset habitatio hominum et animalium; unde Moyses in principio, quando posuit rerum creationem, posuit terram primum informem; unde terra erat inanis, idest informis, et vacua arboribus; et ideo posuit eam circumdatam sive opertam aqua, et tenebrae, idest aquae, erant super faciem abyssi, idest super terram, et spiritus Domini, idest aer, ferebatur super aquas. Contrary to this (position is the fact that) the disposition of the waters to the earth is a sign of great providence, because light elements ought to be above (those which are) heavier. In a like manner, therefore, just as air surrounds water, so too ought water to surround earth. The philosophers assign many causes to this phenomenon. But the (true) cause is divine providence so that there be a habitation for man and the animals. Hence when Moses, at the beginning (of Scriptures, in "Genesis") sets down the creation of things, he described the earth first as formless. Hence, "The earth was void", that is formless, "and empty" of trees. In this way he describes it (the earth as) surrounded or covered by water, "And darkness", that is water, "was upon the face of the deep", that is upon the earth, "And the spirit of the Lord", that is air, moved over the waters.
Vel terra erat inanis, idest invisibilis propter aquas; unde sequitur, congregentur aquae etc. Et appareat arida; quasi dicat: quia terra est prima secundum ordinem elementorum, a providentia divina factum est quod sit super aquas, ut homines et animalia possint in ea vivere, et aquae nihilominus occupent terram quantum durant maria: unde dicit, Ipse super maria fundavit eam, idest iuxta, sicut alibi. Ps. 136: Super flumina Babylonis (idest iuxta flumen Babylonis) illic sedimus etc.Or (on another interpretation), "The earth was void", that is invisible on account of the waters. Hence (the passage) follows "Let the waters that are under heaven, be gathered together into one place: and let the dry land appear." It is as if he were saying "Since earth is first with respect to the order of the elements, by divine providence it comes to be that it (the earth) is upon the waters, so that men and the animals might live on it (the earth), but let the waters, nevertheless, occupy the earth insofar as they remain (as the) seas." Hence he says, For he hath founded it upon, that is next to, the seas, as (it is stated in) other places; (for example) Psalm 136: "Upon the rivers of Babylon", that is next to the river of Babylon, "there we sat and wept."
Fundavit, idest firmam statuit, ut mare eam non occupet: Iob 38: Posui mari ostia et vectes, et dixit, hucusque venies, et non procedes amplius; et hic confringes tumentes fluctus tuos: Hier. 5: Qui posuit arenam terminum mari, praeceptum sempiternum quod non praeteribit. Et super flumina praeparavit illam, idest iuxta flumina; et dicit, praeparavit, non fundavit, quia ad praeparationem requiritur quod irrigetur flumine; Psal. 64: Flumen Dei repletum est aquis: parasti cibum illorum, quoniam ita est praeparatio eius: rivos eius inebrians multiplica etc.Founded, that is, made firm, so that the sea would not overwhelm it; Job 38: "I made doors and bars for the sea. And I said: Hitherto thou shalt come, and shalt go no further, and here thou shalt break thy swelling waves"; Jeremiah 5: "I have set the sand a bound for the sea, an everlasting ordinance, which it shall not pass over." And hath prepared it upon the rivers, that is, next to the rivers. He says Prepared, and not "founded" because for the preparation (of the earth) it is required that it be irrigated by a river; Psalm 64: "The river of God is filled with water: thou hast prepared their food: for so is its preparation. Fill up plentifully the streams thereof, multiply its fruits" etc.
Vel ecclesia, fundata est super maria, idest super tribulationes: Ps. 92: Mirabiles elationes maris. Et super flumina, idest persecutiones quibus praeparata est ecclesia ad coronas martyrum.Or (it could be said that) the church is founded upon the seas, that is upon tribulations; Psalm 92: "Wonderful are the surges of the sea." And Upon the rivers, that is, the persecutions by which the church is prepared for the crowns of the martyrs.
