Psalm 20

a. Domine in virtute tua laetabitur rex, et super salutare tuum exultabit vehementer.O Lord, the king will rejoice in your strength, and in your safety he will greatly exult.
b. Desiderium cordis eius tribuisti ei, et voluntate labiorum eius non fraudasti eum.You have bestowed upon him his heart's desire, and have not deprived him of the wish of his lips.
c. Quoniam praevenisti eum in benedictionibus: posuisti in capite eius coronam de lapide pretioso. Vitam petiit a te, et tribuisti ei longitudinem dierum, in saeculum, et in saeculum saeculi.For you have anticipated him with blessings, and placed upon his head a crown of precious gems. He has sought life from you, and you gave him length of days forever and ever.
d. Magna est gloria eius in salutari tuo: gloriam et magnum decorem impones super eum. Quoniam dabis eum in benedictionem in saeculum saeculi: laetificabis eum in gaudio cum vultu tuo.Great is his renown in your safety: splendour and great elegance you confer upon him. For you will make him a blessing forever: you will gladden him with the delight of your presence.
e. Quoniam rex sperat in Domino, et in misericordia Altissimi non commovebitur.For the king hopes in the Lord, and within the kindness of the Most High, he will not be shaken.
f. Inveniatur manus tua omnibus inimicis tuis, et dextera tua inveniat omnes, qui te oderunt.May your hand come upon all your enemies, and your right hand meet with all who hate you.
g. Pones eos ut clibanum ignis, in tempore vultus tui: Dominus in ira sua conturbabit eos, et devorabit eos ignis.Burn them as though in a fiery oven, when you appear: the Lord in his anger will throw them into confusion and the fire will consume them.
h. Fructum eorum de terra perdes, et semen eorum a filiis hominum.Eliminate their fruit from the earth, and their offspring from the sons of men.
i. Quoniam declinaverunt in te mala: cogitaverunt consilia, quae non potuerunt stabilire. Quoniam pones eos dorsum, in reliquiis tuis praeparabis vultum eorum.For they have turned from you unto evil: for they have devised plots which they have not been able to establish. For you will put them aside, and make preparations for their visage among your remnant.
j. Exaltare Domine in virtute tua, cantabimus et psallemus virtutes tuas.Be exalted, O Lord, in your power: we will rejoice and sing psalms to your strength.
a. Supra in praecedenti Psalmo facta est petitio pro exaltatione regis; hic autem quasi exauditus praenunciat eam. Titulus, In finem Psalmus David.In the preceding psalm, a petition was made for the exaltation of the king. But this psalm foretells it as if granted. Its title is "For the Leader: A Psalm of David."
Dividitur ergo Psalmus iste in duas partes. In prima praenunciat regis exaltationem. In secunda hostium deiectionem, ibi, Inveniatur. Circa primum tria facit. Primo pronunciat regis gaudium. Secundo ponit causam gaudii, ibi, Desiderium. Et tertio meritum causae, ibi, Quoniam rex sperat in Domino. The psalm itself is accordingly divided into two parts. The first part foretells the exaltation of the king, the second part, the defeat of the enemy, at "May your hand come upon". The first part accomplishes three things. First, it proclaims the delight of the king, second, it determines the cause of this delight, at "You have bestowed upon him his heart's desire", and third, the merit of the cause, at "For the king hopes in the Lord."
Hic Psalmus exponitur de Christo qui est rex, et de David qui fuit eius figura; et ideo de utroque potest exponi, de Christo secundum veritatem, de David secundum figuram.This psalm is explained with respect to Christ, who is king, and David, who was his symbol. Therefore, it can be explained in reference to either - with respect to Christ according to its true significance, or to David, according to symbol.
Est ergo duplex gaudium: unum de Deo; aliud de Dei beneficio. The delight, therefore, is two-fold: one concerns God, the other concerns the blessing of God.
Quantum ad primum dicit, O, Domine, Deus pater, Rex, idest Christus, Laetabitur in virtute tua, idest tuae divinitati: Ps. 17. Deus iudicium tuum regi da. Et tunc laetatus est, quando vicit diabolum, et mortem morte sua; et quando fecit miracula, quando ascendit in caelum: Ps. 46. Ascendit Deus in iubilo: Isa. 33. Regnabit rex et sapiens erit etc. 1 Cor. 1. Christum Dei virtutem et Dei sapientiam.As for the first, the psalmist says, O Lord, God the Father, the king, that is Christ, will rejoice in your strength, that is, in your divinity - Psalm 72: God, give your judgement to the king. He rejoiced both when he conquered the devil and death by his own death, and when he performed miracles and ascended into heaven - Ps. 46: God goes up with shouts of joy; Isaiah 32: A king shall reign and he shall be wise etc.; 1 Cor. 1: Christ, the power of God, and the wisdom of God.
