Psalm 17

(a) In finem puero Domini David, qui locutus est Domino verba cantici huius in die qua eripuit eum Dominus de manu omnium inimicorum eius, et de manu Saulis. (a) To the end, for the boy of the Lord, David, who spoke the words of this song to the Lord in the day when the Lord snatched him from the hands of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul.
Diligam te, Domine, fortitudo mea: Dominus firmamentum meum, et refugium meum, et liberator meus. I will love thee, O Lord, my strength: The Lord is my firmament, my refuge, and my deliverer.
(b) Deus meus adiutor meus, et sperabo in eum. Protector meus, et cornu salutis meae, et susceptor meus. Laudans invocabo Dominum, et ab inimicis meis salvus ero. (b) My God is my helper, and in him will I put my trust. My protector and the horn of my salvation, and my support. Praising I will call upon the Lord: and I shall be saved from my enemies.
(c) Circumdederunt me dolores mortis, et torrentes iniquitatis conturbaverunt me. (c) The sorrows of death surrounded me: and the torrents of iniquity troubled me.
(d) Dolores inferni circumdederunt me; praeoccupaverunt me laquei mortis. In tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum, et ad Deum meum clamavi. Et exaudivit me de templo sancto suo vocem meam; et clamor meus in conspectu eius introivit in aures eius. (d) The sorrows of hell encompassed me: and the snares of death prevented me. In my affliction I called upon the Lord, and I cried to my God: And he heard my voice from his holy temple: and my cry before him came into his ears.
(e) Commota est, et contremuit terra, fundamenta montium conturbata sunt, et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis. (e) The earth shook and trembled: the foundations of the mountains were troubled and were moved, because he was angry with them.
(f) Ascendit fumus in ira eius, et ignis a facie eius exarsit: carbones succensi sunt ab eo. (f) There went up a smoke in his wrath: and a fire flamed from his face: coals were kindled by it.
(g) Inclinavit caelos, et descendit; et caligo sub pedibus eius. Et ascendit super Cherubim. (g) He bowed the heavens, and came down: and darkness was under his feet. And he ascended upon the cherubim, and he flew; he flew upon the wings of the winds.
(h) Et volavit; volavit super pennas ventorum. Et posuit tenebras latibulum suum, in circuitu eius tabernaculum eius; tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Prae fulgore in conspectu eius nubes transierunt, grando, et carbones ignis. (h) and he flew; he flew upon the wings of the winds. And he made darkness his covert, his pavilion round about him: dark waters in the clouds of the air. At the brightness that was before him the clouds passed, hail and coals of fire.
(i) Et intonuit de caelo Dominus, et Altissimus dedit vocem suam: grando, et carbones ignis. Et misit sagittas suas, et dissipavit eos. (i) And the Lord thundered from heaven, and the Highest gave his voice: hail and coals of fire. And he sent forth his arrows, and he scattered them: he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them.
(k) Fulgura multiplicavit, et conturbavit eos. (k) he multiplied lightnings, and troubled them.
(l) Et apparuerunt fontes aquarum, et revelata sunt fundamenta orbis terrarum. Ab increpatione tua, Domine, ab increpatione spiritus irae tuae. (l) Then the fountains of waters appeared, and the foundations of the world were discovered: At thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the spirit of thy wrath.
(m) Misit de summo, et accepit me, et assumpsit me de aquis multis. (m) He sent from on high, and took me: and received me out of many waters.
(n) Eripuit me de inimicis meis fortissimis, et ab his qui oderunt me, quoniam confortati sunt super me. Praevenerunt me in die afflictionis meae, et factus est Dominus protector meus. Et eduxit me in latitudinem; salvum me fecit, quoniam voluit me. Et retribuet mihi Dominus secundum iustitiam meam; et secundum puritatem manuum mearum retribuet mihi. Quia custodivi vias Domini, nec impie gessi a Deo meo. Quoniam omnia iudicia eius in conspectu meo, et iustitias eius non repuli a me. (n) He delivered me from my strongest enemies, and from them that hated me: for they were too strong for me. They prevented me in the day of my affliction: and the Lord became my protector. And he brought me forth into a large place: he saved me, because he was well pleased with me. And the Lord will reward me according to my justice; and will repay me according to the cleanness of my hands: Because I have kept the ways of the Lord; and have not done wickedly against my God. For all his judgments are in my sight: and his justices I have not put away from me.
(o) Et ero immaculatus cum eo, et observabo me ab iniquitate mea. Et retribuet mihi Dominus secundum iustitiam meam, et secundum puritatem manuum mearum in conspectu oculorum eius. (o) And I shall be spotless with him: and shall keep myself from my iniquity. And the Lord will reward me according to my justice; and according to the cleanness of my hands before his eyes.
(p) Cum sancto sanctus eris, et cum viro innocente innocens eris: et cum electo electus eris, et cum perverso perverteris. Quoniam tu populum humilem salvum facies; et oculos superborum humiliabis. (p) With the holy, thou wilt be holy; and with the innocent man thou wilt be innocent. And with the elect thou wilt be elect: and with the perverse thou wilt be perverted. For thou wilt save the humble people; but wilt bring down the eyes of the proud.
(q) Quoniam tu illuminans lucernam meam, Domine: Deus meus illumina tenebras meas. (q) For thou lightest my lamp, O Lord: O my God enlighten my darkness.
(r) Quoniam in te eripiar a tentatione, et in Deo meo transgrediar murum. (r) For by thee I shall be delivered from temptation; and through my God I shall go over a wall.
(s) Deus meus, impolluta via eius, eloquia Domini igne examinata: protector est omnium sperantium in se. Quoniam quis Deus praeter Dominum; aut quis Deus praeter Deum nostrum? (s) As for my God, his way is undefiled: the words of the Lord are fire tried: he is the protector of all that trust in him. For who is God but the Lord? or who is God but our God?
(t) Deus qui praecinxit me virtute, et posuit immaculatam viam meam. (t) God who hath girt me with strength; and made my way blameless.
(u) qui perfecit pedes meos tamquam cervorum, et super excelsa statuens me: Qui docet manus meas ad praelium: et posuisti ut arcum brachia mea. (u) Who hath made my feet like the feet of harts: and who setteth me upon high places. Who teacheth my hands to war: and thou hast made my arms like a brazen bow.
(v) Et dedisti mihi protectionem salutis tuae, et dextera tua suscepit me: et disciplina tua correxit me in finem: et disciplina tua ispa me docebit. Dilitasti gressus meos subtus me, et non sunt infirmata vestigia mea. (v) And thou hast given me the protection of thy salvation: and thy right hand hath held me up: And thy discipline hath corrected me unto the end: and thy discipline, the same shall teach me. Thou hast enlarged my steps under me; and my feet are not weakened.
(x) Persequar inimicos meos, et comprehendam illos; et non convertar donec deficiant. (x) I will pursue after my enemies, and overtake them: and I will not turn again till they are consumed.
(y) Confringam illos, nec poterunt stare: cadent subtus pedes meos. (y) I will break them, and they shall not be able to stand: they shall fall under my feet.
(z) Et praecinxisti me virtute ad bellum, et supplantasti insurgentes in me subtus me: et inimicus meus dedisti mihi dorsum, et odientes me disperdisti. (z) And thou hast girded me with strength unto battle; and hast subdued under me them that rose up against me. And thou hast made my enemies turn their back upon me, and hast destroyed them that hated me.
(aa) Clamaverunt, nec erat qui solvos faceret, ad Dominum; nec exaudivit eos. Et comminuam eos ut pulverem ante faciem venti, ut lutum platearum delebo eos. (aa) They cried, but there was none to save them, to the Lord: but he heard them not. And I shall beat them as small as the dust before the wind; I shall bring them to nought, like the dirt in the streets.
(bb) Eripies me de contradictionibus populi, constitues me in caput gentium. Populus quem non cognovi, servivit mihi; in auditu euris obedivit mihi. (bb) Thou wilt deliver me from the contradictions of the people: thou wilt make me head of the Gentiles. A people, which I knew not, hath served me: at the hearing of the ear they have obeyed me.
(cc) Filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi, filii alieni inveterati sunt, et claudicaverunt a semitis suis. (cc) The children that are strangers have lied to me, strange children have faded away, and have halted from their paths.
(dd) Vivit Dominus, et benedictus Deus meus; et exaltetur Deus salutis meae. (dd) The Lord liveth, and blessed be my God, and let the God of my salvation be exalted:
(ee) Deus, qui das vindictas mihi, et subdis populos sub me, liberator meus de inimicis meis iracundis. Et ab insurgentibus in me exaltabis me; a viro iniquo eripies me. Propterea confitebor tibi in nationibus, Domine; et nomini tuo Psalmum dicam. Magnificans salutes Regis eius, et faciens misericordiam Christo suo David, et semini eius usque in saeculum. (ee) O God, who avengest me, and subduest the people under me, my deliverer from my enemies. And thou wilt lift me up above them that rise up against me: from the unjust man thou wilt deliver me. Therefore will I give glory to thee, O Lord, among the nations, and I will sing a psalm to thy name. Giving great deliverance to his king, and shewing mercy to David his anointed: and to his seed for ever.
(a) In praecedenti psalmo psalmista petivit orando liberari ab inimicis; hic autem liberatus gratias agit. (a) In the preceding psalm, the psalmist sought in prayer to be liberated from his enemies; here he has been liberated and is giving thank
Et primo gratias agit de beneficio liberationis. Secundo prorumpit in laudem liberatoris, ibi, caeli enarrant gloriam Dei. And first he gives thanks for the benefit of liberation. Second, he burst into praise of the liberator, where he says, "The heavens tell the glory of God.
Titulus. In finem puero Domini David. Et locutus est verba cantici hujus in die qua eripuit eum Dominus de manu inimicorum ejus, et de manu Saulis. Et psalmus iste de verbo ad verbum habetur 2 Reg. 22. Et historia est, quia 1 Reg. 19, legitur quomodo Saul quaerebat eum occidere: et eo mortuo 2 Reg. 2: Iterum Ader et filius ejus fuit contra eum. The title. To the end, for the boy of the Lord, David. And he spoke the words of this song on the day when the Lord rescued him from the hands of his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. And this psalm, word for word, is to be found in 2 Kings 22. The story is, as in 1 Kings 19, how Saul sought to kill him: and when Saul had died, 2 Kings 2: Again Abner and his son were against him.
Tandem victoriam habuit David contra eos. Et ideo fecit hunc psalmum. Et Hieronymus dicit idem. Et quia per David significatur Christus, omnia ista referri possunt ad Christum, vel secundum caput, vel secundum corpus, scilicet ecclesiam quia liberata est a Saule, idest morte: Saul enim interpretatur petitio, quia ad petitionem populi datus fuit, immo potius extortus. unde non fuit datus ad permanendum. In the end David was victorious over them. And on this account he made this psalm. And Jerome says the same thing. And since Christ is signified by David, all these things can be referred to Christ, either according to the head, or according to the body, namely the Church, which is liberated from Saul, that is, from death: the name "Saul" is translated as "petition", because he was given, or rather extorted (from God) because the people asked for him, and he was not given so that he would remain for any length of time.
Sic Christus primo sustinet mortem, postea remanet quietus, secundum glossam. Liberatur etiam ab inimicis omnibus, Judaeis et daemonibus, et quantum ad corpus suum, idest ecclesiam. Dividitur autem ista pars in tres. In prima in generali commemorat beneficium liberationis. In secunda ostendit potentiam liberantis, ibi, commota est. In tertia modum liberationis, ibi, misit de summo etc.. Thus Christ first bore death, then there was a time of quiet, according to the gloss. He was also liberated from all his enemies, the Jews and demons, and with respect to his body, that is, the Church. This part is divided into three. In the first part he recalls the benefit of liberation in general terms. In the second part he shows the power of the one who liberates, where he writes, and it was moved. In the third part, he shows the mode of liberation, where he writes, he sent from the high place etc..
Circa primum duo facit. Primo commemorat affectum quem concepit ex beneficio praedicto. In secundo ostendit effectum inde sequentem, ibi, laudans. Duplex affectus surrexit in eo ex hujusmodi beneficio; scilicet amoris et spei. Et primo ponit primum. Secundo secundum, ibi, Deus meus. Primo ponit affectum amoris ad Deum. Secundo rationem ejus, ibi, fortitudo. Dicit ergo: o domine qui me liberasti, ego semper, diligam te, quia in te manebo: Jo. 15: manete in dilectione: Ro. 8: certus sum, quia neque vita neque mors, neque angeli, neque creatura alia poterit nos separare a caritate Christi. With regard to the first he does two things. First, he recalls the emotion that he conceived from the aforesaid benefit. In the second he shows the effect that follows from this, where he writes, praising. A twofold emotion arises in him from this sort of benefit; namely, the emotion of love and the emotion of hope. First, he presents the first emotion. Second, he presents the second, where he writes, my God. Second, he presents the reason for this, where he writes, fortitude. He says therefore: O Lord, who has freed me, I will always love you because I will abide in you: John 15: stay fixed in love: Romans 8: I am certain that neither life nor death, nor angels, nor any other creature can separate us from the love of Christ.
Diligere enim est rationabilium, amare generale est: Judic. 5: qui diligunt te, sicut sol in ortu suo splendet, ita rutilant. Ratio autem dilectionis alicujus est propter proprium bonum. Unde quando quis reputat bonum suum dependere ab aliquo, haec est ratio quare diligat eum. David reputabat totum bonum suum a Deo; unde dicit, diligam te, quia tu es fortitudo mea. To love (diligere) is proper to rational beings, while to love (amare) has a general sense: Judges 5: Those who love you (diligere) while shine like that sun in its rising, thus will they sparkle. The reason for one's love (dilection) of something is on account of his own good. Hence when somone reckons that his own good depends upon another, this is the reason for loving (diligere) that other person. David reckoned that all his good was from God; hence he says, I will love (diligere) you, because you are my strength.
Fortitudo habet firmare animum, ne quis recedat a bono propter difficultates imminentes. Quomodo autem sit ejus fortitudo, ostendit. Homo indiget fortitudine ad duo. Primo in bonis, ut stabiliatur in eis: et ideo dicit, Dominus firmamentum, idest firmum fundamentum: 2 Reg. 22: Dominus petra mea: Matth. 7: Omnis qui audit verba mea et facit ea, similis est viro aedificanti domum suam supra petram. The role of fortitude is to make the mind firm, lest someone draw back from the good because of the difficulties that threaten. He shows the qualities of this fortitude. A man needs fortitude for two things. First, he needs fortitude in good things, to be established in them: and so he says, the Lord is a firm thing, that is, a firm foundation: 2 Kings 22: The Lord is my rock: Matt. 7: Everyone who hears my words and does them, is like a man who builds his house upon a rock.
Item in malis: et hoc ad duo. Uno modo antequam adveniat, ut fugiat: unde dicit, refugium meum: Prov. 14: Turris fortissima nomen Domini: Psal. 103: Petra refugium herinaciis. alio modo, postquam evenerint, ut liberet; unde dicit, et liberator meus. Again, he needs fortitude in evil things: and this is for two reasons. First, before they come, so that he may flee: Prov. 14: The name of the Lord is the strongest tower: Psal. 103: The rock is a refuge for hedge hogs. In another way, after the evils have taken place, that he will liberate; hence he says, and my liberator.
(b) Deus meus. Hic ponit affectum spei: et differt inter spem et amorem: quia amor est vis unitiva: amamus enim aliquid inquantum reputamus illud nostrum; et ideo dicit quod ipse est fortitudo sua: isa. 12: fortitudo et laus mea Dominus, et factus est mihi in salutem. Spes importat defensionem ab extrinseco; et utrumque Deus facit. (b) My God. Here he presents the emotion of hope: and there is a difference between hope and love: because love is a unitive power: for we love something insofar as we deem it is ours; and therefore he says that He is his strength: Isaiah 12: My strength and my praise is the Lord, and He has become salvation for me. Hope implies protection from something outside; and God does both.
Vel sic. Objectum spei est bonum arduum futurum, possibile adipisci. Sicut ergo quis amat propter bonum jam datum, ita sperat futurum ex fiducia ex amore concepta, et ex similibus, inquantum credit similia in futurum recipere. Et ideo hic tria facit. Primo sperat refugium et firmamentum quod est in bonis. Secundo petit protectorium quod est in malis, quae jam evenerunt. Dicit ergo primo, Deus meus adjutor meus: Psal. 95: Nisi quia Dominus adjuvit me, paulo minus habitasset in inferno anima mea etc.. Et ideo sperabo in eum: Eccl. 2: Qui timetis Dominum, sperate in illum, et cum oblectatione venient vobis misericordiae. Or thus. The object of hope is a difficult future good, something that is possible to achieve. Thus, just as someone loves (another) an account of a good already given, so he hopes for a future good out of a confidence that is conceived from love, and from like things, insofar as believes that he will receive like things in the future. And therefore he does these three things. First he hopes for the refuge and firm foundation that is in good things. Second, he asks for protection in evil things that have already occurred. Therefore he says first, my God, my helper: Psalm 95: Were not the Lord my help, I would have soon dwelt in the grave etc.. And thus I will hope in him: Eccl. 2: You who fear the Lord, hope in him, and mercies will come to you with delight.
Secundo speramus liberari a malis, quibus nondum subjecti sumus, quia defendit nos. Primo, ne laedamur. Secundo, quod ea vincamus et pro victoria coronat. Quantum ad primum dicit, protector meus. Hieronymus habet, scutum, quod protegit ne transfigi possit a malis; sic facit Deus: Ps. 63: protexisti me Deus a conventu malignantium. Quantum ad secundum dicit, et cornu salutis, quia animalia cornu impingunt; ita virtus Dei contra adversarios resistit, quia pugnat, ut vincat mala temporalia et spiritualia: Psal. 43: in te inimicos nostros ventilabimus cornu: et in nomine tuo spernemus insurgentes in nobis: 1 Reg. 2: Exultavit cor meum in Domino, et exaltatum est cornu meum in Deo meo, idest virtus mea. Second, we hope to freed from evils to which we have not yet been subjected, because he defends us. First, we hope not to be harmed. Second, we hope that we may conquer them and that He crowns us for victory. With respect to the first he says, my protector. Jerome has the word shield, which protects someone so he cannot be pierced by evils; God does this: Ps. 63: God, you have protected me from the gathering of evil doers. With respect to the second he says, and the horn of salvation, because animals pierce with their horns; thus the power of God resists adversaries, because He fights to conquer temporal and spiritual evils: Psalm 43: In you we will ventilate our enemies with a horn: and in your name we will remove those who rise up among us: 1 Kings 2: My heart exulated in the Lord, and my horn is raise in my God, that is, my power.
Quantum ad tertium, et susceptor meus. Quando quis vincit, suscipitur cum triumpho; sic etiam facit Deus: Joan. 14: iterum veniam et accipiam vos ad me ipsum, ut ubi sum ego, et vos sitis: Ps. 72: cum gloria suscepisti me. Simile habetur 2 Reg. 22. Consequenter ponit effectum sequentem, scilicet laudem. Laus est sermo elucidans magnitudinem virtutis, vel ex hoc saltem sequitur. Primo ergo ponit laudem. Secundo ejus efficaciam. Dicit ergo, laudans invocabo Dominum; quasi dicat: ex hoc laudem propriam non habeo, sed quaero tuam, quia tu fecisti; Isa. 63: miserationum Domini recordabor: laudem Domini super omnibus, quae retribuit mihi. Et invocabo, te, secure cum efficacia, quia sic invocans, salvus ero ab inimicis meis: Joel. ult.: quicumque invocaverit nomen Domini, salvus erit. With respect to the third, and my support. When someone is victorious, he is received with a triumpth; God also does this: John 14: I will come again and receive you do myself, so that you will be where I am: Ps. 72: you have received me with glory. A like passage is found in 2 Kings 22. Consequently he presents the effect that follows from this, namely praise. Praise is speech that makes clear that greatness of power, or at least it follows from this. First, therefore, he presents praise. Second, the effective power of praise. He says, therefore, praising, I will call upon the Lord; as if to say: from this, I do not have proper praise, but I will seek your praise, because you have acted; Isaiah 63: I will remember the mercies of the Lord: the praise of the Lord over all that He has given me. And I will invoke You, free of care with effective power, because when I call upon you in this way, I will be saved from my enemies: Joel (the end) whoever will call upon the name of the Lord, will be saved.
(c) Circumdederunt. Hic ponitur necessitas liberationis. Et primo magnitudinem liberationis ostendit. Secundo orationem quam fundit ad Deum, in tribulatione. Trtio ponit exauditionem, exaudivit. (c) They surrounded. Here we are presented with the necessity of liberation. First heshows the greatness of the liberation. Second, there is the prayer that he pours forth to God, in tribulation. Third, he shows the prayer being heard, where he writes, he heard.