Vel super maria, idest amaritudines; et tamen consolationem eius praeparavit flumina consolationum: Ps. 45: Fluminis impetus laetificat etc.Or Upon the seas, that is, (upon) severities; nevertheless, the rivers of consolation prepared (the Church's) consolation; Psalm 45: "The stream of the river maketh the city of God joyful."
b. Quis ascendet? Quasi dicat, magnus est, et quomodo accedetur ad eum? Eccl. 2: Quis est homo qui possit sequi regem factorem suum; et ideo docet modum perveniendi: unde circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit quaestionem. Secundo responsionem, ibi, innocens manibus. In quaestione quaerit duo: scilicet de via seu motu, quis ascendet. Et de termino, aut quis stabit. Who shall ascend? as if to say, "He is great. How shall we approach him?" (Ecclesiastes 2: "What is man...that he can follow the King his maker?"); and for that reason he teaches the way of attaining (the aforesaid), concerning which he does two things. First, he sets down the question, and second, a response, at, The innocent in hands. With respect to the former, he inquires concerning two things, namely of the path or movement, at, Who shall ascend?, and of (its) end, at, Who shall stand?
Mons signat hic altitudinem divinae iustitiae sive maiestatis: Psalm. 35: Iustitia tua sicut montes Dei. Mons ergo est altitudo divinae maiestatis, vel sublimitas Christi, qui mons dicitur; Isa. 2: Erit in novissimis diebus praeparatus mons domus Domini in vertice montium, et elevabitur etc. Quis ergo ascendet tantum quod deveniat ad Christum et Deum? Sancti viri qui disponunt ascensiones in corde suo ascendent, ut dicit Psalmista. "Mountain" signifies this height of the divine justice or of majesty; Psalm 35: "Thy justice is as the mountains of God." "Mountain," therefore, refers to the height of divine greatness, or to Christ's loftiness, which is called a mountain; Isaiah 2: "In the last days the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be prepared on the top of mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills..." And so, Who shall ascend so greatly that he comes to Christ and God? Holy men, (those) who command ascents in their heart, will ascend, as the Psalmist states.
Item: Quis poterit stare ibi, ubi ipse est qui est locus sanctus, locus gloriae? Hier. 17: Locus sanctificationis nostrae expectatio Israel: Exod. 3: Locus in quo stas terra sancta est: quasi dicat: quis stabilietur ibi? Sed alibi dicit Psal. 121, quod sic, Stantes erant pedes nostri in atriis tuis Hierusalem. Unde consequenter ponitur responsio. Again, Who will be able to stand there, where He himself is, which is a holy place, a place of glory? Jeremiah 17: "The place of sanctification...the hope of Israel"; Exodus 3: "The place whereon thou standest is holy ground", as if to say "Who will stand there?" But Psalm 121 states otherwise: "Our feet were standing in thy courts, O Jerusalem." Hence the response is thus set forth.
c. Innocens. Et primo ostendit hoc in generali. Secundo in speciali, haec est generatio. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit meritum. Secundo praemium, ibi, accipiet. The innocent he first shows in general, and second in particular, at, This is the generation. Concerning the former, he does two things. First, he sets forth their merit, and second, their reward, at, He shall receive.
In merito est unum quod pertinet ad innocentiam operis; unde dicit, innocens manibus: Iob 22: Salvabitur innocens; salvabitur autem munditia manuum suarum: Ps. 25: Ego in innocentia mea ingressus sum. Aliud pertinet ad puritatem cordis: et quantum ad hoc ponit, quod conservetur cor purum a concupiscentiis interioribus: unde dicit, et mundo corde: Matth. 5: Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt. With respect to merit, there is (that) one which pertains to the innocence of deed. Hence he says, The innocent in hands; Job 22: "The innocent shall be saved, and he shall be saved by the cleanness of his hands"; Psalm 25: "I have walked in my innocence." And then there is another (kind of merit) which pertains to the purity of heart. With respect to this, he states the a clear heart is kept from interior desires. Hence he says And clean of heart: Matthew 5: "Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God."
Item ab omni cupiditate rerum temporalium, qui non accepit in vano animam suam: idest qui non effudit eam super res vanas, vel qui non vane gloriatur de virtutibus, vel qui non permittit sensualitatem suam pervenire usque ad consensum peccati.Again, from all desire of temporal things, Who hath not taken his soul in vain, that is, who has not poured his soul out upon vain things, or does not vainly boast concerning (his) powers (or abilities), or does not allow his sensuality to arrive at (the point of) the consent to sin.
Hieronymus habet, qui non extollunt in vanum, quia ex munditia cordis aliqui superbiunt: Ps. 130: Domine, non est exaltatum cor meum. Jerome has, "Who do not exalt in vain (things)," because from the cleanness of (their) heart, they take pride in some people; Psalm 130: "Lord, my heart is not exalted."