Similiter si dicatur de David. O, Domine, Deus Rex, scilicet David et alii sancti, Laetabuntur in virtute tua: Cant. 1: Laetabimur et exultabimus in te: memores uberum tuorum. Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et super salutare tuum etc. idest super adeptionem salutis per te factae. Praecipue Christus exultabit per hoc, quod per eum salvas genus humanum: Luc. 1. Ipse salvum faciet populum suum.Similarly, if it were said with respect to David: O Lord, God, the King, namely David and other holy men, will rejoice in your strength - Song of Songs 1: We will rejoice and exult in you: we will remember your abundance. As for the second part (concerning the blessing of God), the psalmist says "and in your safety" etc., that is, upon the attainment of safety effected through you. Christ will exult especially in this for through him is the salvation of the human race - Luke 1: He will make his people safe.
b. Hic ponitur causa gaudii, quae est impletio desiderii: Prov. 13. Desiderium si compleatur, delectat animam. At this point, the psalmist determines the cause of delight, which is the fulfilment of the king's desire - Proverbs 13: Desire, when fulfilled, delights the soul.
Sicut se habet desiderium ad gaudium, sic motus ad quietem, ad quam per motum pervenitur. Unde primo ponitur impletio desiderii. Secundo ponitur in quibus desiderium implevit, ibi, Quoniam praevenisti.Desire is related to joy as movement is to rest, to that which is attained through movement. Wherefore, the fulfilment of desire is determined first, and then, in what things the king has fulfilled his desire, at For you have welcomed him with blessings.
Est autem duplex desiderium: unum quod est tantum in corde, aliud quod exprimitur ore: et utrumque impletur, quia Deus antequam oretur, exaudit. Now, desire is two-fold, namely one which is in the heart alone, and the other which is expressed in words. And each one is fulfilled, since God grants (the desire of the heart) before he is entreated (in words).
Quantum ad primum dicit, Desiderium cordis eius tribuisti ei: Luc. 22. Desiderio desideravi hoc pascha manducare vobiscum: et dicitur de quolibet viro iusto. With respect to the first, the psalmist states that You have bestowed upon him his heart's desire - Luke 22: With desire I have desired to eat this passover meal with you - and this is said of every just man.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Et voluntate labiorum eius, idest quam expressit per labia: Non fraudasti eum, quia exaudisti eum: Heb. 5. Exauditus est pro sua reverentia: Isa. 46. Consilium meus stabit, et omnis voluntas mea implebitur.As for the second, the psalmist states and the wish of his lips, that is what the king expresses by his lips, you have not deprived him, since you have listened to him - Hebrews 5: he was heard on account of his reverence; Isaiah 46: My counsel is firm, and my every wish will be fulfilled.
c. Hic ponit in quibus impletur desiderium. Et primo dicit de impletione desiderii cordis. Secundo de impletione desiderii orationis, quod idem est quod desiderium labiorum, ibi, Vitam. The psalmist then determines in what things the king has fulfilled his desire. He speaks first of the fulfilment of the heart's desire, and second of the desire of speech, which is the same as the desire of the lips at He has sought life from you.
Est autem duplex beneficium; et ideo primo ponit beneficium spirituale interius, quod est beneficium dulcedinis; et quantum ad hoc dicit, Quoniam praevenisti eum in benedictionibus dulcedinis. Now, the benefit is two-fold. And so, he determines first the interior spiritual benefit, which is the benefit of sweetness, concerning which he states For you have welcomed him with blessings of sweetness.
Unde dicere est bonum dicere; et dicere Dei est eius facere. Unde in benedictione Dei intelligitur infusio bonitatis: Gen. 26. Benedicam tibi, et multiplicabo semen tuum etc. Et 17. Benedicam ei, et multiplicabo eum, et augebo eum valde. Haec ergo benedictio est dulcis: Sap. 12. O quam bonus et suavis est spiritus tuus in nobis. The speaking therefore is good speaking, and speaking of God is his doing. Therefore, by the blessing of God is understood the infusion of goodness - Genesis 26: I will bless you and multiply your offspring and 17: I will bless and increase him, and I will exceedingly strengthen him. This blessing is thus sweet - Wisdom 12: O how good and pleasant is your spirit in us.
Ergo, In benedictionibus dulcedinis, idest in bonis gratiae, et in immunitate a peccatis, Praevenisti eum, idest Christum, tempore: quia a principio conceptionis fuit plenus omni gratia: Io. 1. Vidimus eum plenum gratia et veritate, quasi unigenitum a Patre: quia quam cito conceptus fuit, fuit unitus divinae naturae; et tam cito fuit plenus gratia. Therefore, with blessings of sweetness, that is with good grace and freedom from sin, you have anticipated him, that is, Christ, in time, (with blessings), since he was full of every grace from the beginning of his conception - John 1: We beheld him full of grace and truth, as the only begotten of the Father - because as soon as he was conceived, he was united in his divine nature; and so quickly was he full with grace.