Nota quod ista tria sic sunt ad invicem ordinata, iniquitas, mors et infernus, quod ex iniquitate homo inducitur ad mortem, et per mortem deducitur ad infernum: et sicut primum est via ad secundum, ita est secundum ad tertium. Et ideo primo dicit de primo progressu. Secundo de secundo, quod de morte vadunt ad infernum, ibi, dolores inferni etc.. Primo duo facit. Primo ponit modum. Secundo viam ad eam, scilicet iniquitatem, torrentes iniquitatis. Note that these three are ordered to one another: wickedness, death and hell. From wickedness a man is drawn to death, and through death he is led to hell: As just as the first (wickedness) is the road to the second (death), so the second (death) is the road to the third.. And thus he first speaks of the first step. Second, he speaks of the second step, that they go from death to hell, where he writes, the pains of hell etc.. First he does two things. First he presents how this happens (the mode). Secondly he presents the road to death, namely wickedness, the torrents of wickedness.
Dolor mortis maximus est: 1 Reg. 15: Siccine separas amara mors? Eccl. 41: Mors, quam amara est memoria tua. Unde quando quis non potest eam effugere, tunc circumdant eum dolores; et tanto magis, quanto sunt ineffugabiles. Via est iniquitas: quasi: ideo timeo eam, quia, torrentes iniquitatis conturbaverunt me. Torrens est fluxus aquae decurrentis cum impetu: Job 6: Sicut torrens qui raptim transit in convallibus. Impetus ergo subitus iniquitatis interioris, puta subitae tentationis et gravis, est torrens impellens ad peccatum. Vel exterioris, sicut impetus alicujus hostis. et hi, conturbaverunt me. The pain of death is the greatest pain: 1 Kings 15: Doth bitter death separate in this manner? Eccl. 41: Death, how bitter is your memory. Hence, when someone cannot flee death, then pains surround him; and all the more as he cannot flee from these pains. The road is wickedness: as if to say: therefore I will fear him, because the torrents of iniquity have disturbed me. A torrent is a flow of water that is running downhill with force: Job 6: Like a torrent that suddenly passes through in the valleys. The sudden forceful onset of inner wickedness, for example, that of a sudden and serious temptation, is a torrent impelling one to sin. Or that the sudden onset of an outer wickedness, like the attack of an enemy. And they surrounded me.
(d) Dolores. Hic prosequitur secundum progressum; et ideo dicit, dolores i nferni, idest similes infernalibus: Gen. 37: Lugens in infernum descendam. vel dolores qui concipiuntur ex timore inferni. Et hi circumdant quando inevitabiles sunt. Et veniunt hi dolores, quia praeoccupaverunt me laquei mortis. Quae mors? (d) Sorrows. Here he follows a sequence. and so he says: the sorrows of hell, that is, sorrows like those of hell: Genesis 37: I will go down mourning, to my son in the nether world, or sorrows which are conceived out of fear of hell. And these surround a man when they are inevitable. And these sorrows come, because the snares of death have caught me. What death is this
Prov. 21: Qui congregat thesauros lingua mendacii, vanus et excors est: et impingetur ad laqueos mortis. Ecce necessitas. Sed remedium apposuit orationis. Et primo ponitur oratio; et ideo dicit, in tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum. Oseae 6: in tribulatione sua mane consurgent ad me: Baruch 3: Nunc Domine Deus etc.. Isa. 55: Quaerite Dominum dum inveniri potest etc.. Ps. 49 Invoca me in die tribulationis et eruam te: Sap. 7: Invocavi, et venit in me spiritus sapientiae. Proverbs 21: He who gathers treasures by lying tongue is vain and foolish, and shall stumble upon the snares of death. Here is the necessity. But he adds the remedy of prayer. And first he presents prayer, and thus he says, in my tribulation I called upon the Lord. Osee 6: In their afflication they will rise early to me: And now, O Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, the soul in anguish and the troubled spirit cry to you. Isaiah 55: Seek the Lord while He may be found, etc. Psalm 49: Then call upon me in time of distress; I will rescue you, and you shall glorify me.
Consequenter ponitur orantis devotio, quia, ad Dominum meum clamavi, idest cum magnitudine devotionis orantis: Ps. 119: ad dominum cum tribularer etc.. Heb. 5: cum clamore valido et lacrymis offerens, exauditus est: et dicit, ad Dominum meum clamavi, non alienum. Deut. 10: Dominum Deum tuum adorabis etc.. Consequently he presents the devotion of the one who is praying, because he writes, to my Lord I cried, that is, with the greatness of the devotion of the man who prays: Ps. 119: To the Lord when I was in tribulation etc.. Hebrews 5: For Jesus, in the days of his earthly prayers and supplications to him who was able to save him from death, and was heard because of his reverent submission: and he writes, I cried to my God, not to an alien God: Deuteronomy 10: You will adore the Lord your God etc..
Tertio ponitur exauditio, exaudivit. Duo dixerat: se invocasse et clamasse. Et ideo dicit exauditam vocem et clamorem. Unde? De templo sancto vocem meam exaudivit. Templum Dei est ipsa excellentia suae sanctitatis, quia Dominus est templum suum: Apoc. 21. Templum non vidi in ea: Dominus enim Deus omnipotens templum illius est etc.. Item templum est ipse Christus: Joan. 2: hoc autem dicebat de templo corporis sui, in quo Deus est per unionem personae. Third, he presents the hearing, when he writes, he heard. He says two things: that he invoked and that he cried. And he says that the voice and clamor was heard. From where? From his holy temple He heard my voice. The temple of God is the excellence of his sanctity, because the Lord is his own temple: Apoc. 21. I say no temple in it, for the Lord God Almighty is its temple etc.. Again, the temple is Christ himself: John 2: He said this about the temple of his Body, in which God is by the union of person.
Item anima justa, in qua Deus est per gratiam. 1 Cor. 3: Templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos. Item Beata Virgo: Psal. 5: Adorabo ad templum sanctum tuum, in qua, idest per quam exaudivit nos Deus: Ps. 33: Exaudivit me, et ex omnibus tribulationibus meis eripuit me. Item Ecclesia: Ps. 10: Dominus in templo suo. Et de quolibet templo isto exaudivit: 3 Reg. 18: Si quis cognoverit plagam cordis sui, et expanderit manus suas in domo hac, tu exaudies in loco habitationis tuae. Again, the just soul in whom God is by grace. 1 Cor. 3: For the temple of God, which is you, is holy. Again, the Blessed Virgin: Psalm 5: I will adore at your Holy Temple, in which, thyat is through which, God has listened to us: Psalm 33: He listened to me, and he rescued me from all my tribulations. Again, the Church: Psalm 10: The Lord in his temple. And in this temple he hears about everything: 3 Kings 8: When a man shall know the wound of his own heart, and shall spread forth his hands in this house, then hear thou in heaven, in the place of thy dwelling.
Et non solum orationem dicit exauditam, sed etiam clamorem; ideo dicit, Et clamor meus in conspectu ejus introivit in aures ejus. Et dicit, in conspectu, idest in oculis ejus, quia omnia videt: Exo. 3: Videns vidi afflictionem etc.. Vel in conspectu, idest in beneplacito: vel in corde, ubi ipse solus conspicit: 1 Reg. 16: Homo videt ea quae apparent, Deus autem intuetur cor. Et introivit in aures ejus, per acceptationem: Jac. 5: clamor eorum in aures Domini. Vel in aures, idest in clementiam ejus: Eccl. 15: Oratio humiliantis se nubes penetrat. He says not only that the prayer is heard, but the cry as well; thus he says, and my cry has entered in his sight into his ears. And he says, in his sight, that is, in his eyes, because he sees all things: Exodus 3: I have witnessed the affliction etc. Or in the sight, that is, in the good pleasure: or in the heart, where He alone sees: 1 Kings 16: for man sees the things that appear, but God beholds the heart. And it entered into his ears, by acceptance: James 5: And their cry has entered into the ears of the Lord. Or into the ears, that is, into his clemency: Eccl. 15: The prayer of the one who humbles himself penetrates the clouds.
(e) Commota. Supra egit psalmista de affectu concepto ex beneficiis liberationis; hic agit de potentia liberantis. Potentia agentis ostenditur ex effectu agentis; quae autem hic dicuntur, possunt ad duplicem Dei effectum pertinere: scilicet ad illum qui ostenditur in corporalibus, et ad effectum redemptionis. (e) Shaken. Above, the psalmist discusses the feeling conceived from the benefits of liberation; here he discusses the power of the liberator. The power of the one who acts is shown from the effect of the one who acts; the things that are said here can apply to two of God's effects: to the effect that is shown in physical things, and to the effect of redemption.
Et forte verius ad utrumque: quia ea quae hic dicuntur sub figura corporalium, spiritualiter complentur per effectum redemptionis. Effectus autem divinae potentiae maxime manifestatur in rebus corporalibus, quia spiritualia minus sunt nobis nota; et praecipue in illis quas homines admirantur; et haec sunt commotiones elementorum, scilicet terrae, aeris, aquae et ignis. Perhaps more truly his words apply to both: because those things that are said under the figure of physical things, are fulfilled spiritually by the effect of redemption. The effect of divine power is most manifest in physical things, because spiritual things are less known to us; and this is chiefly in things at which men wonder; these are the shaking of elements, that is, of the earth, air, water and fire.
Dividitur ergo pars ista in tres partes. Primo ostendit Dei potentiam in effectibus qui sunt circa terram. Secundo in permutationibus aeris. Tertio in permutationibus aquarum. Secunda, ibi, Inclinavit caelos. tertia, ibi, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Sed si ad mysterium referatur, dividitur in duo. Primo ostendit fructum divinae redemptionis factae per Christum. Secundo modum ipsius, ibi, Inclinavit caelos. Prima in duo. Ad primum referendo, primo agit de effectu terrae, quae est ab imo. Thus this part is divided into three parts. First he shows the power of God in the effects that are on the earth. Second, in the changes of the air. Third, in the changes of the waters. The second part is where he says He bowed the heavens. The third part, where he says, Then the fountains of waters appeared. But if this is taken to refer to a mystery, it is divided into two. First he shows the fruit of the divine redemption brought about by Christ. Second, he shows the mode of this redemption, where he says, He bowed the heavens. The first part is divided into two. Referring to the first, he talks about the effect of the first, which is from below.
Secundo de eo, qui a summo ascendit. Si mystice, sic ostenditur duplex effectus redemptionis: scilicet poenitentia peccatorum, et devotio justorum, ibi, Ascendit. Sed secundum quod refertur ad corporalem effectum, qui est ab imo terrae, maxime mirabilis effectus est terraemotus etc.. Hic tria tangit. Primo ipsam commotionem. Secundo id quod mirabilem eam reddit. Tertio ejus causam. Dicit ergo, Commota est et contremuit terra. Second, he talks about that which goes up from the highest place. If this is taken in a mystic sense, then the twofold effect of redemption is shown: namely, penance or sinners, and the devotion of just men, where he says, He went up. But insofar as it refers to the physical effect, which is from the lowest part of the earth, the most wonderful effect is the earthquake, etc. Here he touches upon three things. First, the shaking itself. Second, that which makes this shaking wonderful. Third, the cause of the shaking. Therefore he says, The earth was shaken and trembled.
Dupliciter aliquid movetur. Uno modo movetur aliquid de loco in locum: et sic non movetur terra. Alio modo ad modum trementis: et sic mirabilem facit esse terraemotum concussio montium: quia si terra mollis moveretur, non esset mirabile; sed quando moventur montes, tunc mirabile est; et ideo dicit, Conturbata sunt, quia videntur stabilitatem amisisse. Prima causa est voluntas divina; et hanc exprimit metaphorice cum dicit, Quoniam iratus est eis, scilicet Deus. Sicut cum dominus turbatur, qui ei assistunt, tremunt; ita ad commotionem Dei omnia turbantur. Something may be moved in two ways. In one wya, something is moved from place to place, and the earth is not moved in this way. In another way, something may be moved as something that trembles. And so a strike upon the mountains makes a wonderful earthquake; because if it were soft earth that were moved, it would not evoke wonder; bed when the mountains are moved, then this is wonderful; and so he says, They were shaken, because they seemed to lose their firmness. The first cause is the divine will; and he expresses this metaphorically when he says, Because He was angry with them, namely, God. Just as when a lord is upset, those who serve him tremble, to when God is upset, all things are upset.
Mystice designatur per hoc commotio hominum ad poenitentiam. Item inter eos quidam sunt minores: et hi designantur per terram; unde dicit, Commota est et contremuit terra, idest qui prius peccatores erant et terreni: Is. 51: Posuisti ut terram cor tuum, et quasi viam transeuntibus. In a mystical sense, by this is designated the movement of men to repentance. At the same time, among those who are lesser, and these men are designated by earth; hence he says, The earth was shaken and trembled, that is, those who are in the first place sinners and earthly: Isaiah 51: Thou hast laid thy body as the ground, and as a way to them that went over.
Haec commota est per affectum a terrenis ad caelestia, et hoc a tremore quem concepit de poenis: Is. 26: a timore tuo Domine concepimus, et quasi parturivimus et peperimus spiritum salutis. The earth is shaken by a feeling from things of the earth to things of the heavens, and this is from the trembling that is conceived concerning punishments: Isaiah 26: We have conceived, and been as it were in labor, and have brought forth wind; we have not wrought salvation upon the earth.
Quidam sunt magni; et hi dicuntur montes, idest superbientes in saeculo. Commota sunt, per Christi adventum. Montium fundamenta sunt illa in quibus firmantur, scilicet divitiae, potestates et honores: Ps. 45: Transferuntur montes in cor maris, puta turbantur quando veniunt adversitates; et post totaliter commoventur: Is. 23: Dominus exercituum cogitavit hoc ut detraheret omnem superbiam gloriae, et ad ignominiam deduceret universos inclytos terrae. Certain people are great; and these are called mountains, that is, those who take pride in this age. They are shaken by the coming of Christ. The foundations of the mountains are those things in which these people are made firm, namely, riches, powers and honors: Psalm 45: The mountains are moved into the heart of the sea, which we may suppose to mean that they are disturbed when adversities come; and after this they are completely shaken: Isaiah 23: The Lord of hosts hath designed it, to pull down the pride of all glory, and bring to disgrace all the glorious ones of the earth.
Omnia regna et potestates quae habent initium, habebunt occasum: ratio est, quoniam turbatus est eis. Hoc potest dupliciter intelligi. Si de malis, non est dubium quin ex vindicta Dei, quae dicitur ira, transferentur; si de bonis, idest quoniam ira Dei eis innotuit, ideo convertuntur. Innotuit enim per eum: Rom. 1: revelatur ira Dei de caelo super omnem impietatem et injustitiam hominum eorum qui veritatem Dei in injustitia detinent. All the kingdoms and powers that have a beginning also have their fall: the reason is that He is disturbed with them. This can be understood in two ways. If it is a matter of evil things, there is no doubt that they are moved from their position by God's vengeance, which is called anger. If it is a matter of good things, it is because the anger of God is made known to them, and so they convert. It is made known by Him: Romans 1: The anger of God has been revealed from heaven over all the impiety and injustice of those men who hold back the truth of God in injustice.
(f) Ascendit. Hic ponitur corporaliter exponendo effectus, qui est a summo. Effectus autem terrae a summo est, quando terra caelesti igne in aliqua sui parte comburitur: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo tangit materiam ipsam. Secundo accensionem ignis et combustionem. (f) There went up. Here is presented in a physical way the effect that is from on high. The effect of the earth is from the highest place, when the earth in some part of itself is burning from a heavenly fire: and with regard to this he does two things. First he deals with the matter itself. Second, he deals with the rising of the fire and the burning.
Materia ejus est fumus siccus resolutus ascendens quousque inflammetur; et ideo dicit, ascendit fumus in ira ejus, idest in voluntate ejus, idest Dei per quam sic punit. A facie, idest a potestate ejus, ignis exardescit, idest accenditur; et carbones, idest materia combustibilis hic incenditur. Mystice per hoc innuuntur duo: scilicet devotio orationis, et inflammatio caritatis. Ascendit: et ex hoc consideratur ira Dei contra peccatores. Ascendit fumus, devotae orationis: Apoc. 8: ascendit fumus aromatum, idest ignis caritatis: a facie ejus, idest Christi, exardescit: Luc. 12: ignem veni mittere in terram. Carbones succensi sunt ab eo, scilicet isti susceptivi accensionis. Its matter is the dry and smoke that is set loose and arises until fire breaks out; and therefore he says, smoke went up in his anger, that is, in his will, that is, the will of God by which He punishes. From His face, that is, from His power, the fire flames out, that is, it is kindled; and coals, that is, combustible material is set aflame here. Two things are mystically suggested here: namely devotion in prayer, and the burning of charity. There went up: and here we consider the anger of God against sinners. There went up smoke, the smoke of devoted prayer: Apoc. 8: There went up an aromatic smoke, that is, the fire of charity: from His face, that is, Christ, it flamed: Luke 12: I have come to sent fire upon the earth. The coals have been lit by Him, that it, those who were capable of being kindled.
Carbo aliquando habuit ignem; sic homo a principio habuit caritatem, sed extinctus erat; sed isti succensi sunt a Christo. item carbones non humidi sic incenduntur, sed humidi, non: sicut humidi fluxu carnalium: ps. 119: sagittae potentis acutae cum carbonibus etc.. Commota est et contre muit terra; fundamenta montium conturbata sunt et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis. A coal at one time had fire; so, a man had charity in the beginning, but it was snuffed out; but these have been kindled by Christ. Again, coals that are not wet are set on fire in this way, but wet coals are not: like those who are wet from the flow of carnal things: Psalm 119: The arrows of the powerful are sharp with coals etc.. The earth was shaken and trembled; the foundations of the mountains were disturbed and shaken, becase He was angry at them.
Deus irasci dicitur, quia ad modum irati se habet non in se, sed quantum ad effectum: Dominus autem iratus facit tremere servum, et leo catulum. Pro quo sciendum, quod virtus continens membra dimittitur exterius, et revertitur interius, puta ad cor quasi fugiens, et cedens malo imaginato: vel virtuti surgenti contra eam cui resistere non potest, et membra tremunt, sicut murus cum concutitur fundamentum. Anima enim continet corpus, et est quasi fundamentum ejus; et pars animae partem corporis. Unde concusso fundamento concutitur murus; et concussa virtute concutitur membrum. Sic ergo effectus irae in animali est tremor. God is said to anger, because He is like one who is angry not in himself, but with respect to his effect. An angry master makes his servant tremble, and a lion causes a cub to tremble. With regard to this, it should be known that the virtue which contains the members is outwardly lost, and returns within, for example, to the heart as one fleeing, and it gives in to some imagined evil: or it gives in to a power that rises against it, a power that it cannot resist, and the members tremble, like a wall when the foundation is struck. For the soul contains the body, and it is like the foundation of the body; and the part of the soul contains the part of the body. Hence, when the foundation is struck, the wall is struck; and when a power is struck, the member is struck. Thus in an animal, the effect of anger is shaking.
Dicitur autem animal tremere, quando concutitur pars ejus, toto in eodem loco manente: et similiter quia contingit hoc in terraemotu, dicitur terra tremere per similitudinem ad animalia. Dicitur enim Deus irasci terrae in terraemotu. An animal is said to tremble when part of it is struck, while the whole animal remains in one spot: and likewise, because this happens is an earthquake, the earth is said to tremble by a comparison with animals. For God is said to be angry in an earthquake.
Vel sic. In homine sunt quatuor: scilicet ratio, vires sensitivae, natura, res et corpus. Sed in mundo sunt Deus, angeli, animalia, plantae, et elementa. Videmus enim quod ad malum imaginatum, cui corpus non potest resistere, corpus statim tremit; non ex cognitione, sed quodam naturali ordine sive naturaliter, inquantum virtus mali imaginati est potentior. Et similiter Deus cum vertit virtutem suam super terram, licet non cognoscat iram, naturaliter tremit. Fundamenta, idest aliquae concavitates sive terra concava, qua mota montes concutiuntur. Or in this way. There are four things in man: namely, reason, the sensitive powers, nature, the thing and body. But in the world there are God, the angels, the animals, the plants and the elements. For we see that the body immediately trembles when it imagines an evil that the body cannot resist; it does not tremble from knowledge, but by a certain natural order, that is, naturally, insofar as the power of the imagined evil is greater. And likewise God, when He directs his power over the earth, although the earth does not know anger, it naturally trembles. The foundations, that is, certain concavities like concave earth, and when this is moved that mountains are struck.