Item pertinet ad veritatem oris; unde sequitur, nec iuravit in dolo proximo suo: Zach. 8: Iuramentum mendax non diligatis. Again, it pertains to truth of speech. Hence it follows, Nor sworn deceitfully to his neighbor; Zachariah 8: "Love not a false oath."
d. Hic accipiet. Hic ponit praemium. Praemium autem consistit in duobus: scilicet in consecutione bonorum: hic accipiet benedictionem, idest bona a Deo: Prov. 10: Benedictio Domini super caput iusti: 1 Petr. 3, In hoc vocati estis, ut benedictione hereditatem possideatis. Item in liberatione a malis: unde dicit, et misericordiam a Deo salutari suo, qui liberat a miseria.He shall receive. Here he describes the reward, which consists in two things, namely in the acquiring of good things - He shall receive a blessing, that is, good things from God; Proverbs 10: "The blessing of the Lord upon the head of the just"; 1 Peter 3: "Unto this are you called, that you may inherit a blessing." And second, in freedom from evil things. Hence he says, And mercy from God his savior, who he frees from misery.
Vel aliter: potest accedere innocens manibus; quia potest esse innocens, propter hoc quod accipiet benedictionem a Domino, et misericordiam, quia vitat peccata; Rom. 6: Non est volentis neque currentis, sed Dei miserentis. Or (it can be interpreted) in another way. The innocent in hands is able to approach, since he is innocent, on account of the fact that he accepts A blessing from the Lord, and mercy, since he avoids sin; Romans 9: "It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy."
Consequenter ostendit istum modum in generali, haec est generatio quaerentium Dominum; quasi dicat: in generali multi sunt tales: et isti sunt tota generatio quaerentium Deum qui sunt innocentes etc. Unde loquitur scriptura de bonis sicut de una generatione: Matth. 24: Non pertransibit generatio haec, scilicet bonorum etc. Next, he shows that mode itself in general, at, This is the generation of them that seek the Lord. It is as if he were saying "In general there are many of these, and these are the entire generation of them that seek God, those who are Innocent in hands etc. Hence, Scriptures speak of the good, as if of one generation; Matthew 24: "This generation" of the good, "shall not pass" etc.
Et describit eam a duobus: scilicet a studio, quia nihil quaerit nisi Deum: unde dicit: quaerentium Deum, etiam in vita ista: Is. 55: Quaerite Dominum dum inveniri potest. Quo fine? ut perveniat ad eius visionem; unde sequitur, quaerentium faciem Dei Iacob: Gen. 32: Vidi Dominum facie ad faciem, et salva facta est anima mea.He describes (this generation) in two ways, namely by (way of its) zeal, because it seeks nothing other than God. Hence he says Of them that seek God, even in this present life; Isaiah 55: "Seek ye the Lord, while he may be found." In accordance with what end? That he might come before his face. Hence it follows Of them that seek the face of the God of Jacob; Genesis 32: "I have seen the Lord face to face, and my soul has been saved."
e. Attollite. Haec est tertia pars psalmi: in qua praenunciat quomodo futurum erat, quod Deus coleretur in toto mundo, ut sensus litteralis exponit. Lift up. This is the psalm's third part in which the Psalmist foretells how it would be, (namely) that God would be honored throughout the whole world, as the literal sense explains.
Deus dicitur hominem inhabitare per fidem: Eph. 3. Inhabitare Christum per fidem in cordibus vestris: et per caritatem: Io. 4: Qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo. Item dicitur intrare qui incipit esse ubi prius non erat. Tunc ergo Deus intrat in nos, quando incipimus habere fidem de eo. God is said to dwell in man through faith (Ephesians 3: "That Christ may be faith dwell in your hearts") and charity (1 John 4: "He that abideth in charity, abideth in God, and God in him." Furthermore, one is said to enter in who begins to be where before he was not. Therefore, God enters us at that time when we begin to have faith in him.
Olim totus mundus non habebat fidem Dei: et hoc contingebat propter duplex impedimentum: scilicet propter statuta principum, et propter consuetudinem antiquam. Primum contingebat, quia singulae civitates proponebant sibi leges de idolatria, et constituebant speciales deos: et hic cultus erat quasi inveteratus; hoc etiam daemones procurabant. Item angeli colebantur, quos vocabant militiam caeli: et ista impedimenta erant portae sive ostia quae clausum prohibent introitum domus. In the past, the entire world did not have faith in God. And this happened because of a two fold impediment, namely the laws of the first peoples, and the ancient customs. The first impediment came about because individual cities set forth laws for themselves concerning idolatry, and established their own gods. And this was the old worship, as it were. They also used to care for the demons. Again, the angels used to be honored, whom they called the host of heaven. And these impediments were the gates or doors which, when closed, prohibited entrance to the house.