Item, Praevenisti eum, quantitate: quia prae omnibus aliis gratiam accepit, et non ad mensuram. Again, you have anticipated him (with blessings), in quantity, since before all others, he accepted grace and not according to measure.
Sancti etiam dicuntur praeveniri: Io. 4. Non quasi nos dilexerimus Deum, sed quoniam ipse prior dilexit nos: Sap. 6. Praeoccupat eos qui se concupiscunt. Even the saints are said to be anticipated - John 4: It is not as if we have delighted God, but that he himself has previously delighted us; Wisdom 6: He anticipates those who desire him.
Et sic in figura Christi David speciali gratia praeventus est: quia unctus fuit in regem, cum adhuc esset puer, antequam ipse cogitaret de regno.And thus in the figure of Christ, David is anticipated by special grace. For he was anointed as king, while still a boy, before he himself had thought about kingship.
Beneficium exterius ostendit dicens, Posuisti in capite eius coronam de lapide pretioso. He indicates an external benefit saying, and you placed upon his head a crown of precious gems.
Si haec referuntur ad Christum, tunc est sensus, Posuisti in capite eius coronam de lapide etc. idest fecisti eum regem. Corona autem est signum regiae dignitatis: quia, ut dicitur Isa. 33. Regem in decore suo videbunt: Cant. 3. Egredimini filiae Syon, et videte regem in diademate, quo coronavit eum mater sua, idest divinitus, propter hoc dicit, De lapide pretioso, idest de divinitate: quia regnum suum non est de hoc mundo, Io. 18. If this is referred to Christ, then the sense of the text is that you have made him king. The crown, however, is a sign of a king's dignity, as it is said in Isaiah 33: They will behold the king in his beauty; Song of Songs 3: Come forth, daughters of Zion, and behold the king in his diadem, with which his mother, that is his divinity, has crowned him, on account of which he says of precious gems, that is, concerning his divinity: since his kingdom is not of this world (John 18).
Hier. De auro obrizo, idest purissimo: Apoc. 6. Data est et corona. Jerome has of overwhelming, that is most pure, gold - Apoc. 6: He was given a crown.
Vel corona de lapide pretioso sunt Apostoli: qui dicuntur lapides pretiosi propter pretiositatem doctrinae: Apoc. 12. In capite eius, scilicet Christi, corona stellarum duodecim: Eccl. 15. Corona senum multa peritia. Unde caetus apostolorum est quasi corona Christi. Or the crown's precious gems are the Apostles, who are called precious gems because of the preciousness of doctrine - Apoc. 12: Upon his head, namely Christ's, a crown of twelve stars; Eccl. 15: the crown of six with much experience. Thus, the rest of the apostles are, as it were, the crown of Christ.
Vel, posuisti in capite eius coronam, idest ecclesiam: Prov. 12. Mulier, idest ecclesia, diligens corona est viro suo, idest Christo. Or you placed upon his head a crown, that is, the Church - Prov. 12: An attentive woman, the Church, was rewarded by his strength, Christ's.
Vel potest dici hoc de quolibet sancto: quia corona, sive merces, est ipse Deus: Isa. 18. In die illa erit Dominus corona gloriae. De lapide, propter soliditatem: Pretioso, quia David ad literam ab ipso Deo coronatus est.Or this could be said with respect to any of the saints, since the crown, or reward, is God Himself - Isaiah 18: On that day, the Lord will be a crown of glory. Of gems, because of firmness, precious, because David is literally crowned by God Himself.
Consequenter ostendit, quomodo impletur petitio labiorum eius: unde dicit, Vitam petiit a te, quando petiit a te resurrectionem: Ps. 40. Tu autem Domine miserere mei, et resuscita me, et retribuam eis. Et hoc datum est ei: Ps. 2 Postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes haereditatem: Luc. 11. Omnis qui petit accipit. He consequently shows how the petition of his lips is fulfilled. And so, he says He sought life from you, when he sought resurrection from you: Psalm 40: But you, O Lord, have mercy on me, revive me, and I will repay them. And this was given to him - Psalm 2: Ask of me, and I will give you the nations as your inheritance; Luke 11: Everything he asks for, he receives.
Similiter etiam quilibet sanctus petit hoc, scilicet vitam aeternam: Ps. 26. Unam petii a Domino, hanc requiram etc. et David similiter hoc petit.Similarly, every holy person desires this, namely eternal life - Psalm 26: One thing I ask of the Lord, this I require, etc., and David likewise asks for this.