Quoniam iratus etc.. Prima causa est voluntas Dei sive virtus ejus volens in eis agere: sed mediantibus causis secundis hoc agit; ita quod omnes causae secundae comparantur ad terram sicut imaginatum malum commovens membra. Ascendit fumus. Ubi nota secundum philosophum, quod a terra humida resolvitur virtute caloris solis vapor calidus et humidus; a terra autem sicca vapor siccus et calidus; sed naturaliter plus ascendit secundus quam primus. hic enim assimilatur igni, ille aeri: et hunc vaporem psalmista vocat fumum, secundum calidum et siccum. Because he was angry etc.. The first cause is the will of God or his virtue that wills to act in them, but this acts by the mediation of secondary causes; so that all secondary causes are compared to earth like an imagined evil moves the members. Smoke rose up. Here, note that according to the philosopher, warm and human vapor is released from moist earth by the power of the sun's heat. Dry and hot vapor is released from dry earth. But naturally, the second vapor rises more than the first. The latter is likened to fire, the former to air: and psalmist calls this vapor smoke, as it is hot and dry.
Philosophus vero vocat eum materiam incendii. Sursum enim latus hic vapor cum modico augmento caloris factus, per modum circulationis accenditur. Qui quidem fumus siccus si habeat longitudinem et latitudinem, postquam accensus est, vocatur flamma. Est enim flamma, secundum philosophum, spiritus sicci ardoris. The philosopher call it the matter of fire. When this vapor is taken aloft and a small amount of heat is added, it is set aflame by way of circulation. If this dry smoke had length and breadth after it is set afire, it is called a flame. For a flame, according to the philosopher, is a spirit or gust of dry heat.
Si longitudinem tantum, vocatur daly sive titiones et aegibes sive caprae et sidera. Daly quidem quando est materia illa incendii longa, continua sine scintillatione. caprae vocatur quando est cum scintillatione, idest quando videtur salire et discurrere, sicut caprae. sidera, quando est materia discontinua, et videtur volare sicut sidera: et hoc habet minimum de materia. If it has only length, it is called torches or firebrands, and "aegibes" (goats), or planets and stars. They are called torches when the matter is long in its burning, continuous without twinkling. It called goats when it is with twinkling, that is, when it seems to leap and run around, like goats. Stars, when it is discontinuous amtter, and seems to fly like stars, and that has the least amount of matter.
Est et aliud genus siderum, quod est frigus expellens calidum: et talia sidera non videntur volare, sed magis projici, ut dicit philosophus: et generantur non ex fumo omnino sicco, sed vapore magis humido et calido; qui secundum naturam suam non tantum ascendit sicut siccus, sicut dictum est. Et quia est siccum, patitur a frigido et repercutitur, et inferius projicitur. And there is another kind of stars, which is cold and expels what is hot: and such stars do not appear to fly, but rather they seem to be thrown, as the philosopher says: and they are not generated at all from dry smoke, but rather from moist and warm vapor; which according to its nature does not ascend as much as the dry, as was said. And since it is dry, it is subject to the cold and is struck down, and is thrown down.
Et fit hoc in die et in sereno: alias extingueretur a densitate et humiditate aeris. Et quia videtur in die, signum est, quod est prope terram. Accenditur autem dupliciter; et per continuationem, sicut superior flamma accendit inferiorem lucernam; sive per motum a frigore et constrictione, sive conglobatione calidi. Sic ergo dicit, ascendit fumus, idest exhalatio sicca: in ira ejus, idest per voluntatem ipsius volentem agere in eo. Et ignis, idest ille fumus qui vocatur ignis etiam a philosopho in principio Metaph., quasi eo quod non habeat proprium nomen: sicut exhalatio humida quae vocatur vapor; sed dicitur ignis, quia disposita est ad ascensionem, et quia est calida et sicca sicut ignis. And this happens in day and in calm weather; otherwise it would be extinguished by the density and humidity of the air. And that it appears in the day is a sign that it is close to the earth. It is set on fire in two ways; by continuation, as a flame above lights a lamp below; or by motion on account of cold and squeezing, or the pressing together of that which is hot. Then therefore he says, smoke rose up, that is, a dry exhalation: in his anger, that is, by his will, villing to act in it. And fire, that is, the smoke that is called fire also by the philosopher in the beginning of the Metaphysics, as if it did not have a proper name: just as the humid exhalation which is called steam; but it is called fire, because it is disposed to rise, and because it is hot and dry like fire.
Iste enim ignis exarsit, idest accensus est, scilicet a Deo tamquam a prima causa: qui quidem ignis accensus vocatur dalus, flamma et sidera: sidera dico generata primo modo, ut dictum est. Et carbones succensi sunt ab eo, idest sidera secundo modo generata. Vel sic. Commota est etc.. Vapor siccus virtute caloris solis a terra elevatus, aliquando est subtilis: et tunc elevatur superius, et facit intensionem, ut dictum est supra. For this fire burns, that is, it is ignited, namely by God as by the first cause: this fire when lite is called a fireband, flame and stares: I speak of stars generated in the first way, as was siad. And coals have been kindled by him, that is, starts generated in the second way. Or thus. The earth was shaken etc.. Dry vapor when it is lifted from the earth by the power of the sun's heat is sometimes fine or subtle; and then it is lifted higher and it makes stretching (intensity), as was said above.
Aliquando in superficie terrae est aliquantulum grossior; unde a frigore repercussus non tantum ascendit, et est ventus; aliquando in terram elevatur grossior vapor siccus, qui propter suam grossitiem et terrae soliditatem et profunditatem non expirat extra, sed clauditur in terra, et congregatur in aliqua concavitate terrae simili sibi, et coarctatur ab aliquo corpore non sibi simili in specie, et sic agitatur in terrae visceribus: et sic commovet eam: nec mirum, cum videamus ventum in mari facere undas quasi montes, et in terra elevare arbores et aedificia facere corruere, et in aere tempestates maximas facere. At times, it is somewhat thicker in the surface of the earth; hence when it is affected by cold it does not rise as much, and it is a wind; at times it is raised to the earth as a thicker dry vapor, which on account of its thickness and the solidity and depth of the earth does not breathe out any further, but is locked in the earth, and it is gathered in some cavernous space of the earth that is like itself, and it is confined by some body which is not like itself in species, and thus it is agitated in the bowels of the earth; and thus it moves the earth: it is no wonder, since we see the wind at sea make waves like mountains, and upon the land we see the wind lift trees and make buildings collapse, and make very great storms in the air.
Quod autem ventus sit causa terraemotus, signum est quod ante terraemotum consuevit fieri tranquillitas a ventis; sed post terraemotum sunt venti. Materia autem terraemotus subtiliata per calorem solis expirat a terra: et sic cessat terraemotus et fit ventus. Causa terraemotus est impulsio unius venti ab alio: et propterea non potest esse in tota terra simul, sed durant per ducenta miliaria ad plus, ut dicit Seneca. Et dicit quod terraemotus divisit Siciliam a Calabria, et Hispaniam ab Africa. Et durat aliquando per quadraginta dies; aliquando per unum annum. Item nota quod terra solida a qua non potest vapor exire exterius, apta est ut cito moveatur: ea enim quae est de natura lapidea, non leviter movetur et concutitur; oportet tamen ab aliqua parte porosam esse, unde ingrediatur vapor; ut per poros intret, et per soliditatem contineatur. One sign that wind is the cause of earthquakes is that before an earthquake the air usually becomes tranquil without wind; but after the earthquake there are winds. The matter of an earthquake is made fine by the heat of the sun and breathes out from the earth; and so the earthquake ceases and the wind begins. The cause of an earthquake is one wind being pushed by another; and on this account there cannot be an earthquake at the same time over the whole earth, but they extend over two hundred miles at the most, as Seneca says. And Seneca says that it was an earthquake that divided Sicily from Calabria, and Spain from Africa. And sometimes an earthquake lasts forty days; sometimes a whole year. Again, note that solid earth from which vapor cannot leave is apt to be quickly moved; for such earth is of a stony nature, it is not moved lightly and it is struck; however, it must be porous in some part, from which the vapor enters; as the vapor enters by pores and is contained by solidity.
Et si dicas, si ingrediatur non potest egredi, dicendum quod non potest semper hoc facere: quia aliquando semper continuatur ingressus et elevatio vaporis ad locum illum. Et iterum, quia calidum non vadit inferius, ad hoc cooperatur unda maris claudens poros, et pro frigore recludens inferius. Unde loca cavernosa circa mare faciunt frequenter terraemotum. Item nota quod iste vapor continue egreditur de terra quantum ad aliquid, et propterea tempore terraemotuum animalia quae portant caput juxta terram saepe ex hoc inficiuntur per vaporem illum venenosum egredientem de terra. And if you say that if it enteres it cannot leave, it should be said that it cannot always do this: becauase sometimes the entry and elevation of vapor to this place is continuous. And again, because that which is hot does not descend, and the waves of the sea that close the pores work together to this end, and enclose it below for cold. Again, note that this vapor continuously leaves the earth to some extent, and on this account, in time of earthquakes animals that carry their heads close to the earth are often thereby affected by the poisonous vapor that comes out of the earth.
(g) Inclinavit. Hic agit de ventis. Ubi nota quod materia venti est vapor vel exhalatio sicca calefacta, sed non ita subtiliata quod possit ad supremum locum ascendere, nec ita calefacta: unde impeditur a frigore et ingrossatur et repercutitur inferius: et haec repercussa movet aerem. Habet tamen tantum de caliditate quod non ita vincitur a frigore ut convertatur ad terram; et dicitur, caligo, et dicitur, sub pedibus, quia non est alta sicut illa quae accenditur in flamma. Aliquando autem non statim repercutitur, sed agitat nubes, quia non totaliter vincitur, nec directe redit inferius ad terram: et propter hunc motum tortuosum quasi nititur sursum ascendere, et non valet propter repercussionem; et hoc est quod dicit. (g) He bowed the heavens. Here he discusses winds. Note that the matter of wind is a dry vapor or exhalation that has been warmed, but which is not so fine that it can rise to the highest place, nor has it been heated to that extent: hence it is impeded by cold, is thickened and beaten to a lower place: and when it is struck it moves the air. It has enough heat that it is not bound by the cold to become earth; and it says, darkness, and it says, under his feet, because it not high like that which is ignited into flame. At times it is not struck right away, but it disturbs the clouds, because it is not totally bound, nor does it return directly below to earth; and because of this twisting motion, it tries, as it were, to rise, and it cannot because it is beaten back; and this is what he says.
(h) Et volavit. Hic agit de permutationibus aeris secundum corporales effectus: et est triplex permutatio: scilicet in ventis, in nubibus et tonitruis: et agit de qualibet. Circa primum proponit tria. Primo causam effectivam omnium istarum transmutationum. Secundo materiam. Tertio modum. (h) And he flew. Here he discusses the changes in the air with respect to physical effects: and there is a threefold change: namely, in the air, in the clouds, and in the thunders: and he treats each of these. With regard to the first he proposes three things. First, the efficient cause of all these changes. Second, the matter. Third, the mode.
Causa autem omnium istorum est corpus caeleste, quod suo motu causat has alterationes aeris; et ideo dicit, Inclinavit caelos, idest virtutem caelestium corporum ordinavit ad hos effectus: quia hoc habent a Deo. Et descendit. Licet Deus immobilis manens omnia operetur, dicitur tamen moveri per effectum, inquantum facit mobiles effectus. Sap. 7: Omnibus mobilibus mobilior est sapientia; et secundum hoc dicitur descendere, inquantum facit descendere virtutem caelorum. The cause of all these is a heavenly body, which by its motion causes these changes in the air, and so he says, he bowed down the heavens, that is, he ordered the power of the heavenly bodies to these effects: because they have this from God. And he came down. Although God works all things while remaining immobile himself, he is said to be moved by way of an effect, insofar as he makes effects that can be moved. Wisdom 7: Wisdom is more mobile than all mobile things; and according to this He is said to come down, insofar as he makes the power of the heavens come down.
Materia ventorum est caligo, sive fumus siccus; non ita subtilis quod ascendat usque ad ignem, sed subsistens; et dicit, sub pedibus, idest sub potestate ejus; et totum est a Deo. The matter of the winds is darkness, or dry smoke; it is not so fine that it rises to fire, but it remains; and he said, under his feed, that is, under his power; and all is from God.
Modus. Ascendit super cherubim. Notandum quod Judaei fingunt quod sicut rex habet currum, ita habet Deus etiam currum, qui est Cherubin; et imaginantur deum corporalem et similem Cherubin. Et ideo in Psalmo Hieronymi etiam de verbo ad verbum dicitur, equitavit super Cherubin. Et isti habent falsam imaginationem; quia quae imaginabiliter dicuntur in scriptura, signa sunt spiritualis veritatis. Divina autem sapientia moveri dicitur, inquantum motum causat in mobilia. Quidquid autem causat Deus in istis inferioribus, causat ministerio spiritualis creaturae: unde dicit Augustinus quod Deus movet corporalem creaturam mediante spirituali: sed non facit hoc sua virtute spiritualis creatura, sed Deo praesidente. et dicitur hoc specialiter facere Cherubin, quia interpretatur plenitudo scientiae: et Deus omnia per suam scientiam facit. Mode. He ascended upon the Cherubim. It should be noted that the Jews images that just as a king has a chariot, so God also has a chariot, which is the Cherubim; and they imagine God as physical and like the Cherubim. And so in the Psalm of Jerome it is also said word for word, he rode upon the Cherubim. And they have a false imagination, because the things that are said using images in Scripture, are sings of a spiritual truth. Divine wisdom is said to be moved, insofar as it causes movement in mobile things. Whatever God causes in this things below, he causes by the ministry of a spiritual creature: hence Augustine says that God moves the physical creature by the mediation of a spiritual creature: but the spiritual creature does not do this by his own power, but God presides. And the Cherubinm are said especially to do this, because Cherubim translates as fullness of knowledge: and God makes all things by his knowledge.
Et dicitur esse super Cherubim, quia scientia Dei excedit scientiam angelorum. Et ideo facit hoc Deus, volans, idest volare faciens. Et per Cherubin, idest per suam scientiam, et super eos qui excedit illos: et dixit volavit, quia motus venti non est uniformis: et dicit, pennas ventorum, propter velocitatem motus eorum. Mystice hic ponitur mysterium incarnationis. Et primo ponitur Christi incarnatio, per quam exivit et venit in mundum. Secundo ejus ascensio, qua ivit ad Patrem, ibi, Ascendit super Cherubim. Tertio ea quae post Christi ascensionem in ecclesia facta sunt, et posuit tenebras. And he is siad to go up upon the Cherubim, (or above the Cherubim), because the knowledge of God exceeds the knowledge of the angels. And therefore God does this, flying, that is, making fly. And through the Cherubim, that is, through his knowledge, and over the Cherubim because he exceeds them: and he siad, he flew, because the motion of the wind is not uniform: and he says, the wings of the wind, on account of the speed of their motion. Mystically the mystery of the incarnation is presented here. And first, the incarnation of Christ is presented, by which he departed and came into the world. Second, his ascension, whereby he went to the Father, where it says, he went up upon the Cherubim. Third, the things that have happened in the Church after Christ's ascenscion, and he made darkness his covert.
Dicit ergo, inclinavit caelos et descendit, etc.. Si quis magnus facit humilitatem alicui parvo de villa, dicitur facere injuriam et dejectionem toti loco cui praesidet. Sic filius hominis dicitur humiliare se et inclinare caelos, quia voluit venire ad nos humilis. Descendit, idest visibilis apparuit: Baruch, 3: post haec in terris visus est, et cum hominibus conversatus est. 1 Joan. 1: Quod vidimus et audivimus et manus nostrae contrectaverunt de verbo vitae. He says therefore, he bowed down the heaven and descended, etc.. If someone great humilates someone small from a village, he is said to cause insult and dejection to the entire place over which he presides. Thus the son of man is said to humiliate himself and bend down the heavens, because he wanted to come to as as someone humble. He came down, that is, he appeared as visible: Baruch 3: after these things he was seen in the lands, and he conversed with men. 1 John 1: That which we have seen and heard and what our hands have touched of the word of life.
Descendit ergo per humilitatem accipiendo carnem humanam, moriendo et docendo humilia. Vel, inclinavit caelos, idest praedicatores, et descendit, faciens eos dicere capacia hominibus. Et caligo, idest diabolus et omnes mali, sub pedibus ejus, idest Christi: Psal. 109: Ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum. De ascensione dicit, ascendit super Cherubim. Eph. 4: Qui descendit, ipse est et qui ascendit super omnes caelos ut adimpleret omnia. Super Cherubim, idest super ordines angelorum: Eph. 1: constituens eum ad dexteram suam in caelestibus super omnem principatum et potestatem et virtutem et dominationem etc.. Et omnia subjecit sub pedibus ejus, et ipsum dedit caput super omnem ecclesiam, quae est corpus ipsius: Hier. 32: fortissime, magne, potens, Dominus exercituum nomen tibi, magnus consilio et incomprehensibilis cogitatu. He descended therefore by humility in taking on human flesh, dying and teaching things that are humble. Or, he bowed down the heavens, that is, preachers, and he descended, making them speak things to men which men were capable of grasping. And darkness, that is devil and all evil men, under his feet, that is, the feet of Christ: Psalm 109: I will make your enemies your foot stool. He speaks of the ascenscion, he ascended above (upon) the Cherubim. Eph. 4: He who descended is the very one who ascended above all the heavens to make complete all things. Over (or upon) the Cherubim, that is, over the orders of angels: Eph. 1: seating him at his right hand in the heavens above every principality, virtue and domination etc.. And he has put all things under Christ's feet and has made him the head over the whole church, which is his body. Jer. 32: O most mighty, great, and powerful, the Lord of hosts is thy name. Great in counsel, and incomprehensible in thought.
Et dicit specialiter, super Cherubim, quia non solum ascendit ut est etiam eis superior, sed quia eis est incomprehensibilis. Volavit, volavit, duplex volatus intelligitur hic. Primo inquantum fama ejus post ascensionem in brevi tempore per totum mundum crevit; unde dicit, super pennas ventorum, idest plus quam pennae quae sparguntur impulsu ventorum, quia in modico tempore ante tres annos: Psal. 18: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum etc.. quia ante destructionem Hierusalem. Vel, volavit etc. Ascendens in caelum factus invisibilis, et volavit ab aspectu nostro: Act. 1: nubes suscepit eum ab oculis eorum. And he says specially, over the Cherubim, because not only does he ascend as he is also higher than them, but because he is incomprehensible to them. He flew, he flew - a two-fold flight is understood here. First, insofar as his fame grew through the whole world in a short time after his ascension; hence he says, on the wings of the winds, that is, more than wings or feathers that are scattered by a gust of wind, because in a short, less than three years: Psalm 18: their sound went through the whole earth.. because it was before the destruction of Jerusalem. Or, he flew etc. When he ascended into heaven he became invisible, and he flew from our sight: Acts 1: A cloud took him from our eyes.
Item volavit super pennas ventorum, idest super scientiam angelor um: Ps. 103: Qui facit angelos suos spiritus etc.. Unde dicitur in Lib. 5 De Causis, quod prima causa superior est omni narratione: et non deficiu nt linguae a narratione ejus, nisi quia deficiunt a narratione esse ipsiu s, quia est super omnem causam. Et dicit commentator, quod ejus non est j udicium nec cognitio. Et posuit tenebras, etc.. sicut dictum est, quae hi c inducuntur ad ostendendum Dei miram potentiam, qua David liberatus est, possunt referri ad corporales effectus in figura, et ad spirituales in m ysterio. Again, he flew upon the wings of the winds, that is, upon the knowledge of the angels: Ps. 103: He who made his spirits angels etc.. Hence we read in Book 5 of De Causis, that the first cause is higher than all telling: and tongues do not cease from the telling of it, unless it is because they cease or fail from the telling of his being, which is above every cause. And the commentator says that there is no judgement or knowledge of him. And he made the darkness, etc.. as was said, that here the darkness is mentioned to show the marvelous power of God, by which David was set free, and the darkness can refer figuratively to physical effects, and mystically to spiritual effects.
Primo ergo introducit psalmista secundum quod exponitur secundum corporales effectus excellentiam divinae potentiae in aere: et hoc tripliciter: scilicet quantum ad ventos, quantum ad pluvias et nubes, et quantum ad fulgura. Et quia de ventis supra dictum est, dicendum est de pluviis in aere. Secundum ergo nubes et pluvias, invenimus duplicem commutationem in aere; unam de sereno in nubilum, aliam de nubilo in serenum. Primo ergo ponit primam commutationem. Secundo secundam, ibi, prae fulgore. circa primum tria facit. primo ostendit nubilosi temporis obscuritatem. First, therefore, the psalmist mentions the excellence of the divine power in the air, as he expounding upon the physical effects. And he does this in three ways: namely, with respect to the winds, with respect to the rains and cloudes, and with respect to lightning. And because he spoke above of the winds, he is going to speak of the rains in the air. With respect to clouds and rains, we find a twofold change in the air; a change from clear sky to cloudy, and a change from cloudy to clear. First, therefore, he presents the first change. Second, the second change, where he says, at the brightness that was before him. He does three things with respect to the first. First, he shows the obscurity of the cloudy season.