Tria autem facit. Primo praenunciat illud quod est futurum. Secundo proponit quaestionem. Tertio subdit responsionem. Dicit ergo, principes, idest, o mali homines, vel o daemones, attollite portas vestras, idest elevetis impedimenta quae apponitis ne homines accedant ad Deum.He does three things (here in section e). First, he foretells that which is to come, second, he proposes a question, and third, he appends a response. And so, he says, O ye princes, that is, O ye evil men, or O ye demons, Lift up your gates, that is, raise up the impediments which you apply so that men may not approach God.
Hieronymus habet, elevate; quasi dicat, removeatis etc. Ps. 9: Exaltas me de portis mortis, ut annuntiem omnes praedicationes tuas in portis filiae Sion. Jerome has, "Raise up", as if to say, "Remove" etc; Psalm 9: "Thou that liftest me up from the gates of death, that I may declare all thy praises in the gates of the daughter of Sion."
Et vos portae aeternales, idest aeternum et antiquum impedimentum: elevamini, idest removeamini: Psalm. 75: Illuminans tu mirabiliter a montibus aeternis; quasi dicat, vos antiqua impedimenta removeatis vos de cordibus hominum: et tunc ille qui est rex gloriae, introibit in mundum per fidem et charitatem, et cultum. And you Eternal gates, that is, endless and ancient impediments, Be ye lifted up, that is, be ye removed; Psalm 75: "Thou enlightenest wonderfully from the everlasting hills", as if to say, "Ye ancient impediments, remove yourselves from the hearts of men. And then he who is The King of Glory, will enter in to the world through faith, charity and worship.
Vel potest dici quod sunt duplices portae: quaedam quae sunt malae, quae claudunt aditum ad vitam; aliae bonae, quibus aperitur via vitae. Ps. 117: Aperite vias vitae, idest iustitiae etc. Portae malae sunt peccata; bonae autem sunt virtutes. Dicit ergo, o principes attollite portas vestras, idest aperite, et removete peccata: et acquirite, aeternales, idest dona aeterna a Deo aeterno: elevamini, in cordibus vestris, et introibit rex gloriae. Or it could be said that gates are of two kind, (namely that) some are evil, which shut up access to life, and others are good, by which is opened the way of life; Psalm 117: "Open ye to me the paths of life", that is "of justice" etc. The gates of evil are sins, while those of good are the virtues. And so, he says O ye princes, lift up your gates, that is open and remove (your) sins, and acquire eternal things, that is eternal gifts from God eternal. Be ye lifted up, in your hearts, And the King of Glory shall enter.
Prophetice loquitur, quia a principio non statim omnes crediderunt sed dubitaverunt; quasi dicat: cui volumus, credere, et cui volumus obedire? Numquid Deo iudaeorum? Exod. 5: Nescio Dominum, et Israel non dimittam. Et ideo hoc ostendit cum dicit, quis est iste rex gloriae? Prophetically, it is said that, at the beginning, not everyone will immediately believe, but will doubt. It is as if he were saying, "Whom do we wish to believe, and whom do we wish to obey? The God of the Jews?"; Exodus 5: "I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go." And this is show when he says, Who is this King of Glory?
Et respondet, Dominus fortis et potens. Aliquis rex apparet gloriosus ex tribus. Quia acquirit primo per robur magna; unde dicit, fortis: Prov. 12: Manus fortissima dominabitur: Iob 9: Si fortitudo quaeritur, fortissimus est. Secundo propter potestatem; et hanc ostendit, cum dicit, Dominus potens, quia potentissimus est ad dominandum: Iob 36: Deus potentem non abiicit: Dan. 7: Potestas eius potestas aeterna etc. Tertio, quod sit bonus praeliator; unde dicit: Dominus potens in praelio, quo contra mortem et diabolum vicit in omnibus: Apoc. 5: Vicit leo de tribu Iuda. And he responds, The Lord who is strong and mighty. Now, a king appears glorious for three reasons. First, because he acquires greatness through force; and so he says Strong; Proverbs 12: "The hand of the strongest shall bear rule"; Job 9: "If strength be demanded, he is most strong." Second, because of (his) might, which he shows when he says, The Lord mighty, because He is the most powerful in the matter of holding dominance; Job 36: "God doth not cast away the mighty"; Daniel 7: "His might is an everlasting might" etc. Third, that he be a good combatant. Hence he says The Lord mighty in battle, in which he conquers death and the devil in all things; Apocalypse 5: "The lion of the tribe of Juda...hath prevailed."