Secundo ostenditur quomodo impletur petitio quoad alios; unde dicit, Tribuisti ei etc. Petiit quod corpus eius, scilicet ecclesiae, servetur in Longitudinem dierum. Et hoc ei tribuit Deus: Matt. ult. Ecce ego vobiscum sum usque ad consummationem saeculi. Hoc etiam petebat David 2. Reg. 7. Insuper locutus est de domo servi sui in longinquum.Secondly, it is shown how the petition is fulfilled with respect to others. And so, he says You gave him etc. He asked that his body, namely the Church, might serve him with length of days. And God allotted this to him - Matthew 28: I am with you even to the consummation of the world. David also sought this - 2 Kings 7. It was spoken of above concerning the house of his servant in a remote land.
d. Hic ponitur consummatio bonorum: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit magnificationem istius regis praeventi, in quo inchoata est benedictio. Secundo exponit magnitudinem, ibi, Gloriam et magnum decorem. At this point, the consummation of good is determined. The Psalmist first sets down the magnificence of the just king, who has been anticipated and in whom the blessing was begun. Secondly, he explains his greatness at splendour and great elegance.
Dico quod, Praevenisti eum etc. sed adhuc plus: quia, Gloria eius, scilicet Christi et hominis est, Magna in salutari tuo, idest in Verbo cui unita est natura humana. I say that, You have anticipated him etc., but even more: for his renown, namely Christ's and man's, is great in your safety, that is in the Word to which human nature is united.
Vel, Magna est gloria eius, apud homines: et hoc, In salutari tuo, quia suscitasti eum: Hebr. 5. In deibus carnis suae preces supplicationesque etc. Or, great is his renown among men: and this, in your safety, because you have raised him up - Hebr. 5: In the days of his flesh, prayers and supplications etc.
Vel, Magna est gloria eius in salutari tuo, idest in auxilio tuo: in quo institutum est, ut habeat magnam gloriam; et hanc exponit quantum ad tria. Or, Great is his renown in your safety, that is, in your help, in which he was established, so that he might have great renown. And this he explains in three ways.
Primo per comparationem ad seipsum: ideo dicit, Gloriam et magnum decorem imposuisti super eum, qui quidem decor impositus est super Christum in sua resurrectione, et gloria in aliorum admiratione. First, by comparison to himself. Thus he says, splendour and great elegance you have bestowed upon him, which elegance indeed was bestowed upon Christ in his resurrection, and splendour in the admiration of others.
Vel ut accipiatur pro eodem, Gloriam et magnum decorem imposuisti super eum: Iob 40. Circumda tibi decorem, et in sublime erigere, et esto gloriosus. Or so that it may be understood for him, splendour and great elegance you have bestowed upon him - Job 40: Wrap yourself with elegance, lift yourself on high, and be splendid.
Secundo in comparatione ad alios; unde dicit, Quoniam dabis eum in benedictionem in saeculum saeculi, quia per ipsum derivata est benedictio in omnes alios: Gen. 12. In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes. Second, in comparison with others. Thus he says For you will make him a blessing forever, since through him the blessing was distributed to all others - Gen. 12: In your seed, all peoples are blessed.
Tertio in comparatione ad Deum; unde dicit, Laetificabis eum in gaudio cum vultu tuo, idest laetificat Christum hominem laetitia sempiterna: Et in vultu tuo, idest in visione vultus tui: Ps. 15. Adimplebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo. Third, in comparison to God. Thus he says you will gladden him with the delight of your presence, that is he gladdens Christ and man with eternal joy: and in your presence, that is in the sight of your presence - Ps. 15: You will fill me with joy with your presence.
Vel gloriam imposuit super eum, quando sanctis suis dedit facere miracula, et hoc super Christum, quia totum ad gloriam Christi factum est, scilicet quod benedixit eis, et quod perduxit eos ad visionem suam: Isa. 66. Videbitis, et gaudebit cor vestrum: Io. 16. Gaudium vestrum nemo tollet a vobis.Or he bestowed splendour upon him, when he gave his holy ones the power to perform miracles, and this he bestowed on Christ, since everything was made for the splendour of Christ, namely because he blessed them, and led them to his sight - Isaiah 66: You will see, and your heart will rejoice; John 16: Your joy will never be taken from you.
e. Supra Psalmista nunciavit regis Christi exaltationem; hic autem meritum huius declarat, et hoc meritum est, quia Christus secundum quod homo, et quilibet iustus non ponit nisi in Deo spem suam: Hiere. 17. Benedictus vir qui sperat in Domino, et erit Dominus fiducia eius.Previously, the Psalmist declared the exaltation of Christ the King. At this point, however, he makes clear the merit of this. It was deserved because Christ as a man, and any just person, places his hope in God alone - Jer. 17: Blessed be the man who hopes in the Lord; the Lord will be his confidence.