Secundo adhibet similitudinem. Tertio ponit obscuritatis causam. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: posuit tenebras latibulum suum. Dicitur quod Deus habitat in caelo. Unde quando nubes occultant caelum, videtur Deus habitare in occulto: Ezech. 32: Caelum nube tegam. Et posuit similitudinem de tabernaculo: et ideo dicit, in circuitu ejus tabernaculum ejus. Tabernaculum enim ponitur et deponitur sicut nubes. Dicit, tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Consequenter agit de secunda. Prae fulgore etc. et utitur tali similitudine: quando venit lux, expelluntur tenebrae; et sic Deo ostendente lumen suum, fugit obscuritas nebularum. Second, he uses a likeness. Third, he presents the cause of the obscurity. Therefore he says with regard to the first: he made the darkness his covert. It is said that God dwells in heaven. Hence when the clouds cover heaven, God seems to dwell in a hidden place: Ezech. 32: I will cover the heaven with cloud. And he presents a comparison with a tent: and therefore he says, his tent around him. A tent is set up and taken down like the clouds. He says, the dark water in the clouds of the air. Following this, he treats the second. At the brightness etc.., and he uses a likeness: when the light comes, the darkness is cast out; and so when God shows his light, the obscurity of the clouds flees.
Et ideo dicit: prae fulgore in conspectu ejus nubes transierunt, prae fulgore luminis a facie tua nubes transierunt, sicut fulgore sive splendore solis, nubes fugiunt et liquefiunt, ut in Lib. Meteo. dicitur. Dali vel titiones ponuntur in transitu nubium: quia similem causam generationis habet grando et fulgur, sive ignis. Antiqui vero dicunt, quod generantur in loco supremo; quod ostendit fortiorem congelationem a forti frigore causari. Unde plus requirit de frigore nix quam aqua: pluviae et grando plus quam nix: et tantum potest esse frigus, quod statim condensat in grandinem: aliquando prius in aquam, et postea in grandinem. Et dicunt, quod vapores superius elevati congelantur multum, et ideo generantur grossi grandines. And thus he says: at the brightness in your sight the clouds pass, at the brightness of the light from your face the clouds pass, as at the brightness or splendor of the sun, the clouds flee and are dissolved, as we read in the Book of Meteorology. Torches or sparks are made in the passing of the clouds, because hail and lightning, or fire, have a similar cause of generation. The ancients said that they are generated in the highest place: which shows that they are causes by a stronger freezing from a stronger cold. Hence snow requires more cold than water: rain and hail require more than snow: and the cold can be so great that it at ounce condenses into hail: sometimes first into water, and then into hail. And they say, that vapors that are raised higher are frozen greatly, and therefore larger hailstones are made.
Sed philosophus e contra dicit, quod grossiores essent in montibus, et in hyeme: cujus contrarium videmus, quia grossiores sunt in valle, et fiunt in vere et autumno, et generantur in loco propinquo. Item secundum philosophum, aliquando veniunt angulares, quod est signum quod veniunt de propinquo: anguli enim citius liquefiunt. Unde sciendum, quod naturale est quod oppositum fortius agat in oppositum. Constat autem quod in nubibus admiscetur frigidum et calidum; ergo quando calor aeris circumstans constringit frigidum quod non potest consumere, tunc frigidum agit interius circumdante extra calore. But the philosopher says on the contary, if this were so they would be thicker in the mountains and in the winter: but we see the opposite, that hailstones are thicker in the valley, and they happen in the spring and autumn, and they are generated in a place nearby. Again, according to the philosopher, sometimes they come at an angle, wich is a sign that they come from nearby: for when they come at an angle they melt more quickly. Hence we should know, that it is natural that one opposite acts more strongly upon the other opposite. It is well known that that in the clouds, heat and cold are mixed; therefore when the heat of the air surrounds and constricts the cold that it cannot consume, then the cold acts inside the heat that surrounds it on the outside.
Titiones autem cadentes habent duplicem causam generationis: unam per fumum superius ascendentem usque ad locum inflammationis, qui inflammatur; et sic secundum inflammationem descendit quousque invenit materiam combustibilem. Et hoc tetigit quando dixit, carbones succensi sunt ab eo. Et hic tangit alium modum, qui est per contrariam resistentiam. In nube autem aliquando est aliquid calidum, et istud a frigido exteriori constringitur interius et multiplicatur, ita quod materiam grossam adducit et cadit: et ideo carbones, ignis et grando habent similem generationem, scilicet constrictionem frigoris vel caloris, ut dictum est. Dicit ergo, prae fulgore in conspectu ejus etc.. Et haec transierunt simul cum carbone et grandine, quae generantur ex nubibus, ut dictum est. Falling firebrands have a double cause of generation: one by smoke that rises to the place of inflammation, whihc is inflamed; and thus according to inflammation it descends until it finds combusible material. He touched upon this when he said, coals are lit by it. And here he touches upon another way, which is by contrary resistance. Sometimes in a cloud there is something hot, and this is constrained within by heat outside of it and it is multiplied, so that it draws to itself thick material and falls: and thus coals, fire and hail have a similar generation, namely, the constriction of cold or heat, as was said. He says therefore, at the brightness in his sight etc.. And these pass at the same time as the coal and hail which are generated from the clouds, as was said.
(i) Hic agit de tertia permutatione. Et primo de tonitruo. Secundo de fulgoribus, ibi, Misit sagittas. Sciendum quod psalmista loquitur hic secundum hanc similitudinem, quod quicquid fit in caelo, attribuatur Deo. Unde sonum auditum in caelo accipit, quasi vox Dei esset. Est autem duplex sonus in caelo. Unus qui est in tonitruo; et hic, licet aliqui dicant extinctionem ignis in nube, psalmista reprobat, et dicit quod fit per concussionem ventorum: ita et nubes. Et ideo psalmista dicit, intonuit de caelo Dominus. (i) Here he speaks of the third change. First, about thunder. Second, about strokes of lightning, where he says, He sent his arrows. We should know that the psalmist is speaking here according to a likeness, that whatever happens in the sky is attributed to God. Hence he regards a sound in the sky as if it were the voice of God. There are two kinds of sounds in the sky. One is the sound in thunder; and here, although some say it is the extinguishing of fire in a cloud, the psalmist disagrees, and he says that it happens by winds striking together: and the same with clouds. And therefore the psalmist says, The Lord thundered from heaven.
Item aliquando nubes grossae ex quibus grandines generantur quandoque cum sonitu: unde philosophus dicit, quod aliquando ante grandinem est fragor nubium, aliquando non: sicut enim vapor calidus et siccus expulsus a frigido, scindens nubem facit sonum, ut patet in fulgure, sic vapor humidus congelatus in grandinem, et expulsus a calido, scindit aliqualiter et facit sonum. Et ideo dicit, Altissimus dedit vocem suam, idest manifestavit potentiam suam et sequitur, grando et carbones ignis, quae ex his nubibus generantur, ut dictum est. Vel sic, intonuit de caelo. Nota quod aliquando ad locum superiorem ascendit vapor humidus: et quia est de natura aquae, fiunt ex eo impressiones humidae, quae sunt nebula, ros, caligo, pluvia, grando, et nix, et hujusmodi. Again, sometimes (there are) thick clouds from which hailstones are generated, occasionally with sound: hence the philosopher says, that sometimes before hail there is a break (or loud sound) in the clouds, sometimes not: for just as warm and dry vapor that is pushed out by cold, makes a sound when it breaks apart a cloud, as we see in lightning, so humid vapor that freezes into hail, and is pushed out by the warm, breaks the cloud apart to some degree and makes a sound. And therefore he says, and the Highest gave his voice, that is, he manifested his power and there follow hail and coals of fire from which these clouds are generated, as was said. Or thus, he thundered from heaven. Not that sometimes a humid vapor rises to a higher place: and because it is of the nature of water, from this come the impressions of water, which are cloud, frost, darkness, rains, hail, snow and the like.
Diversificantur autem ista aliquando diversitate quantum ad caloris et frigoris tenuitatem et spissitudinem. Aliquando enim ascendit vapor siccus; et si solus ascendit, facit ventos; si autem sit comprehensus ille vapor siccus in vapore humido, tunc quando vapor humidus sursum ascendit, et incipit inspissari propter frigus, vapor siccus in vapore illo humido inclusus facit agitationem magnam et inflammatur: talis enim vapor cito inflammatur, ut est videre in vapore qui egreditur de ventre hominis: et haec inflammatio causa est fulguris et coruscationis. These are diversifired, however, according to the diversity of the thinness or thickness of heat and coald. For sometimes a dry vapor rises; and if it alone rises, it causes winds; if, however, the dry vapor is surrounded by a humid vapor, then the humid vapor rises, and it begins to thicken or condense because of the cold, and the dry vapor enclosed in the human vapor causes a great disturbance and catches fire: for such a vapor is quickly set on fire, as one may see in the gas that comes from the belly of a man: and the setting on fire is the cause of lightning and flashing.
Agitatus autem vapor siccus in interioribus nubibus multiplicem sonum facit. Si etiam sic inflammatus percutiat latera nubis, et non scindat, tunc micat non clare; sicut si aliquis aliquem splendorem videret per pannum: est enim nubes aliquantulum pervia, unde aliqualiter videtur. Sonat autem sicut sonus flammae in medio incendio. Aliquando etiam sine inflammatione, et per consequens sine coruscatione fit sonus, quasi tumultuans: et hoc fit cum percutit, non inflammatus in lateribus nubis. Si autem percutiat latera et scindat, tamen cum difficultate quadam, et hoc in parte grossiori nubis, tunc est terribilis sonus, quasi aliquis pannum immensae latitudinis scinderet, et tunc visus fulguris vel coruscationis est curvus: quia non recte egreditur de nube, ut dictum est. A dry vapor that is shaken in the inner parts of clouds makes a multiple sound. If it is on fire and strikes the sides of a cloud and it does not break the cloud, then it does not flash clearly; it is as if someone would see something bright through a piece of cloth; for a cloud is somewhat transparent, hence the light is seen to some degree. It makes a sound like the sould of the flame in the middle of a blaze. Sometimes as well it is without being set on fire, and consequently there is a sound of tumult without any flashing; and this happens when it strikes in the sides of the cloud but has not been set aflame. If it strikes the sides and breaks them, but only with some difficulty, and this is the thicker part of the cloud, then there is a terrible sound, as if a piece of cloth of immense width was being torn, and then visible thunder or flash is curved: because it does not come straight out of the cloud, as was said.
Aliquando scindit nubem virtute magna et quasi subito, et totus vapor simul egreditur; et tunc sonat sicut vesica inflammata, vel si uter inflatus frangeretur super caput alicujus: et percutit aerem percussione fortissima. Aliquando vapor ille siccus ex inflatione crescit, et quaerens majorem locum facit dissolvere nubem subito, et sonare ad modum viridium lignorum crepidantium in igne, vel ovorum maxime; et hoc maxime apparet in castaneis, quibus in igne positis cum humidum incipit resolvi, et majorem locum quaerere, frangit testam resistentem, et cum impetu et sono magno exit. Sometimes it breaks the cloud with great power and suddenly, and all the vapor leaves at the same time; and then it sounds like a bladder on fire, or if an inflated bag were broken over someone's head: and it strikes the air with a loud bang. Someitmes this dry vapor grows from inflation, and as it seeks more space it cause the cloud to dissolve suddenly, and to sound like green wood rattling in fire, or most greatly of eggs; and this appears most readily in chestnuts when they are placed in fire, when the wetness begins to be broken down and to seek more room, and it breaks the resisting shell and comes out with force and a great sound.
Aliquando etiam non valens exire extinguitur; et sonat ad modum ferri candentis in aqua extincti; quem sonum vocat philosophus sisinum, vel stridorem. Aliquando etiam ille vapor facit diversa foramina in locis nubis minus spissis, et tunc facit quasi sonum sibili, sicut ventus quando exit per foramina. Aliquando antequam incendatur erumpit de nube, et tunc sonat sicut folles fabriles cum sufflant. Sometimes as well it is not able to come out and is extinguished; and it sounds like a piece of glowing hot iron put out in water; and the philosopher calls this sound sisinum, or hissing. Sometimes also the vapor makes various holes in the less thick places in the cloud, and then it makes something like a whistling sound, as when the wind passes through holes. Sometimes before it is set on fire it bursts out of the cloud, and then it sounds like a craftman's bellows when they inflate.
(k) Fulgura. Hic describit motum fulgurum, et comparat ea sagittae propter vehementiam venti a quo moventur. Et dissipavit eos, scilicet peccatores, qui aliquando ex eis moventur: secundum diversitatem enim ventorum est diversitas motus fulguris: nam sicut superius cum de modo ventorum agebatur dixit, volavit volavit etc. ut ostenderet diversum modum ventorum, ita hic dicit, fulgura etc. ut ostendat diversum motum fulgurum. Dicit, conturbavit eos, quia dicit Plinius (lib. 2, c. 12), quod secundum fulgura sunt augurationes; quia quandoque est bonum signum, scilicet quando fiunt ab oriente: aliquando non est bonum; et ideo homines augurantes conturbantur propter praesagia futurorum. (k) Lightning. Here he describes the motion of lightning bolts, and he compares them to arrows on account of the force of the wind by which they are moved. And he scattered them (he troubled them - Douay Rheims), that is, sinners, who are sometimes moved by these things: the motion of lightning varies depending on the diversity of winds: for just as he said above when he was treating the mode of winds, he flew, he flew etc., to show the diverse mode of winds, here he says, lightning etc., to show the diverse motion of lightning bolts. He says, he troubled them, because Pliny says (book 2, c. 12), that auguries depend on lightning; because it is sometimes a good sign, namely, when it comes from the east: sometimes it is not good; and therefore the men who perform auguries are disturbed by the presages of future events.
(l) Et apparuerunt. Hic agit de generatione aquarum, quae ex aliquibus principiis emanant, quae fontes dicuntur, ex quibus est omnis generatio aquarum. Hi autem dupliciter generantur. Aliquando ex causa consueta et naturali: sicut cum vapores super terram elevantur, et ex hac elevatione infrigidantur superius, et descendunt et fiunt pluviae: ita etiam ex calore terrae interius, et quando vapores non exeunt, congregantur et resolvuntur in aquam, et fiunt fontes aquarum. Sicut pluviae generantur in aere, ita fontes in terra; et ideo circa montes a quibus vapores non exeunt, fiunt fontes. (l) And the fountains of water appeared. Here he discuesses the generation of water, which flows from certain beginnings what are called fountains, from which is all the generation of waters. Fountains are generated in two ways. Sometimes they are generated by the usual and natural cause: just as when vapors are raised above the earth, and they are made cold from being raised to a higher place, and they fall and become rain: so also from the heat within the earth, when vapors do not come out, they are gathered together and resolve into water, and they become fountains of water. Just as rains are generated in the air, so fountains in the water; and so fountains appear around mountains from which vapors do not come out.
Et hoc est quod dicit, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Aliquando generantur fontes ex subversione terrae ex terraemotu, ex cujus commotione apparent venae aquae in profundo terrae submersae; et ideo dicit, et revelata sunt fundamenta orbis terrarum. Philosophus. Subversio est a vento intus incluso, sicut ventus in aere commovet aerem. Sed quando retinetur ventus fit terraemotus: et uterque ventus videtur ira Dei. And this is what he says, the fountains of water appeared. Somtimes fountains are generated by the upsetting of the earth by earthquaske, from which commotion the veins of water submersed in the depth of the earth appear; and therefore he says, and the foundations of the earth were revealed. The Philosopher: the upset is from wind that is enclosed within the earth, just as wind in the air moves the air. But when it is kept back, the wind becomes becomes an earthquake: and either kind of wind seems to be the anger of God.
Et ideo dicit facta per terram, sicut terraemotum. Mystice secundum spirituales effectus: et sicut supra ostensum est mysterium incarnationis signans ipsam incarnationem per quam descendit, et ascensionem; ita hic designantur ea quae secuta sunt post. Primo ergo ostendit ejus occultationem. Secundo ecclesiae congregationem, ibi, in circuitu ejus. Tertio apostolorum praedicationem, ibi, tenebrosa aqua. Quantum ad primum dicit, posuit tenebras. And therefore he says, made by the earth, like an earthquake. In a mystical sense, this concerns spiritual effects: and as the mystery of the incarnation was shown above, presenting a sign of the incarnation by which he descended, and the ascension, so here are designated the events that follwed. First he shows the hiding away of Our Lord. Second, the congregation of the Church, where he writes, around him. Third, he shows the preaching of the apostles, where he writes, dark water. With respect to the first, he presents the darkness.
Glossa distinguit quadrupliciter tenebras. Primo humanitatem: Ezech. 32: solem nube tegam. Isa. 45: Vere tu es Deus absconditus. Secundo species sacramentales, sicut baptismus, et alia sacramenta, in quibus divina virtus operatur secrete. Tertio latuit in fide fidelium: 2 Cor. 5: Quamdiu sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino. The gloss distinguishes four kinds of darkness. First, the humanity (of Christ): Ezech. 32: I will cover the sun with a cloud. Isa. 45: Truly you are the hidden God. Second, sacramental species, such as baptism and other sacraments, in which the divine power works secretly. Third, he was hidden in the faith of the believers: 2 Cor. 5: As long as we are in the body, we are away from the Lord.
Quarto latenter operatur aliquid per malos, qui sunt tenebrae: Jo. 1: Lux in tenebris lucet, et tenebrae eam non comprehenderunt. Aliquando mali permittuntur aliquid facere contra sanctos; sed his tenebris existentibus, tabernaculum ejus, idest ecclesia, est in circuitu ejus: Ps. 45: Sanctificavit tabernaculum suum Altissimus: Apo. 21: Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus etc. Per fidem et caritatem, inquantum sibi inhaerent tamquam medio, qui eis aequaliter favet, ut dicit glossa. Fourth, he works something in a hidden way through evil people, who are darkness: John 1: The light shone in the darkness, and the darkness could not comprehend it. Sometimes, evil people are allowed to do something against holy people; but although these darknesses exist, his tabernacle, that is, the church, is around him: Ps. 45: The Most High has made holy his tabernacle: Apoc. 21: Behold the tabernacle of God with men, etc. By faith and charity, insofar as these inhere in him as in a medium, he who treats all equally, as the gloss says.
Tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris. Hic agit de praedicatione apostolorum. Et primo ponit qualitatem praedicationis. Secundo conditionem praedicantium, ibi, nubes. Tertio praedicationis effectum, apparuerunt fontes aquarum. Dicit ergo, tenebrosa aqua, idest doctrina, in nubibus, idest in prophetis et praedicatoribus. Hos vocat nubes, quia a terrenis elevati in nubibus compluunt verbum Dei: Isa. 60: Qui sunt isti qui ut nubes volant etc.. et 45: Rorate caeli desuper, et nubes pluant justum. Dark water in the clouds of the air. Here he is discussing the apostles' preaching. And first, he presents the quality of the preaching. Second, the condition of those who preach, where he says, clouds. Third, the effect of the preaching, where he says, the fountains of water appears. He says therefore, dark water, that is, doctrine, in the clouds, that is, in the prophets and preachers. He calls them clouds, because they are raised from earthly things in the clouds and fulfil the word of God: Isa. 60: Who are these who fly like clouds etc.. and 45: Drop down dew, you heavens, from above, and let the clouds rain the just.
Vel dicit, in nubibus aeris, idest apostolis elevatis a terra: Isa. 5: Mandabo nubibus ne pluant super eam imbrem. Et dicuntur apostoli aqua tenebrosa in comparatione ad fulgorem, idest Christum, qui apparebit videntibus eum; 1 Cor. 13: Videmus nunc per speculum in aenigmate, tunc autem facie ad faciem. Vel aliter, et sic punctetur: tenebrosa aqua in nubibus aeris: prae fulgore in conspectu ejus nubes transierunt: postea sequitur, grando et carbones ignis etc.. Or he says, in the clouds of the air, that is, in the epostles raised from the earth: Isa. 5: And I will command the clouds to rain no rain on it (the vineyard). And the apostles are called dark water in comparison with lightning, that is, Christ, who shall appear to those who see him; 1 Cor. 13: We see now through a mirror unclearly, then we will see face to face. Or otherwise, and in way it is punctuated: dark water in the clouds of the air: at the brightness in his sight the clouds passed: after that it follows, hail and coals of fire etc..
Et distinguitur duplex doctrina: scilicet prophetarum, et haec est obscura, quia velamen habet, ut dicitur 2 Cor. 3: usque in hodiernum diem idipsum velamen in lectione veteris testamenti manet non revelatum, quoniam in Christo evacuatur. Ideo dicitur, tenebrosa aqua in prophetis, id est doctrina. Sed doctrina novi testamenti est clara; et ideo dicit, Prae fulgore; tota est una dictio, idest fulgida quia, ut dicitur Eph. 3: aliis in generationibus non est agnitum: Ps. 147: Non fecit taliter omni nationi. And he distinguishes two kinds of doctrine: namely, that of the prophets, and this doctrine is obscure, because it has a veil, as is said in 2 Cor. 3: the selfsame veil remains, not being lifted to disclose the Christ in whom it is made void. Therefore is says, dark water in the prophets, that is, doctrine. But the doctrine of the New Testament is clear; and therefore he says, At the brightness; all of this is one saysing, that is, bright because as it says in Eph. 3: this was not known in other generations: Ps. 147: He has not acted such toward every nation.