Vel fortis in natura sua, potens in iurisdictione in suos, et potens contra adversarios. Or, Strong in his nature, Mighty in his jurisdiction with respect to them, and Mighty against his adversaries.
Quod ergo secundo dicit, attollite etc. potest dici quod est repetitio: et sic ne differant audientes quis hic potens sit. That he says a second time, Lift up etc. can be understood as a repetition, and thus so that those listening might not differ concerning who this mighty one is.
Vel prius refertur ad principes, idest ad daemones; quod autem hic dicit, refertur ad bonos angelos, qui etiam sua dignitate prius non suo studio erant ab hominibus colendi, qui colebant eos: 4 Reg. 17. Adoraverunt universam militiam caeli: quasi dicat, removete impedimenta propter quae homines vos colunt. Et ideo hic dicit, Dominus virtutum ipse est rex gloriae. Or (it could be said that) the first refers to the princes, that is, to the demons, while the second refers to the good angels, who were formerly, on the grounds of their dignity (as angels) but not on grounds of their zeal were deemed fit to be worshiped by the men who did indeed worship them - 4 Kings 17: "They adored all the host of heaven", as if to say, "Remove those impediments on account of which men worship you." And thus he says here, The Lord of hosts, he is the King of Glory.
In glossa autem est alia expositio. Christus ad inferos descendit et ascendit in caelum: et haec duo praenunciat hic. Et primo monet infernales ut aperiant; unde dicit, attollite etc. O principes infernales aperite portas vestras: et elevamini etc. Et introibit rex gloriae. Sed cum daemones quaererent, quis est iste rex gloriae, respondet, ille qui fuit fortis et potens in praelio, contra te. Secundo monet super nos cives aperite portas, paradisi. Unde respondens Christus quasi praeconis voce, et vicem gerens, dirigens vocem in caelum dicit, o principes caelestes, attollite, idest aperite, portas vestras, etc. Et introibit etc. Et illis quaerentibus dicit, Dominus virtutum ipse est rex gloriae. However, in the gloss, there is another explanation. Christ descends to the lower regions (to hell), and ascends to heaven. And this he foretells here in two ways. First, he instructs the lower regions to open up. Hence, he says Lift up etc. O ye infernal princes, open up your gates: and be ye lifted up etc. And the King of Glory shall enter it. But when the demons ask Who is this King of Glory, the Psalmist responds He who is strong and mighty...in battle against you. Second, he instructs the citizens to open the gates of paradise over us. Hence Christ, responding as it were in the voice of a public crier, bearing misfortune, directs his voice to heaven, saying, O heavenly princes, Lift up, that is open up Your gates, etc. And he shall enter etc. And to those who ask, he says The Lord of hosts, he is the King of Glory.
Est autem sciendum, sicut dicit Dionysius, quod non est intelligendum sic quod angeli essent ignorantes de mysterio incarnationis; sed admirantes dixerunt, quis est iste rex gloriae, quia gloria Christi excellit omnem cognitionem. Aliquando enim ipse Christus docet de se per scripturam, ut dicitur Isa. 63: Ego qui loquor iustitiam etc. Hic autem non ipse, sed alii de eo, scilicet angeli, respondent, Dominus virtutum etc.; quia aliqui angeli accipiunt illuminationem immediate a Deo, sicut dicitur Isa. 6: Vidi Dominum sedentem super solium excelsum, et plena erat etc. Alii ab illis, sicut medii et infimi: et istis hic respondetur ab aliis angelis.However, it should be noted that, as Dionysius says, it is not to be understood that the angels are ignorant concerning the mystery of the incarnation. But wondering at it, they said, Who is this King of Glory, because Christ's glory exceeds every understanding. At times, Christ teaches about himself through Scripture, as is said at Isaiah 63: "I, that speak justice" etc. Here, however, it is not Christ who speaks, but others concerning him, namely the angels. And these respond, The Lord of hosts etc. For some angels receive illumination immediately from God, as is said at Isaiah 6: "I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and elevated: and his train filled the temple." Other angels, those middle and lower, (receive their illumination) from others. And these latter are responded to by the former angels.

© Stephen Loughlin
(stephen.loughlin@desales.edu)



The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)