Et ideo quia speravit in Domino, Non commovebitur: Ps. 124. Qui confidunt in Domino etc. Quia spes in Deo est firmamentum: 1 Mach. 2 Omnes qui sperant in eo, non infirmantur. Ideo haec comparatur anchorae.And so, because he hoped in the Lord, he will not be shaken - Ps. 124: Those who trust in the Lord etc. For hope in God is a support - 1 Mach. 2: All who hope in Him are not weakened. For this reason, hope is compared to an anchor.
Sed notandum, quod tria sunt quae debent movere ad sperandum in Domino. Let it be noted, however, that there are three ways in which they ought to move so as to hope in the Lord.
Primo divina providentia. Homo non consuevit sperare in illis ad quos sui cura non pertinet. Ad Deum autem pertinet cura nostra; ideo dicit, Sperat in Domino, cuius est gubernare. First, by divine providence. Man was not accustomed to hoping in those things which did not pertain to his welfare. However, it does pertain to our welfare (to hope in) God; on account of this, he says (the king) hopes in the Lord, by whom he is guided.
Secundum est misericodia: Luc. 1. Misericordia eius a progenie in progenies.Second, by mercy - Luke 1: His mercy is from age to age.
Tertium est potestas; et ideo dicit, Altissimi: Ps. 90. Qui habitat in adiutorio Altissimi.Third, by power; he thus says the most high - Ps. 90: He who dwells in the support of the most high.
f. Supra praenunciavit Psalmista regis exaltationem; hic autem agit de hostium deiectione: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo proponit hostium deiectionem. Secundo infert conclusionem, ibi, Exaltare. Previously, the Psalmist foretold the exaltation of the king. Here, however, he treats of the overthrow of the enemy, and concerning this, he does two things. First, he relates the overthrow of the enemy, and second he draws his conclusion at Be exalted.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit poenam hostium. Secundo culpam, ibi, Quoniam etc. Concerning the first, he does two things. First, he relates the enemy's penalty, and second, his blame, at For they have turned etc.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo ponit inflictionem poenae. Secundo ipsam poenam, ibi, Pones etc. Concerning the first, he does two things. First he determines the infliction of the penalty, and second the penalty itself, at you will put them aside etc.
Inflictor poenae est manus Dei; unde dicit, Inveniatur manus tua omnibus inimicis tuis.The inflictor of the penalty is the hand of God; thus he states May you hand come upon all your enemies.
Hieronymus habet, Inveniat manus dexterae Dei inimicos odiens; sed hoc videtur repetitio Psalmistae, quia idem est manus et dextera Dei, et inimicus et odiens. Et consuetum est in ipsa. Jerome has May the hand of the right side of God come upon his hating enemies. But this seems to be a repetition of the Psalmist, since 'hand' and 'the right side of God' are the same, as are 'enemy' and 'those hating' - Jerome was accustomed to this sort of repetition.
Vel si distinguitur, omnis dextera eius est manus; sed non omnis manus dextera. Per manus ergo Dei intelligitur potentia Dei operativa: et haec est quaedam dextera qua exaltat bonos in spiritualibus bonis: Prov. 3. Longitudo deirum in dextera eius. Or if they are distinguished, every 'right side' is a 'hand', but not every 'hand' is a 'right side'. Thus by the 'hand of God' is understood the 'operative power of God'. And this is a sort of right hand by which he raises the good into spiritual goods - Proverbs 3: Length of days is in her right hand...
Sinistra est, qua punit malos, et largitur temporalia. Ibidem: In sinistra illius divitiae.The left is that by which he punishes the wicked and is conferred with respect to temporal concerns - Proverbs 3: ...and in her left riches.
Dicit ergo, Manus, idest potentia, Inveniatur, idest tradet ad votum: Omnes inimicos: Isa. 19. In omnibus his non est aversus furor eius, sed adhuc manus eius extenta. Therefore he says May your hand, that is your power, come upon, that is deliver to your desire, all your enemies - Isaiah 5: For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.
Et Dextera, quia hoc quod Deus punit malos, pertinet ad dexteram, inquantum talis punitio ordinatur ad salutem electorum. Sic ergo inquantum punit malos, dicitur manus; et inquantum ordinatur ad bonum iustorum, dicitur dextera. And right because when God punishes the wicked, this pertains to his right hand insofar as the kind of punishment is ordered to the salvation of his chosen ones. And so, insofar as he punishes the evil, 'hand' is said, and insofar as it is ordered to the good of the just, 'right' is said.
Vel Dextera est Christus et manus; unde, Manus tua, idest Christus: Inveniatur, idest cognoscatur in bonum ab his qui sunt amici tui, scilicet gentibus, Rom. 9. Isa. 45. Invenerunt me qui non quaesierunt me. Or right is both Christ and hand. And so, May your hand, that is Christ, come upon, that is be known in good by those who are your friends, namely your people - Romans 9; Isaiah 45: Those who do not seek me will come upon me.