Consequenter agit de ipsis doctoribus, et comparantur nubibus, sagittis et fulgoribus: nubibus pro praedicatoribus. Et dicit tria. Primo eorum transitum; nubes. Qualitatem praedicationis, grando et carbones ignis. Auctoritatem praedicandi, intonuit. Nubes, idest apostoli, transierunt, de Judaeis ad gentes: Job. 37: Nubes spargunt lumen suum, quae lustrant per circuitum. Act. 13: Vobis oportebat primum loqui verbum Dei; sed quia etc.. Grando nocet multum fructibus et floribus, et eorum praedicatio fuit quasi grando comminationis. Consequently, he talks about the teachers themselves, and they are compared to clouds, arrows and lightning flashes: clouds for preachers. And he says three things. First, their passing: clouds. The quality of the preaching: hail and coals of fire. The authority of the preaching: he thundered. Clouds, that is, the apostles, passed, from the Jews to the Nations: Job 37: Clouds spread his light, which go round about. Act 13: You must first speak the word of God; but because etc.. Hail causes much damage to fruits and flowers, and their preaching was like a hail of threatening.
Et carbones ignis, idest verba inflammantia; et auctoritas, quia Dominus per eos loquebatur. Unde, intonuit de caelo Dominus, idest ipsis apostolis intonuit verba comminationis, Matth. 10: Non enim vos estis qui loquimini sed spiritus patris vestri qui loquitur in vobis etc.. Et altissimus dedit vocem suam, scilicet mansuetudinis inflammando: Jac. 1: in mansuetudine suscipite insitum verbum etc.. And coals of fire, that is verbs that set on fire; and authority, because the Lord was speaking through them. Hence, the Lord thundered from heaven, that is, he thundered the words of threatening by (or to) the apostles themselves, Matth. 10: For it is not you who are speaking but the spirit of your father who speaks in you.. And the Most High gave his voice, that is a voice of meekness, by setting on fire: James 1: in meekness receive the ingrafted word etc..
Et primo sequitur verbum, grando, ex secundo, carbones ignis. Vel aliter, intonuit, super Christum: Joan. 12: Venit vox de caelo dicens: et clarificavi, et iterum clarificabo; dicebat turba quae audiebat tonitruum factum esse. Et Altissimus dedit vocem suam, in transfiguratione. Luc. 3: Hic est filius meus dilectus. Misit sagittas. Comparantur hic isti doctores sagittis propter fervorem Spiritus Sancti in eis: Isa. 49: Posuit me quasi sagittam electam. Et 27: Qui egredientur impetu a jacob, et implebunt faciem orbis semine. And first the word is followed by hail, and from the second there follow coals of fire. Or otherwise, he thundered, over Christ: John 12: There came a voice from heaven saying: I have glorified him, and I will glorify him again; the crowd who heard this said that there was thunder. And the Most High gave his voice, in the transfiguration. Luke 3: This is my beloved son. He sent arrows. These teachers are compared to arrows on account of the fervor of the Holy Spirit in them: He has made me like a chosen arrow. And 27: They shall rush in unto Jacob...and they shall fill the face of the world with seed.
Et dissipavit eos, quia aliis odor vitae in vitam, aliis fuerunt odor mortis in mortem. 2 Cor. 2: Fulgura multiplicavit. Haec dicit propter claritatem miraculorum: Job. 38: Numquid mittes fulgura et ibunt et reverentia dicent tibi, adsumus. Et conturbavit eos, idest fecit eos obstupescere Act. 3, dicitur de miraculo petri, quod repleti sunt omnes stupore et extasi in eo quod contigerat. And he scattered them, because for some they were the odor of life unto life, for others they were the odor of death unto death. 2 Cor. 2: He multiplied lightning flashes. He says this on account of the clarity of miracles: Job 38: Can you send lightnings and will they go, and will they return and say to you, here we are? And he disturbed them, that is, he made them silent in wonderment - Act 3, it speaks of the miracle of the rock, that all were filled with wonder and awe at what happened.
Apparuerunt fontes. Hic ponitur effectus praedicationis. Et primo ponitur effectus. Secundo principium, ab increpatione. Et est duplex effectus. Unus ostenditur cum dicit, apparuerunt fontes aquarum, idest documenta sapientiae: Isa. 41: Aperiam in supinis collibus flumina, et in medio camporum fontes: ponam desertum in stagna aquarum, et terram inviam in rivos aquarum. Item 12: Haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus salvatoris. The fountains appeared. Here is presented the effect of preaching. And first is presented the effect. Second the principle, from thy rebuke. And there is two effects. One is shown web he says, the fountains of water appeared, that is, the teachings of wisdom: Isa. 41: I will open rivers in the high hills, and fountains in the middle of the fields: I will make the desert into pools of water, and the impassable land into rivers of water. Again, chapter 12: You will draw water in joy from the foundatins of the Savior.
Vel dona Spiritus Sancti: Zach. 13: Erit fons patens domui David et habitatoribus Hierusalem, in ablutionem peccatoris et menstruatae. Alius effectus ponitur cum dicit, Revelata sunt fundamenta: scilicet sancti patriarchae, supra quos fides nostra fundata est; quia quod in eis dictum vel factum est figuraliter, revelatum est per apostolos. Principium autem horum est, quando Christus incoepit increpare Matth. 4: poenitentiam agite; appropinquavit etc.. Luc. 13: nisi poenitentiam egeritis, omnes simul peribitis. Ab inspiratione spiritus irae tuae, quando inspiravit quod omnes turbaremur contra peccata. Or the gifts of the Holy Spirit: Zach. 13: In that day there shall be a fountain open to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for the washing of the sinner and of the unclean woman. Another effect is presented when he says, the foundations were revealed: that is, the holy patriarchs, upon whom our faith is founded; because what was said orhappened in them in figurative sense, is revealed by the apostles. The first of these effects is when Christ began to rebuke, Matth. 4: Repent and approach... Luke 13: Unless you do penance, you will all perish together. From the inspiration of the spirit of your anger, when he inspired all to be stirred up against sins.
(m) Misit. Supra egit psalmista de potentia liberantis; hic prosequitur per ordinem beneficium liberationis: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo agit gratias de liberatione quantum ad praeterita. Secundo quantum ad futura quae sperat, ibi, et ero immaculatus cum eo. (m) He sent. Above the psalmist discussed the power of the one who sets free; here he continues in order about the benefit of liberation: and in this regard he does two things. First, he gives thanks for liberation with regard to things past. Second, with regard to future things for which he hopes, where he writes, and I will be immaculate with him.
Circa primum tria ponit. Primo narrat a quibus sit liberatus. Secundo liberationem, ibi, et factus est. Tertio liberationis causam, ibi, salvum me fecit. circa primum duo facit. Primo se ostendit liberatum a magnis tribulationibus. Secundo exponit quomodo tribulationes sint magnae, ibi, eripuit me. As to the first, he presents three things. First he tells who it is from whom he was set free. Second, the liberation itself, where he says, and the Lord became my protector. Third, the cause of liberation, where he says, and he saved me. As to the first, he does two things. First, he shows that he himself has been freed from great trials. Second, he shows how the trials were great, where he says, he delivered me.
Dicit glossa secundum litteram, misit de summo; quasi dicat: Deus potens est, quia omnia praedicta facit, scilicet commovere etc. Intonuit etc. Habens summam potestatem. Et hoc, de summo, scilicet potestate accepit me, eripiendo; et assumpsit me, idest elevavit me: protegendo de aquis multis, idest de multis tribulationibus. The gloss says literally, he sent from the highest; as if to say: God is powerful, because he does all that is foretold, namely, to move things etc. He thundered etc., having the highest power. And the phrase, from the highest, namely by power he received me in delivering me; and he took me up, that is, he raised me, in protecting me from many waters, that is, from many trials.
Ps. 33: Multae tribulationes justorum, et de omnibus etc.. Eccl. 51: Liberasti me de portis tribulationum quae circumdederunt me, et a pressura flammae quae circumdedit me. Mystice misit Deus proprium filium suum de summo, idest de caelo: Joan. 8: Descendi de caelo, non ut faciam voluntatem meam etc.. Hoc est quod petebat: Psal. 143: Emitte manum tuam de alto. Ps. 33: Many are the trials of the just, and from all of them etc.. Eccl. 55: He set me free from the gates of the trials that surrounded me, and from the pressing of the flame that surrounded me. Mystically, God sent his own son from the highest, that is, from heaven: John 8: I came down from heaven, not to do my own will etc.. That is what he requested: Psal. 143: I will send my hand from on high.
Et liberavit me de aquis multis. Ps. 18: a summo caelo egressio ejus etc.. Vel Spiritum Sanctum: Thren. 1: De excelso misit ignem. Et accepit me, infirmum ad sanandum. Et assumpsit me de aquis multis, scilicet baptismi, vel de multitudine peccatorum. Vel, misit de summo, idest viris justis gratiam suam: Jac. 1: omne datum etc.. Et accepit me, ad poenitentiam: Isa. 40: Sicut pastor gregem suum pascet, in brachio suo congregabit agnos etc.. Oseae 11: Ego quasi nutritius Ephraim, portabam eum in brachiis meis. Vel populorum: quia fideles de multitudine gentium sunt assumpti. And he set me free from many waters. Ps. 18: from the highest heaven his going forth etc.. Or the Holy Spirit: Lamentations 1: He sent fire from on high. And he received me when I was infirm to heal me. And he took me up from the many waters, namely baptism, of from a multitude of sins. Or, he sent from on high, that is, he sent his grace to just men: James I: every gift etc.. And he received me, to penance: Isa. 40: Like a shepherd feeds his flock, I will gather my sheep in my arm etc.. Hos 11: And I like a foster father carried Ephraim in my arms. Or of the peoples: because the faithful were raised from among the multitude of the nations.
(n) Eripuit. Hic probat quomodo tribulationes sunt multae. Et primo ex conditione inimicorum. Secundo ex persecutione eorum, ibi, quoniam confortati sunt. Conditio inimicorum nociva est valde, quia potentes et odientes; unde, eripuit me de inimicis meis fortissimis, et ab his qui oderunt me. (n) He delivered me. Here he shows how the tribulations are many in number. First, from the condition of the enemies. Second, from their persecution, where he writes, for they were too strong. The condition of the enemies is that of being very harmful, because they are powerful and hateful; hence he writes, He has delivered me from my enemies most strong, and from those who hated me.
Potentes mystice sunt peccata carnalia: Eccl. 18: Si praestes animae tuae concupiscentias ejus, faciet te in gaudium inimicis tuis: Isa. 49: Numquid tollitur a forti praeda? odientes sunt daemones. Exod. 1: oderunt aegyptii filios israel: psal. 88: Concidam a facie ipsius inimicos ejus etc.. Consequenter ponitur persecutio. The powerful ones in a mystical sense are sins of the flesh: Eccl. 18: If you give to your soul her desire, she will make you a joy to your enemies. Isa. 49: Shall the pray be taken from the strong? The hateful ones are the demons. Exod. 1: The Egyptians hated the sons of Israel: ps. 88: I will cut off his enemies from before his face etc.. Then persecution is presented.
Dupliciter potest quis liberari ab inimicis: vel quod non permittat se vinci, vel quod fugiat. Utrumque autem excludit a se. Primo, quia fortes et confortati, idest multiplicati, vicerunt eum, nec potuit fugere: et hoc est quod dicit, praevenerunt me, praecludentes modo viam ad fugiendum: Thren. 4: velociores fuerunt persecutores nostri aquilis caeli, super montes persecuti sunt nos; et hoc, in die afflictionis, quia tunc homo debilior est quando est afflictus: Thren. 1: omnes persecutores ejus apprehenderunt eam inter angustias. Someone may be freed from his enemies in two ways: either he does not allow himself to be defeated, or he flees. The writer excludes both possibilities in his own case. First, because they are strong and have been made very strong, that is, they have grown great in number, they have defeated him, nor could he flee: and this is what he says, they came before me, shutting off the path to escape: Lamentations 4: My persecutors were faster than the eagles of the sky, they have pursued over over the mountains; and this phrase, in the day of afflication, because when a man is afflicted he is weaker: Lamentations 1: all his persecutors caught in the midst of his troubles.
Auxilium liberatoris ponit duplex. Primo contra invalescentes hostes; unde dicit et factus est Dominus protector meus, ut non noceant: Psal. 63: Protexisti me a conventu malignantium etc.. Secundo, contra prudentes; unde sequitur, eduxit me in latitudinem, de angusto in quo eram positus nesciens quid facerem, dans vias quid facerem. Vel in latitudinem caritatis: Psal. 118: Latum mandatum tuum nimis. He presents two kinds of help from the liberator. First, against enemies who are increasing in strength; hence he says, and the Lord has become my protector, so they do not harm: Psal. 63: He protected me from the gathering of evil-doers etc. Second, against those who are prudent; hence it follows, he led me into a wide place, from the narrow place in which I was put knowing not what I should do, giving me ways for what I would do. Or in the wideness of charity: Ps. 118: Very wide is his command.
Causa liberationis est duplex: scilicet divina gratia, et meritum humanum. Unde dicit, salvum me fecit, quoniam voluit me. Haec est potentissima causa liberationis, scilicet voluntas sua: Eph. 1: qui operatur omnia cum consilio voluntatis suae; et tamen subsequenter operatur ibi aliquid meritum humanum: 1 Cor. 15: gratia Dei in me vacua non fuit. There are two causes of liberation: namely, divine grace and human merit. Hence he says, he saved me, because he was well pleased with me. This is the most powerful cause of liberation, namely his will: Eph. 1: who works all things with the counsel of his will; and yet some human merit also works following this: 1 Cor. 15: The grace of God has not been empty in me.
Et ideo subdit, retribuet mihi Dominus etc.. Ubi tria facit. Primo proponit meritum. Secundo in quo consistit. Tertio ponit viam perveniendi ad hoc meritum. Secunda, ibi, quia custodivi etc.. Tertia, ibi, quoniam omnia judicia. Meritum hominis consistit in duobus: scilicet in operatione boni, et in evitatione mali: ps. 33: Declina a malo, et fac bonum. And thus he adds, the Lord will reward me etc... Here he does three things. First he sets forth the merit. Second, he sets forth in what the merit consists. Third, he shows the way to approach this merit. The second point, where he says, because I have kept etc... The third poitn, where he says, because all judgements. A man's merit consists in two things: namely, in the working of good, and in the avoidance of evil: Ps. 33: Turn away from evil, and do good.
Et ideo quantum ad primum dicit, retribuet mihi Dominus secundum justitiam meam, quam ipse in me operatus est: Sap. 3: justorum animae in manu Dei sunt et non tanget illos tormentum malitiae etc.. Prov. 11: seminanti justitiam merces fidelis. Quantum ad secundum dicit, secundum puritatem manuum mearum retribuet mihi, idest innocentiam: Job 22: Salvabitur innocens, salvabitur autem in munditia manuum suarum. non privabitur bonis etc.. Ps. 83: Haec autem justitia consistit in observatione viarum Dei: Ps. 118: Viam mandatorum tuorum cucurri. And thus regarding the first he says, the Lord has rewarded me according to my justice, which he as worked in me: Wisdom 3: the souls of the just are in God's hand and the torment of malice will not touch them etc.. Prov. 11: A faithful reward for he who sows justice. As regards the second he says, he has rewarded me according to the purity of my hands, that is, the innocence: Job 22: The innocent will be saved, but he will have saved in the cleanliness of his hand, he will not be deprived of good things etc.. Ps. 83: But this justice consists in observing the ways of God: Ps. 118: I have run the way of your commands.
Et ideo dicit, quia custodivi vias Domini: Job 23: Vestigia ejus secutus est pes meus: Viam ejus custodivi, et non declinavi ex ea, et quia non impie gessi, recedendo a Deo, quia per peccatum homo recedit a Deo, et inquinatur: Ps. 43: non recessit retro cor nostrum. Quomodo pervenit ad hoc? Quia, omnia judicia ejus in conspectu meo. And therefore he says, because I have kept the ways of the Lord. Job 23: My foot has followed his tracks. I have kept his way, and I have not departed from it, I because I have not acted impiously by going away from God, because through sin a man goes away from God and is soiled: Ps. 43: My heart has not drawn back. How does he arrive at this? Becuase, all his judgements are in my view.
Valet valde ad operandum bona et evitanda mala cogitare divina judicia: Job 19: Fugite a facie gladii, quoniam ultor iniquitatum est gladius. Et custodivi hoc, quia justitias ejus repuli a me, de industria peccando: Job 21: Dixerunt Deo, recede a nobis. Et sequitur, perveniet eis inundatio. Qui ex infirmitate vel ignorantia peccat, faciliter veniam consequitur. Thinking upon the divine judgements is very helpful for doing good and avoiding evil: Job 19: Flee from the face of the sword, because the avenger of iniquities is the sword. And I have kept this, because I have not pushed his justices away from me, out of industry in sinning: Job 21: They said to God, go away from us. And it followed that waves washed over them. He who sins from weakness or ignorance easily finds forgiveness.
(o) Et ero. Supra commemoravit psalmista beneficium liberationis de praeterito; hic de futuro quantum ad spem. Et primo commemorat beneficia in generali. Secundo in speciali, quae accepit, et quae sperat, ibi, Deus meus impolluta via ejus. Tertio commendat justitiam divinam. (o) And I shall be. Above the psalmist called to mind the benefit of being set free in the past; here he thinks of the future with regard to hope. First he calls to minds benefits in general. Second, in a special sense, the things he has received, and those for which he hopes, where he says, my God, his way is undefiled. Third, he commends the divine justice.
Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit orationem ad deum. Secundo commendat spem exauditionis, ibi, quoniam tu illuminas. Tria proponit. Primo propositum perseverandi in innocentia. Secundo meritum retributionis. Tertio rationem assignat. Secunda, ibi, retribuet. Tertia ibi, cum sancto sanctus eris. As to the first, he does two things. First, he proposes prayer to God. Second, he commends the hope of being heard, where he writes, because you light... He proposes three things. First, the proposal of perserverance in innocence. Second, the merit of retribution. Third, he gives the reason. The second, where he says, and he will reward me. The third, where he says, with the holy you will be holy.
Dicit ergo, et ero immaculatus cum eo, idest adhaerebo Deo, quia loquitur ex persona sui et aliorum, quorum quidam innocentes sunt: et ideo dicit, et ero, idest stabo et perseverabo in innocentia: Eccl. 31: Beatus vir qui inventus est sine macula; vel, Ero immaculatus cum eo, idest adhaerebo Deo: 1 Cor. 6: qui autem adhaeret Deo, unus est spiritus etc., conservans te ab omni macula: Job 27: donec deficiam, non recedam ab innocentia mea. He says therefore, and I shall be spotless with him, that is, I will cling to God, because he is speaking in his own person and in the persons of others, in whose number the innocent are included: and thus he says, and I will be, that is, I will stand and I will perservere in innocence: Eccl. 31: Blessed the man who is found without stain; or, I will be spotless with him, that is, I will cling to God. 1 Cor. 6: He who clings to God is one in spirit etc., keeping him from all stain: Job 27: until I die, I will not retreat from my innocence.
Quidam sunt poenitentes: et ad hoc pertinet ne iterum in peccatum labantur (et ideo dicit, et observabo me ab iniquitate mea): sicut canis qui revertitur ad vomitum, et sus lota in volutabro luti, 2 Pet. 2 Eccl. 26: In duobus contristatum est cor meum, et in tertio iracundia mihi advenit. Vir bellator deficiens prae inopia, et vir sensatus contemptus, et qui transgreditur de justitia in peccatum, Deus paravit illum ad romphaeam. Some are those who are penitent; and to this it pertains that they should not lapse into sin (and therefore he says, and I shall keep myself from my iniquity): as a dog who returns to his vomit, and a sow that returns to wallow in the mire after she is washed, 2 Pet. 2. Eccl. 26: At two things my heart is grieved, and the third bringeth anger upon me: a man of war fainting through poverty, and a man of sense despised, and he that passes over from justice to sin, God has prepared such a one for the sword.
Consequenter ponit spem retributionis cum dicit, et retribuet mihi Dominus secundum justitiam meam. Et est duplex retributio. Una, quae datur pro bonis impletis: et propter hoc dicit, retribuet mihi Dominus secundum justitiam meam. Anselmus: justitia est rectitudo voluntatis propter se servata. Vel secundum opera hominis reddet ei: Ps. 62: reddet unicuique secundum opera sua. Following this, he presents the hope of reward when he says, and the Lord will reward me according to my justice. There are two kinds of reward. One. which is given for good things that have been completed: and on this account he says, the Lord has rewarded me according to my justice. Anselm: justice is the rectitude of the will observed for the sake of rectitude itself. Or according to a man's works he renders unto him: Ps. 62: He renders unto each according to his works.
Dicit, observabo, et, retribuet, quia si homo aliquando fuit justus et fecit opera justitiae, et non observat se a peccatis, vel non conservat se in operibus justitiae, ideo mortificatur, nec meretur retributionem: Ezech. 18: Omnes justitiae ejus non recordabuntur. Alia est quae datur pro beneficiis; unde dicit; retribuet secundum puritatem manuum mearum in conspectu oculorum ejus. He says, I will keep myself, and, he will reward, because if a man was just at one time and did works of justice, and did not keep himself from sins, or did not keep himself in works of justice, he will suffer death, nor will he merit a reward: Ezech. 18: All his justices will not be remembers. Another reward is given for benefits; hence he says; he will reward me according to the purity of my hands in the sight of his eyes.
Aliquando habent exterius tantum manus, idest operationes puras, et illis Deus non retribuet: sed quando habent puras in corde operationes, tunc retribuet. Et hoc est, in conspectu oculorum ejus, non illis bonis quae sunt in conspectu nostro, sed in conspectu Dei: Isa. 64: oculus non vidit deus absque te. et quid retribuet? jucunditatem ineffabilem, et augmentum gratiae, quae proveniunt ex mandatis Dei servatis: Psal. 18: in custodiendis illis retributio multa. Et retribuet secundum puritatem manuum mearum, idest operum. Sometimes they have hands only outwardly, that is, pure works, and God does not reward such men: but when they have pure works in their heart, then he rewards. And this is, in the sight of his eyes, not for the works that are in our sight, but the works that are in God's sight: Isa. 64: the eye has not seen, O God, besides thee. And what does he give as reward? Ineffable hoy, and increase of grace, which come from the keeping of God's commands: Psal. 18: in keeping them there is great reward. And he shall reward me according to the purity of my hands, that is, of my works.
Dicitur autem opus impurum, ratione carnalis affectus: Isa. 1: manus vestrae sanguine plenae sunt. Item ratione inanis gloriae: Matth. 6: Attendite ne justitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibus, ut videamini ab eis; alioquin mercedem non habebitis. Gregorius: vecordia est magna agere, et laudi inhiare, quae unde caelum mercari potuit, inde vanum et transitorium sermonem quaerit. A work is said to be impure by reason of carnal feeling: Isa. 1: Your hands are full of blood. Again, by reason of empty glory: Matth. 6: See that you do not perform your justice before men so as to be seen by them, otherwise you will not have any reward. Gregory: It is foolishness to do great things, and to look with longing for praise. The works could have been used to purchase heaven, but instead he seeks from them vain and passing words.
(p) Consequenter ponitur ratio retributionis; ideo sequitur, cum sancto. Circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit rationem retributionis. Secundo exponit eam, ibi, quoniam tu populum. Primi duo versus dupliciter possunt intelligi. Uno modo, ut intelligatur ad Deum loqui; et sic est literalis sensus; quasi dicat, tu Dominus, cum sancto sanctus eris. (p) Following this, he presents the reason for the reward; thus it follows, with the holy. Regarding this, he does two things. First he presents the reason for the reward. Second, he explains it, where he says, you will save the humble people. The first two verses can be understood in two ways. In one way, the words are understood as being spoken to God; and this is the literal sense; as if he is saying, you Lord, are holy with the holy.
Et sic dicit duo: scilicet quod Deus sit remunerator et adprobator bonorum. Secundo, quomodo est reprobator malorum; unde sequitur, et cum innocente etc.. Et cum perverso perverteris. Est autem sciendum quod nominat scilicet sanctum, innocentem, et electum. Electus autem potest dupliciter intelligi. Uno modo a Deo; hoc est commune omnibus sanctis: Ephes. 1: Elegit nos Deus ante mundi constitutionem etc.. Alio modo dicitur electus qui habet excellentiam innocentiae et sanctitatis: Cant. 5: Dilectus meus candidus et rubicundus, electus ex millibus. And thus he says two things: namely that it is God who is the one rewards and tests the good. Second, how God is the one who reproves the evil; hence it follows, with the innocent etc.. And with the perverse you will be perverted. We should know what he names, namely, holy, innocent and elect. Elect or chosen can be understood in two ways. One way, by God; this is common to all the saints: Ephes. 1: God has chosen us before the constitution of the world etc.. In another way, one who has the excellence of innocence and holiness is called elect: Songs 5: My beloved is white and ruddy, chosen from among thousands.
Si primo modo sumatur electus, tunc secundum ponit ex parte nostra, et tertium ex parte Dei. Si secundo modo, sic proponit duo, quae ex parte nostra sunt. Primum est operatio boni quae fit propter Deum; et quae proprie habet rationem sanctitatis: quia omnia quae ordinantur ad Deum, dicuntur sancta: et hoc est quod dicit, Domine, tu eris sanctus cum sancto, sanctitatem in eo causando: Lev. 21: ego Deus qui sanctifico vos. If elect or chosen is understand in the first way, then he presents the second on our part, and the third on the part of God. If in the second way, he proposes two things that are on our part. The first is the operation of good which happens for the sake of God; and these things properly have the meaning of sanctity: because all the things that are ordered to God are called holy: and this is what he says, Lord, you will be holy with the holy, by causing holiness in him: Lev. 21: I am God who makes you holy.
Vel sic. Tu eris sanctus effective, idest ostendens te amare et adprobare sanctitatem: non enim ostendit se nisi per opera; substantiam enim ejus non videmus. Nec aliter est sanctus cum sancto, nisi ostendendo sanctitatem: non est enim visibilis nunc nobis, ut dicamus quod conformat se sancto in motibus exterioribus, sicut de homine qui diversis diversimode se conformat, maxime amicis: quia omne animal diligit sibi simile; et quod diligit quis, illud remunerat. Or thus. You will be holy effectively, that is, showing that you love and approve of holiness: for he does not show himself except through works; for we do not see his substance. Not otherwise is he holy with the holy, except by showing holiness: for he is not now visible to us, so that we say that he conforms himself to the holy in exterior motions, just as of a man who conforms himself to diverse people in diverse ways, especially to friends: because every animal loves what is similar to it; and that which someone loves he remunerates.
Unde ostendens te sanctum, quando remunerabis, inquit, sanctitatis opera? Et cum viro innocente innocens eris, effective et remunerando. Et cum electo, quem tu diligis, electus eris, quia facies quod ipse te eliget: Joan. 15: Non vos me elegistis, sed ego elegi vos primordialiter: Deut. 4: dilexit patres tuos, et elegit semen eorum post eos. Et 26: Deum elegisti hodie, ut sit tibi Deus, et obedias ejus imperio: et Dominus elegit te hodie, ut sis ei populus peculiaris, et faciet te excelsiorem cunctis gentibus, ut sis populus sanctus. Whence showing that you are holy, when you will remunerate, he says, the works of holiness? And with the innocent you will be innocent, effectively also by remunerating. And with the elct, whom you love, you will be elect, because you cause him to choose you: John 15: You did not choose me, but I chose you in the beginning: Deut. 4: He has loved your fathers, and choses their seed after them. And 26: You have chosen God today, that he will be God for you, and you will obey his rule: and God has chosen you today, that you will be to him a peculiar people, and he will make you higher than all other nations, so that you will be a holy people.
Vel, electus, idest excellenter separatus. Et cum perverso perverteris, idest permittes eum esse perversum. Vel perversi sunt illi qui non sequuntur illos quos debent sequi. Qui ergo non sequitur voluntatem Dei, videtur perversus. Ergo tu contra voluntatem Dei, et Deus contra voluntatem tuam; quasi dicat: tu vis habere beatitudinem, et Deus dabit miseriam: Lev. 26: Si ambulaveritis mihi ex adverso, et ego contra vos adversus incedam, et percutiam vos septies propter peccata vestra. Or elect, that is, separated in an excellent way. And you will be perverse with the perverse, that is, you will permit him to be perverse. Or the perverse are those who do not follow the ones they should follow. Therefore he who does not follow the will of God seems perverse. Therefore if you are opposed to God's will, God also is opposed to your will; as if to say: you want to have happiness, and God will give misery: Lev. 26: If you defy me ... I will also defy you and will smite you sevenfold for your sins.
Et ideo dicit, cum perverso perverteris, idest agens contra voluntatem perversorum. Alio modo potest legi, ut referat sermonem ad aliquem hominem: et sic homo cum sancto homine, vel cum christo sanctus eris: quia non audies de Deo nisi sanctitatem. And therefore he says, with the perverse you will be perverted, that is, acting against the will of perverse people. It may be read in another way, as referring the words to some man: and so a man with a holy man, or with Christ you will be holy: because you do not hear of God anything except holiness.
Exod. 37: Cum viro religioso tracta de sanctitate: et cum innocente innocens eris, quia secundum conversationem informantur mores: 1 Cor. 15: corrumpunt bonos mores colloquia mala. et cum perverso perverteris. Eccl. 13: qui tetigerit picem, inquinabitur ab ea, et qui communicat superbo etc.. Exod. 37: With a religious man discuss holiness:(note: This text is found with varying words in Eccl. 37, not in Exodus 37. and with the innocent you will be innocent, becauses mores take form according to how time is spent together with others: 1 Cor. 15: Bad conversations corrupt good mores. And with the perverse you will be perverse. Eccl. 13: He who touches pitch will be soiled by it, and he who spends time with the proud etc...
Consequenter exponit praemissa secundum primam lecturam. Quare eris Domine cum sancto? quia, tu populum humilem salvum facies, idest in hoc quod humilem salvum facies, ostendit te cum sancto sanctum esse: Jacobi 4: Humilibus dat gratiam: Matth. 19: Sinite parvulos venire ad me, talium enim est regnum caelorum: Psalm. 137: Excelsus Dominus, et humilia respicit. In what follows he presents the premises according to the first reading. How will you be, or Lord, with the holy? Because, you save the humble people, that is, in the fact that you do save the humble you show that you are holy with the holy: James 4: He gives grace to the humble: Matth. 19: Allow the little ones to come to me, for of such is the kingdom of heaven: Psalm 137: High is the Lord, and he looks upon the humble.
Quare cum perverso perverteris? Quia oculos superborum humiliabis: Luc. 14: Omnis qui se exaltat humiliabitur: Isa. 2: Oculi sublimes humiliati sunt, et incurvabitur altitudo virorum. Et dicit, oculos, quia superbia in hoc consistit, quod homo aspectum suum ad majora quam sit sua proportio, erigit: Isa. 16: Superbia ejus et arrogantia ejus plusquam fortitudo ejus. Et ideo Psalm. 130: Domine non est exaltatum cor meum, neque elati sunt oculi mei. Why are you perverse with the perverse? Because you will humble the eyes of those who are proud: Luke 14: Everyone who exalts himself will be humbled: Isa. 2: The proud eyes are humbled, and the tallness of men is bent down. And he says, eyes, because pride consists in this, that a man raises his gaze to things that are greater than his proportion: Isa. 16: His pride and arrogance are greater than his strength. And therefore we read in Psalm 130: Lord, my heart is not exalted, nor are my eyes lifted up.
(q) Quoniam. Hic convertit se ad orationem; quasi dicat: ita justus es. Quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam. Et duo facit. Primo refert gratiarum actionem de beneficio suscepto. Secundo ponit petitionem de suscipiendo, ibi, Deus meus, illumina tenebras meas. Dicit ergo, tu illuminas etc.. (q) For. Here he turns himself to prayer; as if to say: yes, you are just. For you light my lamp. And he does two things. First he gives thanks for the benefit received. Second, he presents a petition for something to receive, where he says, my God, enlighten my darkness. He says there, you light etc..
Hoc totum potest secundum litteram dupliciter exponi: ut per lucernam intelligatur prosperitas, per tenebras intelligatur adversitas. Sicut quando homo est laetus, videntur sibi clara omnia; quando est tristis, videntur sibi omnia obscurari. Hoc est ergo quod dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam domine, quia tu dedisti mihi prosperitatem, et continue das: illumina tenebras meas, idest si quid adversitatis remansit in me, expelle et remove a me. All this can be expounded literally: so that by the lamp we understand prosperity, by darkness we understand adversity. When a man is happy, all things seem clear to him; when he is said, all things seem to be obscured. Therefore this is what he says, for you light my lamp, Lord, for you have given me prosperity, and continue to give me prosperity: light my lamp, that is, if there is any adversity remaining in me, cast it out and remove it from me.
Alio modo potest intelligi moraliter, ut per lucernam intelligatur mens sive anima hominis: Prov. 20: Lucerna Domini spiramentum hominis. Mens ergo hominis est quasi lucerna Dei accensa divino lumine: Psal. 4: Signatum est super nos etc.. Quamdiu sine peccato sumus, lucerna nostra accensa est, idest anima nostra splendet lumine gratiae; sed quando aliquid tenebrae corruptibilis carnis remanet, est extincta: Rom. 7: Ego ipse mente servio legi Dei, carne autem legi peccati. In another way it may be understood in a moral sense, so that by the lamp we may understand the mind or soul of a man: Prov. 20: The spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord. Therefore a man's mind is like the lamp of the Lord lit by divine light: Psal. 4: It is made as a sign over us etc... As long as we are without sin, our lamp is lit, that is, our soul shines with the light of grace; but when some of the darkness of corruptible flesh remains, it is extinguished: Rom. 7: I myself serve the law of the Lord with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sing.
Et hoc est quod dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam, idest quia anima mea illuminata est lumine gratiae. Illumina tenebras meas, idest remove a me defectus et corruptiones, per quae homo incidit in tenebras. Vel potest legi allegorice, ut dicantur verba quasi ex persona Christi, vel cujuscumque viri justi. In ecclesia sunt multi lucentes, sicut fideles et sancti: Philip. 2: inter quos lucetis sicut luminaria in mundo, verbum vitae continentes. And this is what he says, for you light my lamp, that is, for my soul is lit by the light of grace. Light my darkness, that is, remove from me defects and corruptions, by which a man falls into darkness. Or it may be read allegorically, so that the words are said as if in the person of Crist, or of any other just man. There are many who shine in the Church, such as the faithful and the saints: Philip. 2: among whom you shine like lamps in the world, containing the word of light.
Item multi tenebrosi, sicut infideles et peccatores: Ephes. 5: eratis aliquando tenebrae etc.. Ergo homo orans pro ecclesia vel ecclesia pro se, dicit, quoniam tu illuminas lucernam meam, idest fideles qui lucent, illumina tenebras, idest peccatores. Again, there are many who are dark, such as the unfaithful and sinners: Ephes. 5: Once you were darkness etc.. Therefore when a man is praying for the Church, or when the Church is praying for itself, he says, for you light my lamp, that is, the faithful who shine light the darkness, that is, sinners.
(r) Spem exauditionis ponit cum dicit, quoniam. Hic facit duo. Primo tangit liberationem a malo. Secundo victoriam super malo. Dicit ergo, oro quia spero, in te, idest in virtute tua, eripiar a tentatione, idest a quacumque tribulatione sive impugnatione: 1 Cor. 10: Fidelis Deus qui non patietur vos tentari supra id quod potestis. (r) He presents the hope of being heard when he says, For. Here he does two things. First, he talks about liberation from evil. Second, victory over evil. He says therefore, I pray because I hope, in you, that is in your virtue, I will be rescued from temptation, that is, from any tribulation or attack: 1 Cor. 10: Faithful is God who does not suffer you to be tempted over what you are able.
Et in Deo meo transgrediar murum, idest victoriam a peccato virtute Dei habebo. Tunc enim hostis habet victoriam civitatis, quando transgreditur murum. Murus iste est quaecumque difficultas quae impedit nos ad bene operandum, sive peccata quae provocant nos ad male faciendum. Hieronymus dicit, frangam murum, quia non possumus esse in mundo sine peccato: 1 Joan. 1: si dixerimus quia peccatum non habemus etc.. Sed transgredimur, quia superamus illud, dum non consentimus concupiscentiis ejus. And in my God I shall go over a wall, that is, I will have victory over sin by the power of God. For an enemy has victory over a city when he goes over its wall. This wall is any difficulty that prevents us from working well, or sins that provoke us to do evil. Jerome says, I will break the wall, because we cannot be in the world without sin: 1 John 1: If we shall say that we have no sin etc.. But we do go over, because we overcome it when we do not consent to its pleasures.
(s) Sequitur, Deus. Supra commemoravit in generali beneficia quae in futurum expectat a Deo, quia, in te eripiar etc.: hic in speciali prosequitur ea. Et notandum, quod loquitur ad modum habentis adversitatem et adversarios de quibus sperat victoriam: in qua triplex est gradus. Primo, ut persequatur adversarios fugientes, et sicut captos destruat. Secundo ut in eis regnet, ibi, et praecinxisti me. tertia, ut exaltetur, ibi, et eripies me. (s) Then it says, God. Above, the psalmist called to mind in a general way the benefits that he expects from God in the future, because, in you I will be rescued etc.: Here he treats these benefits in a special way. We should not that he is speaking like one who has adversity and adversaries over whom he hopes for victory: in which there are three grades. First, that he may pursue the adversaries as they flee, capture them and destroy them. Second, that he may reign among them, where he says, and you have girt me. Third, that he may be raised, where he says, and you will deliver me.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo commendat suum adjutorem, scilicet Deum. Secundo, ostendit quomodo a Deo iam data sunt ei quaedam, per quae idoneus est ad persequendum eos. Tertio agit de persecutione. Secunda, ibi, Deus qui praecinxisti. Tertia, ibi, persequar. Prima in duo. Primo commendat Deum. Secundo commendationem probat, ibi, quoniam quis etc.. Commendat ergo Deum de tribus: quod sit justus in opere, verax in sermone, et quod sit misericors in subventione. Quantum ad primum dicit, eripiar a tentatione, dum considero divinae justitiae puritatem, quia, Deus meus impolluta via ejus. He does three things with regard to the first. First, he praises his helper, namely God. Second, he shows how he has been given by God some things by which he is fit to pursue them. Third, he talks about the pursuit. Second, where he says, God who has girt. Third, where he says, I will pursue. The first is divided into two. First he praises God. Second he proves his praise, where he says, for who etc.. He praises God for three reasons: that God is just in his work, true in his word, and that he is merciful in helping. Regarding the first he says, I will be delivered from temptation, while I consider that purity of divine justice, because, My God - his way is undefiled.
Iterum dum considero ejus dispositionem, quia nihil injustum est in eo: Ezech. 18: numquid via mea aequa non est, et non magis viae tuae pravae sunt? Vel via Dei per quam Deus vadit ad animam est impolluta. Et est: haec charitas: 1 Cor. 12: Adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro, idest ut securi eatis. Haec est impolluta, quia charitas non agit perperam, idest perverse. Again, when I consider his disposition, because there is nothing unjust in him: Ezech. 18: Is my way not just, and are your ways rather not more crooked? Or the way of God by which God comes to the soul is defiled. And this is: this charity: 1 Cor 12: I show to you a yet more perfect way, that is, so that you may go securely. This way is undefiled, because charity does not do anything falsely, that is, perversely.
Vel via Dei est ipse christus, quia peccatum non fecit: Isa. 35: via sancta vocabitur, et non transibit per eam pollutus: et erit via recta, ita ut stultus non erret per eam. Vel via Christi est Virgo Beata: Psal. 76: In mari via tua haec est impolluta: Can. 4: Tota pulchra es, amica mea etc.. Is. 54: Dilata locum tentorii tui. Or the way of God is Christ himself, who did not do any sin: Isa. 35: and it shall be called the holy way, and the unclean shall not pass over it, and this shall be unto you a straight way, so that fools shall not err therein. Or the way of Christ is the Blessed Virgin: Psal. 76: In the sea this is your unsoiled way: Songs 4: You are entirely beautiful, my female friend etc.. Is. 54: Enlarge the place of thy tent.
Quantum ad secundum dicit, eloquia Domini. Et loquitur ad similitudinem auri et argenti, quod si sit purum, probatur per ignem. Unde sicut aurum per ignem purgatum nihil habet impuritatis, ita sunt purgata verba Domini: Prov. 8: justi sunt omnes sermones mei, et non est in eis quidquam contrarium atque perversum etc.. Igne examinata: Psal. 11: Eloquia Domini eloquia casta, argentum etc.. As for the second he says, the words of the Lord. And he is speaking by a likeness of gold and silver, which if it is pure is tried by fired. Hence, as gold that is purged by fire has no impurity, so the words of the Lord are purified: Prov. 8: Allof my words are just, and in them there is nothing that is contrary or perverse etc. Tried by fire: Psal. 11: The words of the Lord are pure words, silver etc..