Vel in malum Inveniatur etc. idest cognoscatur: Ab inimicis tuis, idest Iudaeis in iudicio, cum venerit ad iudicium: Luc. 21. Videbunt filium hominis venientem etc. Et dextera tua, idest filius tuus, Inveniat, idest puniat, Omnes qui te oderunt.Or may it be found in evil, that is may it be known: by your enemies, that is in the Jews in judgment, when they come to judgment - Luke 21: They will see the son of man coming etc. And may your right hand, that is your son, come upon, that is punish, all who hate you.
g. Hic ponitur poena hostium. Et primo quantum ad mala eis inflicta. Secundo quantum ad bona eis sublata, ibi, Fructum. At this point, the Psalmist determines the enemy's penalty, first with respect to the evils inflicted upon them, and secondly the goods taken from them, at Eliminate their fruit.
Ponit autem triplicem ordinem poenae: et si referatur ad mysterium patet, quia in futuro iudicio erunt tria. He sets down a three-fold order of penalties, which is clear if it is referred to the divine mystery, since three things will occur at the future judgment.
Primo erit ignis incendens superficiem mundi: Ps. 96. Inflammabit in circuitu eius: ideo dicit, Pones eos ut clibanum ignis, scilicet, intempore vultus tui, idest Christi, quo tempore apparebit ad iudicium: Ps. 16. De vultu tuo iudicium meum prodeat etc. et dicit Ut clibanus, quasi undique igne oppressi: Matth. 6. Sicut foenum quod hodie est, et cras in clibanum mittitur. First, there will be fire burning the surface of the earth - Ps. 96: In his going round, he will set (his enemies) on fire. And so he says Burn them as though in a fiery oven, namely, when you, that is, Christ, appear, at which time he will appear for the judgment - Ps. 16: Let my judgment come forth from your presence etc. and he says as though in an oven, oppressed as it were by fire on all sides - Matth. 6: like hay which is here today, and tomorrow cast into the oven.
Vel Ut clibanus, idest in se ignem continet; et per hunc intelligitur ignis quem mali patientur interius pravae cupiditatis et iracundiae. Or as though in an oven, that is it contains the fire in itself, and by this is understood the interior fire of perverse desire and anger which the evil suffer.
Bona affectio est bonus ignis: Thre.1 De excelso misit ignem in ossibus meis etc. Mala affectio est malus ignis: Ps. 57. Supercecidit ignis, et non viderunt solem, idest semper ardent in conscientia impietatis suae: Osee 7. Omnes adulterantes quasi clibanus succensus a coquente. Adulterantes omnes sunt, quicumque aliis quam Deo se coniungunt inordinate. Coquens est diabolus, qui malas cogitationes ministrat: sicut coquens ministrat ligna: Thre. ult. Pellis nostra velut clibanus exusta est a facie tempestatum famis. Et hoc, Tempore vultus tui, idest in tempore manifestationis tuae ad iudicium. Good affectation is good fire - Lamentations 1: From above he has sent fire into my bones etc. Evil affectation is evil fire - Ps. 57: Fire fell upon them, and they did not see the sun, that is, they continually burn in the knowledge of their impiety - Hosea 7: All those committing adultery are like an oven heated by a cook. Adulterers are those who have joined themselves inordinately to things other than God. The cook is the devil, who dishes out evil thoughts, just as the cook tends to the wood - Lamentations 5: Our skin was burned like an oven in the face of a terrible famine. And this, when you appear, that is at the time of your manifestation for the judgement.
Secundo ponitur disceptatio iudicii: in qua improperabit impiis peccata, et proferet sententiam damnationis, sive vocaliter, sive mentaliter. Et ideo Dominus in ira sua conturbabit eos, idest turbationem inducet tristitiae de malis illatis, et de bonis sublatis. Second, an examination of the judgement is determined, during which he will reproach the sins of the impious, and will reveal the sentence of damnation, either vocally or mentally. And thus the Lord in his anger will throw them into confusion, that is he will incite the disturbance of sorrow concerning the evils inflicted and the goods taken away.
Tertio ab igne involventur: unde, Et devorabit eos ignis: Iob 20. Devorabit eos ignis, qui non succendetur, scilicet humano flatu; sed succendetur virtute divina: unde Hieronumus habet, Deiecisti eos. Haec omnia possunt satis David convenire.Third, they are enveloped by fire: and so, the fire will consume them - Job 20: The fire will consume them, which is not kindled, that is by human breath, but rather is kindled by divine power. For this reason, Jerome has you have cast them down. All these matters agree sufficiently with David.
h. Hic ponitur privatio bonorum. At this point the removal of goods is determined.