Et dicuntur igne examinata, scilicet Spiritus Sancti: Job 12: auris verba dijudicat, et fauces comedentis saporem. Nullus potest examinare verba nisi habeat ignem Spiritus Sancti: 1 Cor. 2: Animalis homo non percipit quae sunt Spiritus Dei. Verum, quia est verax, implebit quod promisit. Et propter hoc dicit, protector est omnium sperantium in se: Eccl. 2: Quis speravit in Domino, et confusus est? And he says, examined by fire, namely, the fire of the Holy Spirit: Job 12: Does not the ear discern words, and the palate of him who eats, the taste? No one can test the words unless he has the fire of the Holy Spirit: 1 Cor. 2: The man who is like an animal does not perceive the things that are of the Spirit of God. True, because he is truthful, he carries out what he has promised. And on this account he says, he is the protector of all who hope in him: Eccl. 2: Who has hoped in the Lord and been confounded?
Consequenter probat commendationem: quia hae sunt proprietates: quod sit justus, quod sit verax, et quod sit misericors. Si ergo ista bene conveniunt Deo meo, non quaeras alium. Sed nullus alius Deus est praeter ipsum. Et ideo dicit, quis Deus praeter Dominum? Quasi dicat, nullus: Isa. 42: Ego sum Dominus: hoc est nomen meum: Deut. 6: Audi Israel, Dominus Deus tuus unus est. Following this, he proves his praise: because these are the properties: that God is just, that he is truthful, and that he is merciful. If therefore these things are well fitted to my God, do not seek another. But there is no other God besides him. And therefore he says, who is God except the Lord? As if to say: none. Isa. 42: I am the Lord: this is my name: Deut. 6: Hear, Israel, the Lord your God is one.
In hoc differebant Judaei ab aliis. Et quia alii colebant elementa mundi, vel homines vel angelos, hi vero dicebantur factores eorum; sed Judaei colebant verum deum factorem eorum. Dicit ergo quod ipse est Deus totius creaturae. Secundo, quod ipse colebatur specialiter a Judaeis. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, quis Deus praeter Dominum, scilicet totius creaturae factorem? In this the Jews differ from others. And because others worshiped the elements of the world, or men, or angles, these were called their makers; but the Jews worshiped the true God as their maker. He says therefore that he is the God of every creature. Secon, that he is worshipped especially by the Jews. He says therefore with regard to the first, who is God except the Lord, namely, the maker of every creature.
Judith 16: Tibi serviat omnis creatura tua. Aut quis Deus praeter Deum nostrum, specialiter. 1 Reg. 2: non est sanctus ut Dominus: neque enim est alius extra te, et non est fortis sicut Deus noster: Psal. 75: Notus in Judaea Deus etc.. Qui dicitur noster specialiter pietate, et cultura, et unione naturae, et carnis assumptione, et redemptione. In hoc confunduntur manichaei: quia hic est Deus et Dominus visibilium, et quod Deus veteris testamenti est verus Deus, quia nullus Deus praeter eum. Judith 16: Let all your creatures serve you. Or, who is God except our God, in a special way. 1 Kings 2: None is holy as the Lord: for neither is there another apart from you, and there is none strong as our God: Psal. 75: God is known in Judea etc.. He who is called ours in a special way by piety, and worship, and the union of nature, and the taking on of flesh, and the redemption. In this point the manicheans are confused: because the is the God and Lord of visible things, and that the God of the Old Testament is the true God, because there is no God apart from him.
(t) Deus. Hic ostendit quomodo habet a Deo idoneitatem ad vincendum, Deus enim aliquando dat virtutem alicui ad bene operandum; nec tamen sufficit nisi Deus protegat eum exterius. (t) God. Here he shows how he has from God the fitness to conquer, for God sometimes gives strength to someone to work good; this, however, is not enough unless God protects him from the outside.
Primo ergo ostendit quomodo Deus dedit virtutem interius. Secundo, quomodo juvat exterius, ibi, dedisti mihi protectionem. Tria sunt necessaria alicui ad vincendum: scilicet quod sit fortis: Prov. ult.: fortitudo et decor indumentum ejus: Luc. 11: fortis armatus custodit atrium suum: quod sit agilis, et quod sit doctus in bello; et haec tria dicit se habere. First, therefore, he shows how God gives strength within. Second, how God helps on the outside, where it is written, he has given me protection. In order for a person to win, three things are necessary to him, namely, that he is strong: last chapter of Proverbs: strength and dignity are her garment: Luke 11: a strong man fully armed guards his courtyard: and, that he is agile, and that he is trained in warfare; and he says that he has these three things.
Secundo, ibi, qui perficit pedes meos. tertio, ibi, qui docet manus. Circa primum duo facit. Primo confitetur sibi datam fortitudinem a Deo. Secundo debitum fortitudinis usum. Dicit ergo, Deus qui praecinxit me virtute ad bellum etc.. Milites praedicti praecinguntur armis et gladio ut sint expediti et parati ad pugnam: 1 Mach. 3: Judas machabaeus induit se lorica sicut gigas: et succinxit se arma bellica in praeliis. Second, where it is written, who has made my feet like the feet of harts. Third, who teaches my hands. Regarding the first point, he does two things. First, he confesses that he has been given strength from God. Second, he tells of the right use of strength. Thus he says, God who has girt me with strength for war etc. The aforesaid soldiers are girt with arms and sword so that they will be equipped and ready for the fight: 1 Macc. 3: Judas Maccabeus put on his breastplate like a giant; he armed himself with weapons of war.
Haec est fortitudo, scilicet virtus quae data est mihi a Deo, non solum in corporalibus bellis, sed et in spiritualibus, quae non vincerem sine virtute Dei. Et ideo dicit, Praecinxit me virtute: Eph. 6: Confortamini in Domino et in potentia virtutis Dei: Isa. 40: qui dat lapso virtutem, et his qui non sunt, fortitudinem et robur multiplicat. This is strength, namely, power that is given to me by God, not only in bodily wars, but in spiritual ones, which I would not win without the virtue of God. And therefore he says, He girt me with strength. Eph. 6: Be comforted in the Lord and in the power of God's strength.: Isa. 40: He who gives the fallen strength, and multiplies strength and firmness for those are are not strong..
Vel praecinxit ad modum currentis ne impediatur ex defluxu vestium. Ita virtus Dei retinet affectum ne defluat ad terrena. Et ideo sequitur, et posuit immaculatam viam meam: 1 Reg. 25: Benedictus deus, qui custodivit servum suum a malo: Ps. 118: Beati immaculati in via. Vel via ista est via charitatis, quae non agit perperam, ut supra dictum est. Or he has girt him like a runnerso that he would not be hindered by the flowing of his robes. In this way the strength of God hold a person's affection so that it does not run down to earthly things. And therefore it follows: and he has made my way blameless. 1 Kings 25: Blessed is God, who has kept his servant from evil. Ps. 118: Blessed are the blameless in their way. Or, this way is the way of charity, which does not bring about anything evil, as was said above.
(u) Qui. Hic ponitur agilitas, quae necessaria est ad pugnandum. 1 Reg. 24, dicitur quod egressus est Saul contra David super petras abruptissimas, quae solis cervis perviae sunt; quasi dicat, tantam agilitatem mihi contulit Deus, quod quasi cervus ibam per montes. Et super excelsa statuit me. in montibus declivibus vestigia hominis non figuntur: sed Deus dedit ei tantam gratiam ut non laberetur in eis. (u) Who. Here is presented agility, which is necessary for fighting. 1 Kings 24, we read that Saul went out against David over the steepest rocks, which are passable only to hinds; is if he said, God has given me such agility, that like a hind I was able to go through the mountains. And he set me over the high places. The footsteps of man are not fixed in steep mountains: but God gave him such grace that he did not fall in them.
Mystice legitur sic. Cervus transcendit sine laesione spinas et s ilvas: sic spiritualis affectus pertransit sine laesione et infectione mala, sive delectationes mundi: Gen. pen.: Nephtalim cervus emissus dans eloquia pulchritudinis: Is. 25: tunc saliet sicut cervus claudus. Et super excelsa statuit me, idest super caelestia statuit mentem meam defixam: Habac. 3: super excelsa mea deducet me victor. This can be read in a mystical sense as follows. A hind climbs over thorns and woods without injury: thus spiritual affection passes through evil things, that is, the delights of the world, without injury and infection. Gen. second last chapter: Naphtali is a hind let loose which gives words of beauty: Is. 35: Then will the lame leap like a stag. And he set me over high places, that is, he made my mind firmly fixed upon heavenly thing: Habacuc 3: he leads me victorious upon my high places.
Consequenter ponitur doctrina militaris; unde ait, qui docet manus meas ad praelium. Doctrina militaris acquiritur scientia et perfectio exercitio. Primo ergo scientiam sive doctrinam quaerit, quia haec doctrina necessaria est militibus. Prov. 24: cum dispositione initur bellum. sed iste edoctus a Deo dicit quantum ad secundum, posuisti ut arcum aereum brachia mea, idest brachia quasi infatigabilia mihi ad bellandum dedisti. In this way he presents military teaching; hence he says, who teaches my hands for battle. Military learning is acquired by knolwedge and perfection is acquired by exercise. First, therefore, he seeks knowledge or teaching, because this teaching is necessary for soldiers. Prov. 24: For it is by wise guidance that you wage your war. But this person is taught by God with respect to the second, you made my arms like a brass bow, that is, you have given me arms that are as if untiring.
vel, qui docet etc., idest contra vitia et daemones, docet nos operari ad superandos hostes, qui caeli portas claudere conantur. Postea mutans personam dicit, posuisti etc.. Alia littera habet, confregisti arcum aereum, idest brachium meum. Psal. 143: Benedictus Dominus Deus meus, qui docet manus meas ad praelium etc.. Or, who teaches (my hands for battle), that is against vices and demons, he teaches us to be active so as to overcome enemies, those who try to close the gates of heaven. After this, changing person, he says, You have made my arms etc. Another version says, you have shattered the bronze bow, that is, my arm. Psal. 143: Blessed the Lord my God, who teaches my hands for the fight etc..
Nota, quod excellentia agilitatis et excellentia fortitudinis est in leonibus, qui ex siccitate nimia, non habent medullam in ossibus; et haec contingunt ex magna inaequalitate elementorum immixta: et ideo parum vivunt; et hoc non decet in homine propter operationes ejus: unde hujusmodi dicuntur ex speciali munere data David, ut dicitur Eccl. 47: Lusit cum leonibus quasi cum agnis: et ursis similiter fecit sicut cum agnis eorum. Note, that the excellence of agility and the excellence of fortitude is in lions, which have no marrow in their bones because of excessive dryness; and this results from a great inequality in the mixture of elements: and so lions do not live long; but this is not proper to man because of his operations: hence such things are said because of the special gift given to David, as it says in Sirach 47: He played with lions as if with lambs: and likewise he acted with bears as with their lambs.
Et similiter sibi data est a Deo ex gratia doctrina pugnandi, mystice. Oportet nos in spirituali bello esse doctos. Eccl. 11: Multae insidiae sunt dolosi: quas non possumus evadere nisi habeamus et doctrinam et auxilium divinum. Job 39: Gloria narium ejus, idest daemonis, terror contemnit pavorem nec cedit gladio. 1 Cor. 4: Licet is qui foris est noster homo corrumpatur, tamen qui intus est, renovatur de die in diem. And likewise there was given to him from God by grace the learning of how to fight, in a mystical sense. We must be learned in spiritual warfare. Sir. 11: Many are the snares of the crafty one, which we cannot avoid unless we have the divine learning and help. Job 39: The glory of his nostrils, that is, of the demon, is a terror that spurns fear nor yields to the sword. 1 Cor. 4: Although our man which is external is corrupted, yet he who is within is renewed from day to day.
(v) Et dedisti. Hic ostendit quomodo praedicta sibi data conservantur a Deo exterius; unde dicit, praecinxisti me virtute: et tamen protegit me: et dedisti mihi protectionem salutis tuae, idest protexisti me ad salutem: quia non sufficiunt praedicta nisi adsit protectio Dei. (v) And he gave. Here he shows how the aforesaid things that were given to him are preserved externally by God; hence he says,you have girded me with strength: and yet he protects me: and you have given to me the protection of your salvation, that is, you have protected for salvation: because the aforesaid things are not sufficient unless God's protection is at hand.
Ps. 63: Protexisti me Deus a conventu malignantium etc.. et dextera tua suscepit me, idest favor gratiae tuae me in bello confortavit. De hoc bello, Ezech. 3: manus Domini erat mecum confortans me. Vel, dextera tua, idest filius tuus, suscepit me, idest naturam meam. Vel, me, infirmum ad curandum, et disciplina tua, correxit me in finem, idest finaliter et perfecte. Ps. 63: God has protected me from the council of malefactors etc.. and your right hand kept me up, that is the favor of your grace gave me strength in war. We read of this war, Ezech. 3: the hand of the Lord was with me, strengthening me. Or, your right hand, that is, your son, kept me up, that is, kept my nature up. Or, me, weak to be cured, and you discipline, corrected me in the end, that is finally and perfectly.
Prov. 3: Quem diligit Dominus corrigit et castigat, et quasi pater in filio complacet sibi: unde, disciplina tua correxit me in finem. quantum ad secundum dicit, disciplina etc.. Contingit aliquando quod aliquis dubitat, aliquando errat. Ille autem, scilicet Deus errata corrigit; unde disciplina tua correxit me in finem, ut supra dictum est. Prov. 3: For whom the Lord loves he reproves, and he chastises the son he favors.: hence, your discipline corrected me unto the end. As for the second, he says, discipline etc. Occasionally someone may doubt, and occasionally someone may make a mistake. He, however, that is God, corrects what is in error; hence your discipline corrected me unto the end, as was said above.
Item dubitata dirigit: et disciplina tua ipsa me docebit. Ps. 118: Bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce me. Quantum ad tertium dicit, Dilatasti gressus meos subtus me, quasi dans agilitatem, et in ea foves illos qui latos habent gressus quando non arctantur. Vel spiritualiter, quando cor est promptum per caritatem ad bonum. Ps. 118: Viam mandatorum tuorum cucurri, cum dilatasti cor meum. Et non sunt infirmata vestigia mea, quia non deficit. Vel vestigia, idest signa quae in itinere relinquuntur. In the same place, he directs things when they are dubious: and your disciplinne itself will teach me. Ps. 118: Teach me goodness and discipline and knowledge.. As for the third he says, You have enlarged my steps under me, as if giving agility, and in agility, pits are not an abstacle to those who have wide steps. Or, in a spiritual sense, when the heart is ready through charity for the good. Ps. 118: The way of your commands I have run, since you have enlarged my heart. And my footsteps have not been weakened, because he did not fail. Or footsteps, that is, signs that are left in the way.
(x) Persequar. Supra psalmista posuit idoneitatem suam ad vincendum; hic autem agit de victoria, quomodo persecutus est fugientes: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit persecutionis modum; secundo ostendit impotentiam resistendi, ibi, confringam illos, nec poterunt stare. Circa primum tria facit. Primo ostendit persecutionem esse justam; secundo efficacem; tertio perseverantem. Justam, cum dicit, persequar inimicos, non amicos, sed inimicos. (x) I will pursue. Above the psalmist showed his fittingness for victory; here he is talking about victory, who he pursued them as they fled: and he does two things in this regard. First, he shows the way of pursuit; second, he shows inability to resist, where it says, I will break them, and they shall not be able to stand. With respect to the first he does three things. First, he shows that the pursuit is just; second, that it is effective; third, that it is unrelenting. That it is just, when he says, I will pursue enemies, not friends, but enemies.
1 Macc. 3: Persecutus est Judas inimicos perscrutans eos, et qui perturbabunt populum suum succendit flammis. Sed non videtur quod liceat bonis viris facere persecutionem contra aliquos. Gal. 4: Quomodo tunc is qui secundum carnem natus fuerat, persequebatur eum qui secundum spiritum, ita et nunc. Ergo carnalium est inferre persecutionem, et spiritualium est pati. Sed dicendum, quod affectus persequendi distinguit persecutionis genus. Quidam enim persequuntur amore et zelo. Psal. 68: Zelus domus tuae comedit me; et hoc faciunt ut ad bonum sive ad salutem perducant, vel malum impediant. 1 Macc. 3: Judas pursued his enemies, hunting them down, and those who troubled his people he destroyed by fire. But it does not seem that good men should cause a persecution against any other people. Gal. 4: How then he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the spirit, so it is now. Therefore it is characteristic of carnal men to raise persecution, and characteristic of spiritual men to suffer it. But it should be said, that the kind of persecution is distinguished by the feeling that motivates the persecution. Some persecute out of love and zeal. Psalm. 68: The zeal of your house has consumed me; and they do this either to lead a good man to salvation, or to impede an evil man.
psal. 100: detrahentem secreto proximo suo, hunc persequebar: et hoc modo persequuntur boni malos sive peccatores. quidam persequuntur ex odio, inferentes malum, et impedientes bonum: et hoc modo persequuntur mali, sive carnales, viros justos. Psal. 100: Whoever slanders his neighbour in secret, him will I destroy, and in this way the good pursue the wicked or sinner. Some persecute out of hate, causing evil, and impeding good, and in this way the evil or carnal people persecute just men.
Ps. 70: persequimini et comprehendite eum etc.. Vel, persequar inimicos meos, idest carnales affectus, comprehendam illos, non illi comprehendent me, secundum glossam. Et ostendit quomodo est efficax ad persequendum inimicos: unde dicit, et comprehendam illos. tunc ostenditur efficax, quando pervenit ad finem ut capiat eos. Ps. 70: You will pursue and capture him etc. Or, I will pursue my enemies, that is, the carnal desires, I will capture them, they will not capture me, according to the gloss. And he shows how he is well able to pursue enemies: hence he says, I will overtake them. Then he shows himself effective, when he achieves his end, to capture them.
2 Reg. 5: Si ascendam ad philistiim, et si dabis eos in manu mea? et dixit dominus ad david: ascende etc.. et supra: ingrediebatur proficiens atque succrescens, et dominus deus exercituum erat cum eo. item ostendit, quomodo est perseverans, quia non convertar, scilicet a persecutione injustorum: donec deficiant, idest donec consumantur. 2 reg. 1: sagitta jonathae nunquam rediit retrorsum. moraliter, inimici nostri sunt motus concupiscentiae qui in nobis sunt, et movent continua bella. Rom. 7: video aliam legem in membris meis, repugnantem legi mentis meae etc.. Hos debemus persequi et comprehendere et ligare, eis dominari et refraenare. Et non convertar, idest desistam persequi, donec deficiant, a rebellione. 2 reg. 8: percussit david philistaeos, et humiliavit eos. sed haec non deficiunt in vita ista: licet enim semper minuantur, nunquam tamen totaliter extirpantur. Exod. 15: evaginabo gladium meum, interficiet eos manus mea. Allegorice dicitur de Christo, qui persequitur inimicos nostros judaeos, et alios peccatores, puniens eos corporaliter et spiritualiter. 2 Samuel 19: David inquired of the Lord. "Shall I attack the Philistines - will you deliver them into my grip? The Lord replied to David, "Attack, ..." And above: David grew steadily more powerful, for the Lord of hosts was with him. Again, he shows how he is persevering, because I will not turn again, that is, from the pursuit of the unjust, until they fail, that is, until they are consumed. 2 Sam. 1: The bow of Jonathan did not turn back. In a moral sense, our enemies are the movements of concupiscence that are within us, and they make continual war. Rom. 7: I see another law in my members, fighting against the law of my mind etc. We should pursue and overtake and bind these, take dominion and refrain them. And I will not turn, that is, I will not leave off pursuing, until they fail from rebellion. 2 Sam. 8: David attacked the Philistines and conquered them. But these (the movements of our concupiscence) will not cease in this life: although they may continually grow weaker, they are never totally uprooted. Exod. 15: I will unsheath my sword, my hand will kill them. Allegorically it speaks of Christ, who pursues our enemies the Jews, and other sinners, punishing them bodily and spiritually.
(y) Confringam. Hic excludit eorum potentiam resistendi; quasi dicat, non resistent mihi, quia, confringam illos, idest ita vires eorum diminuam, quod, nec poterunt stare. Ps. 35: Ceciderunt omnes qui operantur iniquitatem, expulsi sunt nec potuerunt stare. (y) I will break them. Here he excludes their power of resistance; as if he were to say, they will not resist me, because I will break them, that is, I will diminish their powers to the point where they cannot stand. Ps. 35: All those who work iniquity will fall, they have been cast out and were not able to stand.