Bona quae habent homines in hoc mundo, quaedam sunt quibus cupiunt homines in hac vita frui, et quidam desiderant dimittere post se: et utraque perdent. Of the goods which men enjoy in this world, some consist in the fruits which they long for in this life, and others in those which they desire to leave behind them: and they lose them both.
Et ideo quantum ad primu dicit, Fructum eorum de terra perdes, quo frui quaerebant: Sap. 3. Vana est spes etc. Rom. 6. Quem fructum etc. And so, with respect to the first, he says Eliminate their fruit from the earth, for which fruit they have been seeking - Wisdom 3: Empty is their hope etc.; Romans 6: What fruit...? etc.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, Semen eorum, scilicet peribit, A filiis hominum, scilicet a societate sanctorum: Isa. 14. Perdam Babylonem etc. et hoc ideo accidit, quia ut dicitur Eccl. 14. Omne opus corruptibile in fine deficiet: Sap. 3. Nationes enim iniquae dirae sunt consummationis.With respect to the second he says and their offspring, will pass away, from the sons of men, namely from the society of the holy - Isaiah 14: I will destroy Babylon etc. and this occurs because as it is said in Eccl. 14: Every perishable work will fail in the end; Wisdom 3: Dire is the end of a wicked people.
i. Hic ponitur culpa peccatorum, et describitur quantum ad duo. At this point, the guilt of their sins is determined and is described in two ways.
Primo quantum ad conatum operis; et quantum ad hoc dicit hic, Quoniam declinaverunt etc. quia licet non possint facere, tamen conantur quantum possunt mala inferre: Ps. 34. Retribuebant mala mihi. First, with respect to the endeavour of their work, concerning which he says For they have turned away from you etc. for, although they were not able to do this, nevertheless they endeavoured to inflict evil as far as they were able - Ps. 34: They have repaid me with evil.
Vel, Declinaverunt, quia mala eis imminentia volunt aliis inferre. Imminebat enim duplex malum Iudaeis, scilicet malum poenae: et hoc in Christum retorquere conati sunt, quando ne Romani auferrent dominium occiderunt Christum. Or, they have turned away, because they want to inflict evil menacing them, on others. For a two-fold evil used to threaten the Jews, namely the evil of punishment: and this they tried to cast back upon Christ when they killed him so that they might not incur the might of the Romans.
Secundo imminebat eis malum culpae: Io. 8. Vos ex patre diabolo estis, et hoc torquebant in Christum quando dicebant Io. 8. Nonne bene dicimus etc. Ipsi daemoniaci erant, et Christo peccatum imponebant. Second, the evil of guilt used to threaten them - John 8: You are from your father, the devil, and they turned this on Christ when they said Are we not right in saying (that you are a Samaritan and are possessed by a devil)? For they themselves were demonically possessed, and were imposing their sin upon Christ.
Secundo describitur culpa Iudaeorum sive peccatorum quantum ad conatum cogitationis;The guilt of the Jews or of (their) sins is described next with respect to the endeavour of their thinking.
unde dicit, Cogitaverunt consilia etc. idest cogitaverunt ut fidem eius destruerent: Hier. 2. Cogitaverunt consilium etc. De hoc ligno dicitur Sap. 14. Benedictum est lignum per quod fit iustitia: sed non stabilierunt, idest non potuerunt perficere cogitatum: Isa. 8. Inite consilium, et dissipabitur etc. quare? quia non est consilium contra Dominum. And so, he says they have devised plots etc., that is they conspired in order to destroy his faith - Jer. 2: They devised a plot etc. This is said concerning the cross at Wisdom 14: Blessed is the wood through which justice is fulfilled - however, they were not established, that is, they were not able to carry out their plot - Isaiah 8: Take counsel, and it shall be destroyed etc. Why? Because it is not a counsel against the Lord.
Et rationem huius dicti assignat, quare non stabilierunt consilium contra dicentes, Dorsum. Litera Hieronymi planior est, Quoniam pones eos humerum finium tuorum firmamentum contra faciem eorum. And he indicates the reason of this remark, why their plot on the contrary fails saying back. Jerome's version is clearer - For you will set your shoulder to them, the support of your purposes against their face.
Dupliciter contingit quod hostes contra aliquem consilia non stabiliunt. Uno modo, si ab eo vincantur. Alio modo, si fines hostium sint firmati; et ideo dicit, Non potest etc. idest fugient ante te.Now, it happens in a two-fold way that enemies do not establish their plots against another. In one way, if they are conquered by him, in another way, if the aims of the enemy have been secured. And thus he says they will not be able to establish, that is they will flee before you.
Item finium tuorum firmamentum contra eorum faciem. Hoc spiritualiter intelligitur de Christo, cuius nullus non potuit irrumpere fines: Io. 10. Non rapiet eas quisquam de manu mea. Et in litera nostra habetur, In reliquiis tuis praeparabis vultum eorum, idest contra vultum eorum secundum Glossam.Again, the support of your purposes against their face. This is understood spiritually of Christ, whose purpose no one was able to break - John 10: He will not snatch any of them out of my hand. And in our version it is rendered and make preparations for their visage, that is against their visage, according to the Gloss, among your remnant.
Supra Psalmist posuit poenam malorum futuram; hic autem poenam eorum praesentem. Et est duplex poena spiritualis, quae est in anima, scilicet secundum aversionem a Deo, et secundum conversionem ad malum. Previously, the Psalmist determined the future penalty of the evil; this however is their present penalty. And this is a two-fold spiritual penalty, which is in the soul, namely in accordance with a turning away from God, and a turning toward evil.
Quantum ad primum dicit, tu secundum tuam providentiam, Ponis eos dorsum. With respect to the first, he says that you, according to your providence, will put them aside.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, In reliquiis tuis praeparabis vultum eorum. Et hoc multipliciter exponitur, secundum Glossam.With respect to the second, he says and make preparations for their visage among your remnant. And this is explained in many ways, according to the Gloss.
Uno modo de his quae Christus reliquit, scilicet temporalia quae contempsit: Io. 18. Regnum meum non est de hoc mundo: quia in cupiditate rerum temporalium relinques vultum eorum, idest praeparabis intentionem eorum, ut propter hoc occident Christum, sicut cum dixerunt, Ne forte veniant Romani etc. In one way, concerning those things which Christ leaves behind, namely temporal matters which he disdained - John 18: My kingdom is not of this world; because in the desire of temporal matters, you abandon their visage, that is, you make preparations for their intention, just as they killed Christ because of this, when they said at John 11: so that the Romans might not come etc.
Vel in reliquiis eorum, idest gentibus quas relinquis convertendas: Rom. 15. In eum gentes sperabunt. Praeparabis vultum eorum, idest cognitionem tuam, quae est eorum, idest Iudaeorum, idest eis promissam. Or, among their remnant, that is among those people who, having been left behind, return - Romans 15: The people will hope in him. You will prepare their visage, that is your knowledge, with is of them, that is, of the Jews, that is, promised to them.
Vel reliquiae Christi extrema vitae eius dicuntur, idest passio et mors eius; et in istis fuit praeparata mala eorum intentio ad eius passionem. Or, the remains of Christ are called the last parts of his life, that is, his passion and death; and in this his intention for his passion was prepared for their evil.
Vel praeparationem vultus in bonum, idest in reliquiis Iudaeorum qui convertentur: Isa. 10. Reliquiae salvae fient. Et licet ponantur ut dorsum modo, tamen reliquiae convertentur et cognoscent.Or the preparation of visage among the good, that is for the rest of the Jews who are converted - Isaiah 10: A remnant shall be made safe. And although they are put aside in a way, nevertheless the remnant will be converted and will know.
j. Hic ponitur conclusio. Et primo petit id quod est ex parte Dei. Secundo promittit id, quod ex parte nostra. At this point, the Psalmist sets down the conclusion. And first, he seeks that which is on God's part. Second, he promises that which is on our part.
Dicit ergo, Exaltare Domine in virtute tua, ut scilicet in ea rex laetetur; Isa. 26. Exaltetur manus tua ut non videant, et confundantur.Therefore, he says, Be exalted, O Lord, in your power, namely, so that the king may rejoice in it - Isaiah 26: Your hand is exalted so that they do not see, and are confused.
Tamen secundum mysterium. Exaltare, Christe in resurrectione, quae erit, In virtute tua: Io. 10.. Potestatem habeo ponendi animam meam, et iterum sumendi eam, per resurrectionem et ascensionem. Nevertheless, according to mystery. Be exalted, O Christ, in resurrection, which will be in your power - John 10: I have the power of laying down my soul, and of taking it up again, through the resurrection and the ascension.
Exaltare, quae erit in virtute tua: Isa. 63. Gradiens in multitudine virtutis suae. Et nos, Cantabimus, scilicet interius: Et psallemus, exterius, virtutes tuas. Be exalted, which will be in your power - Isaiah 63: Advancing in the multitude of your power. And we, we will rejoice, namely within, and sing psalms, aloud, to your strength.
Vel cantabimus, idest praedicabimus et annunciabimus excellentiam potestatis tuae: 1 Pet. 2. ut virtutes annuncietis eius, qui de tenebris vos vocavit in admirabile lumen suum.Or we will rejoice, that is we will proclaim and make known the excellence of your power - 1 Peter 2: so that you will proclaim his power, who called you out of darkness into his marvellous light.

© Stephen Loughlin
(stephen.loughlin@desales.edu)



The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)