Job 38: Brachium excelsum confringetur, idest non durabunt adversum me, vel non poterunt resistere. Levit. 28: persequimini inimicos vestros, et corruent coram vobis. Et hoc ideo, quia venient in potestatem meam: et hoc est quod dicit. Cadent subtus pedes meos. Hoc etiam debemus nos facere de malis motibus et peccatis vel daemonibus. Malach. 4: Calcabitis impios cum fuerint cinis sub planta pedum vestrorum. Luc. 10: Ecce dedi vobis potestatem calcandi super serpentes et supra omnem virtutem inimici, et nihil vobis nocebit. Gen. 4: subtus te erit appetitus tuus, et tu dominaberis illius. Job 38: The raised arm will be broken, that is, it will not last against me, nor will it be able to resist. Levit. 28: You will pursue your enemies, and they will fall before you. And thus this, that they will come into my power, and this is what he says. They shall fall beneath my feet. Malach. 4: They will become ashes under the soles of your feet..
(z) Et hoc totum est ex eo quia, Et praecinxisti. Hic agit de eorum totali derelictione: et commemorat duo. Primo divinum beneficium; secundo finale eorum exterminium, ibi, et comminuam eos etc.. (z) And all this is because of this: And you have girded me. Here he discusses their total abandonment: and he calls two things to mind. First, the divine benefit; second, their final extermination, where he writes: I shall beat them etc..
Et quia ea quae dixit, videntur ad gloriam suam pertinere, ideo attribuit ea Deo. Et primo excludit propriam virtutem; secundo ostendit inimicorum dejectionem, supplantasti; tertio eorum auxilii destitutionem, ibi, clamaverunt. Dicit ergo: O Domine, tu fecisti hoc mihi, et praecinxisti me virtute ad bellum, idest tota virtus quam habeo ad bellandum, est a te, non a me. Isa. 40: qui dat lapso virtutem, et his qui non sunt fortitudinem multiplicat, et robur. And because the things he has said could seem to pertain to his own glory, he attributes them to God. And first he excludes his own strength; second, he shows the dejection of his enemies, where he writes: you have subdued; third, he shows their loss of assistance, where he writes: They cried. He says therefore: O Lord, you have done this for me, and you have girded me with strength for battle, that is, all the strength I have for waging war is from you, not from me. Isa. 40: He who gives strength to the fallen, and multiplies strength and firmness for those who are not strong.
Et supplantasti insurgentes in me subtus me. Ponit dejectionem inimicorum, de qua tria dixit: scilicet fugam, dedisti dorsum: diminutionem, confringam: et eorum casum, quia cadent; et hoc Deo attribuit, non eodem ordine. And you have subdued under me those that rose against me. He shows the downfall of his enemies, of which he speaks of three things: namely, flight, they turned their back on me; diminution, I will break; and their fall, because they will fall, and he attributes this to God, although not in the same order.
Primo ponit casum inimicorum suorum; quasi dicat, inimici mei cadent, subtus me. Isa. 40: Deficient pueri et laborabunt; et juvenes de infirmitate cadent; sed tu hoc fecisti: et supplantasti insurgentes in me, subtus me, idest virtutem abstulisti, ne possent mihi resistere. Levit. 26: Persequentur quinque de vestris centum alienos. Secundo ponit fugam inimicorum, et inimicos meos dedisti mihi dorsum. isa. 45: Dorsa regum vertam. Tertio agit de fractione: et odientes me disperdidisti, in gentibus quas non noverunt. First he sets forth the fall of his enemies; as if he is saying, my enemies fall beneath me. Isa. 40: Young men faint and grow weary, and youths stagger and fall; but you have tone this, and you have subdued under me those that rose against me, that is, you have taken away their strength so they could not resist me. Levit. 26: Five of you will pursue a hundred strangers. Second, he sets forth the flight of his enemies, and my enemies turned their backs to me. Isa. 45: I will turn the backs of kings. Third, he speaks of breaking: and you have destroyed those that hated me in peoples that they did not know.
(aa) Clamaverunt. Hic ostendit, quod omnino sunt desolati; unde dicit, clamaverunt, nec erat qui salvos faceret, quia nec auxilium hominum habebant; nec etiam deorum, quos ipsi dicebant creatores rerum. Hier. 2: Ubi sunt dii tui quos fecisti? Surgant, et liberent te in die afflictionis tuae; unde sequitur: Clamaverunt ad dominum, nec exaudivit eos. Isa. 1: cum multiplicaveritis orationes vestras, non exaudiam vos. (aa)They cried. Here he shows that they have been completely left alone; hence he says, they cried, but there was none to save them, because they had neither the help of men or of the gods, which they called the creators of things. Jer. 2: Where are the gods you have made for yourself? Let them rise up! Will they save you in your time of trouble? Hence it follows: They cried to the Lord, and he did not hear them. Isa. 1: Though you pray the more, I will not listen.
Sed contra. Isa. penul.: antequam clament, ego exaudiam. Psalm. 90: Clamabit ad me, et ego exaudiam eum. et dicendum, quando recta intentione quis clamat, sive orat, tunc exauditur; et Deus suam orationem adprobat et exaudit. Joan. 9: si quis dei cultor est, scilicet recta intentione, hunc exaudit; sed quando simulata oratione et ficta clamat ad Deum, non exaudit. Jac. 4: petitis et non accipitis, eo quod male petatis, idest mala intentione, vel injusta petitione. Prov. 1: tunc invocabunt, et non exaudiam: mane consurgent et non invenient. But on the contrary: Isa. 64: Before they call, I will answer. Psalm 90: They will call to me, and I will hear them. And it should be said, when someone calls or prays with a right intention, then he is heard, and God approves his prayer and listens. John 9: If anyone is a worshipper of God, that is, with a right intention, God hears him. But when someone calls to God with a pretense of prayer, God does not hear him. James 4: You ask and do not recieve, because you ask badly, that is, with a bad intention, or with an unjust prayer. Prov. 1: Then they will call, and I will not hear, rise early and they will not find.
Consequenter ostendit eorum totalem destructionem; unde dicit, et comminuam eos. Quando pulvis projicitur, nullum vestigium remanet, quia ventus ipsum dispergit; sic quando mali destruuntur, nullo modo remanent; ideo dicit, et comminuam eos ut pulverem ante faciem venti. Psal. 2: Impii tamquam pulvis quem projicit ventus a facie terrae, scilicet sunt dispersi. Psalm. 9: Periit memoria eorum etc.. Sed quia aliqui destruuntur aliquando cum honore, ostendit quod mali sive peccatores viliter consumuntur et inhoneste; unde dicit, ut lutum platearum delebo eos. Job 20: si ascenderit usque ad caelum superbia ejus, scilicet peccatoris, et caput ejus nubes tetigerit, quasi sterquilinium in fine perdetur. Psal. 68: deleantur de libro viventium. Isa. 17: rapietur sicut pulvis montium a facie venti (scilicet peccator) et sicut turbo coram tempestate. Job 13: redigentur in lutum cervices vestrae. In what follows he shows their total destrunction; hence he says, and I will beat them. When dust is thrown, no trace remains, because the wind has scattered it; in this way, when the evil are destroyed, in no way do they remain; therefore he says, and I will beat them like dust before the face of the wind. Ps. 2: The wicked are like dust that the wind throws from the face of the earth, that is to say, they are dispersed. Psalm. 9: The memory of them has perished. etc.. But because sometimes certain people are destroyed with honor, he shows that the wicked, or sinners, are consumed in a vile and unseemly manner; hence he says, I will bring them to nothing, like the dirt in the streets. Job 20: If his pride shall climb all the way to heaven, that is, the pride of the sinner, and hishead shall touch the clouds, in the end he will be lost like the dung in the street. Psal. 68: May they be erased from the book of the living. Isa. 17: He will be swept like chaff by the wind on the mountains, (the sinner), and like a tumbleweed before the storm. Job 13: your necks will be returned to the mud.
(bb) Eripies. Supra commemoravit psalmista inimicorum persecutionem, et omnimodam destructionem; hic autem commemorat suam exaltationem, qua promotus est in regem; et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ponit exaltationem; secundo gratiarum actionem, ibi, vivit Dominus. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit suam exaltationem super judaeos; secundo ponit devotionem gentilium, ibi, populum; tertio proterviam judaeorum, ibi, filii alieni. (bb) You will deliver me. Above the psalmist called to mind the pursuit of enemies, and their total destruction; here he calls to mind his own exaltation, whereby he was promoted to king; and in this regard he does two things. First he sets forth the exaltation; second, there is thanksgiving, where he writes, The Lord lives. With regard to the first, he does two things. First, he sets forth his own exaltation over the Jews; second he sets forth the devotion of the gentiles, where he writes a people; third, he sets forth the wantonness of the Jews, where he writes, the children that are strangers.
Hoc magis specialiter pertinet ad Christum, quam ad David. Et ideo circa hoc duo facit. Primo ostendit quomodo liberatur a contradictione judaeorum; secundo quomodo datur ei potestas contra gentes. Dicit ergo, non solum odientes me disperdisti, sed eripuisti me de contradictionibus populi. Si intelligatur de david, multum contradixerunt ei judaei. 2 Reg. 20: Non est nobis pars in david, neque hereditas in filio isai. Revertere in tabernacula tua israel. Et etiam christo contradixerunt, ut patet in evangelio. Hebr. 12: Recogitate eum qui talem sustinuit adversus semetipsum contradictionem etc.. This seems to pertain more specially to Christ than to David. And thus in this regard he does two things. First, he shows how he is liberated from the contradiction of the Jews; second, how power is given to him against the nations. He says therefore, not onliy have you scattered those who hate me, but you have snatched out away from the contradictions of the people. If this is understood of David, the Jews contradicted him much. 2 Sam 20: We have no portion in David, nor any share in the son of Jesse. Every man to his tent, O Israel!. They also contradicted Christ, as is clear in the Gospel. Hebr. 12: Remember him who bore such contradiction against himself etc.
Et ex hac ereptus fuit David, et etiam Christus. Constitues me in caput gentium; quasi dicat: judaei nolunt me dominari super se; sed tu me fecisti dominum et judaeorum et gentium. Et hoc maxime convenit Christo, ut dicitur Eph. 1: ipsum dedit caput super omnem ecclesiam, quae est corpus ipsius. Deinde ponitur devota subjectio gentilium; unde dicit, populus quem non cognovi servivit mihi: populus scilicet extraneus, puta ismaelitarum et moabitarum, qui, ut habetur 2 reg. 8, facti sunt ei sub tributo. Similiter et Christo: quia quos non cognovit visitando eos corporaliter, servierunt et obedierunt ei. And David was snatched away from this, and so was Christ. You will make me head of the gentiles; as if he is saying: the Jews do not want me to lord over them; but you have made me lord of the Jews and gentiles. And this most applies to Christ, as it says in Eph. 1: You have given him as head over the whole church, which is his body. Then there is set forth the devoted subjection of the gentiles; hence he says, a people whom I did not know served me; namely, an external people, for example the Ishmaelites and the Moabites, who, as we read in 2 Sam. 8, became for David a tribute. Likewise for Christ: because those whom he did not know by visiting them physically, served and obeyed him.
Matth. 15: Non sum missus nisi ad oves quae perierunt domus Israel, scilicet corporaliter visitare. Vel, non cognovi, idest non adprobavi dando ei legem et prophetas. Isa. 55: ecce gentes quas nesciebas vocabis, et gentes quae te non cognoverunt, ad te current. in auditu auris obedivit mihi: quia licet non videant me, ex solo auditu fidei per apostolos obedierunt. Isa. 65: Invenerunt me, qui non quaesierunt me. Rom. 10: fides ex auditu. Vel, in auditu auris obedivit mihi, quia statim cum audissent, sicut dicitur Matth. 4, relictis omnibus secuti sunt eum. Matth. 15: I was not sent except to the sheep that perish of the house of Israel, which refers to visiting physically. Or, I did not know, that is, I did not approve of him, giving him the law and prophets. Isa. 55: Behold, you will call nations that you knew not, and the nations that did not know you will run to you. At the hearing of the ear he has obeyed me; because they obeyed from merely hearing about the faith through the apostles. Isa. 65: They who did not seek me have found me. Rom. 10: Faith comes from hearing. Or, at the hearing of the ear he obeyed me, because as soon as they heard, as it says in Matth. 4: They abandoned everuthing and followed him.
(cc) Filii. Hic ponitur protervia judaeorum; et vocat eos filios alienos, quia olim fuerunt filii generati a deo per gratiam et doctrinam legis. Exod. 4: Primogenitus meus Israel; sed tamen alieni facti sunt. Isa. 1: filios enutrivi et exaltavi. Et sequitur, abalienati sunt retrorsum. Et sunt alieni triplici ratione: quia mentiti sunt mihi, quia inveteravi, quia, claudicaverunt. Alienatur quis a Deo, quando non servat fidelitatem: et quantum ad hoc dicit, mentiti sunt mihi, idest fregerunt pactum. (cc) The sons. Here we are presented with the wantonness of the Jews; and he calls them sons who are strangers, because once they were begotten as sons by God through grace and the teaching of the law. Exod. 4: My first born Israel, but others became strangers. Isa. 1: I have nursed and exalted sons. And it follows, they reverted to being strangers. They are strangers for three reasons; because they have lied to me, because they have faded away, and because they have halted. Someone is alienated from God when he does not keep fidelity: and in this regard he says, they have lied to me, that is, they broke their pact.
Item quando non sequuntur patrum fidelium vestigia; unde, inveterati sunt. Res inveterata est propter interitum. Isti fuerunt a principio novi. 1 Paral. 12, cum dicunt: Tui sumus, o David, et tecum filii Isai; sed paulatim tepuerunt. Aliud est quando totaliter recedit: unde dicit, claudicaverunt a semitis suis, quasi uno pede debiles, vetus testamentum male servantes, et novum respuentes. Vel si referatur ad Christum, filii alieni mentiti sunt mihi, quia pepigerunt pactum cum Deo: Exo. 24: omnia quaecumque locutus est Deus, faciemus; postea fregerunt: Ps. 65: Mentientur tibi in multitudine virtutis tuae inimici tui. Again, when they do not follow the footsteps of their faithful fathers; hence, they have faded away. A thing fades away or grows old because of destruction. They had been new from thebeginning. 1 Paral. 12, when they said: We are yours, o David, and the sons of Jesse with you; but gradually they became lukewarm. It is another thing when someone totally backs off; hence he says, they have halted from their paths, as if weak in one foot, keeping the Old Testament badly, and spitting out the New Testament. Or, if this refers to Christ, the sons who are strangers have lied to me, because they made a pact with God: Exo. 24: Whatever God says, we will do; but afterwards they broke the pact: Ps. 65: In your great strength, your enemies have lied to you.
Item virtus quae fuit in patribus, in filiis non est: ideo, inveterati sunt: Baruch 3: Quid est, Israel, quod in terra inimicorum es, et inveterasti in terra aliena? Item claudicaverunt a semitis suis, idest praeceptis legis: quia uno pede incedunt, scilicet sensu litterali, non spirituali. Item literaliter etiam, claudicaverunt, quia sequebantur solum traditiones pharisaeorum: 3 Reg. 18: Usquequo claudicatis in duas partes? si Dominus est Deus, sequimini eum. Again, the virtue that was in the fathers is not in the sons; therefore, they have faded away: Baruch 3: that you are in the land of enemies, and have grown old in a strange land? Again, they have halted from their paths, that is, the precepts of the law: because they walk with one foot, namely, the with literal sense, but not the spiritual sense. Again, literally, they have halted, because they followed only the traditions of the pharisees: 1 Kings 18: How long will you halt in two directions? If the Lord is God, follow him.
(dd) Vivit. Hic ponitur gratiarum actio: et circa hoc tria facit. Primo proponit eam. Secundo ponit ejus materiam, ibi, Deus qui dat etc.. Tertio prorumpit in laudes Dei, ibi, propterea vivit Dominus. Et loquitur ad modum regis de Deo. Antiquitus modus salutandi regem fuit. Vivat rex. (dd) The Lord lives. Here we have thanksgiving: and in this regard he does three things. First, he sets forth the thanksgiving. Second, he presents the matter of thanksgiving, where he writes, God who gives etc.. Third, he bursts forth in the praises of God, where he writes, on this The Lord lives. And he speaks of God as of a king. The ancient way of greeting the king was to say "Long live the King".
Hoc convenit Deo: quia ipse est vita aeterna: Ps. 35: apud te est fons vitae. Et ideo dicit, vivit Dominus. Ezech. 33: vivo ego, dicit Dominus Deus. Ipse enim est dator vitae hominibus: Joan. 1: quod factum est in ipso vita erat. Item aliis optatur benedictio, sed ipse est ipsa benedictio, benedictus Deus Meus. Deus meus dicitur filius: Is. 9: Filius datus est nobis: Ps. 66: Benedicat nos Deus, Deus noster, benedicat nos Deus: Dan. 3: benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum, et laudabilis et benedictus in saecula: et quia nos benedictionibus implet. This is appropriate for God; because he is eternal life: Ps. 35: With you is the fountain of life. And therefore he says, The Lord lives. Ezech. 33: I live, says the Lord God. For he is the giver of life to men: John 1: That which came into being in him was life. Again, a blessing is something that one wishes for others, but God is blessing itself, Blessed my God. The son is called my God: Is. 9: A son is given to us. Ps. 66: May God bless us, our God, may God bless us: Dan. 3: You are blessed, Lord God of our fathers, and praiseworthy and blessed forever: and because he fills us with blessings.
Tertio optat ejus exaltationem: et exaltetur Deus salutis meae, idest auctor et dator salutis gratiae in praesenti, et gloriae in futuro: Ps. 43: Tu es ipse rex meus et Deus meus, qui mandas salutes Jacob. Item ibid. 73: Operatus est salutem in medio terrae. Non petit ut exaltetur in se, quia altissimus est: Ps. 86: Fundavit eam Altissimus; sed ut exaltetur in cognitione nostra. Third, he wishes God's exaltation: and let the God of my salvation be exalted, that is, the author and giver of my salvation in the present, and of glory in the future: Ps. 43: You yourself are my king and my God, you who command Jacob's salvation. Again, ps. 73: You have worked salvation in the middle of the earth. He does not ask that he be exalted in himself: Ps. 86: The Most High has founded it; but that he be exalted in our cognition.
Et dicit, salutis meae, idest qui me salvat: Isa. 45: Deus justus et salvans non est praeter me: Act. 4: non est aliud nomen datum hominibus sub caelo. Vel, Deus qui salvat me, exaltetur per suum effectum, ut salvet me non solum in infimis, sed etiam in excelsis: Matth. 21: benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini, hosanna in Altissimis: Eccl. 43: exaltate illum quantum potestis: major est enim omni laude: Psal. 98: exaltate Dominum Deum nostrum; et adorate scabellum pedum ejus quoniam sanctum est. And he says, of my salvation, that is, he who says me: Isa. 45: There is no just and saving God apart from me: Act. 4: There is no other name given to men under heaven. Or, God who saves me is exalted by his effect, that he saves me not only in the lowest places, but also in the highest: Matth. 21: Blessed he who comes in the name of the Lord, Hosanna in the Highest places: Eccl. 43: Exalt the Lord as much as you are able: for he is greater than all praise. Psal. 98: Exalt the Lord our God; and adore the his footstool because it is holy.
(ee) Deus. Hic ponitur materia gratiarum actionis, et pro beneficio liberationis a malo, et pro beneficio promotionis ad bonum; unde dicit, Deus etc.. Et hoc potest dici in persona ecclesiae: quia qui persequuntur eam, subjicientur sibi: Isa. 60: Venient ad te curvi filii eorum qui humiliaverunt te, et adorabunt vestigia pedum tuorum. (ee) O God. Here he presents the matter of thanksgiving, both for the benefit of liberation from evil, and for the benefit of promotion to good; hence he says, O God etc.. And this can be said in the person of the church: because those who persecute her will be subjected to her: Isa. 60: The sons of those who humiliated you will come to you bent over, and they will adore the footsteps of your feet.
Sicut Paulus qui condemnavit Stephanum prostratus est: unde pia vindicta est, dum rebellis subditur et humiliatur: ideo tu es liberator. Joan. 8: Si filius vos liberaverit etc.. Meus de inimicis meis, non qualibuscumque, sed, iracundis: Prov. 27: Ira non habet misericordiam: unde major gloria a ferventibus malis liberari. Just as Paul who condemned Stephan was laid low: hence there was a pious vindication when a rebel is subdued and humiliated: therefore you are liberator. John 8: If the son has set you free etc. My liberator from my enemies, but not just any enemies, but angry enemies: Prov. 27: Anger is relentless: hence, it is a greater glory to be freed from evil men who are angry.
Et ab insurgentibus in me: Ps. 26: Insurrexerunt in me testes iniqui etc.. Exaltabis me. Ut ostendat Dei providentiam hoc dicit, idest in quo credunt deprimere exaltantur: Phil. 2: propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum: Gen. 7: Multiplicatae sunt aquae, et elevaverunt arcam in sublime. A viro iniquo eripies me idest a fraudulentis: Ps. 139: eripe me domine ab homine malo, a viro iniquo eripe me. Consequenter concluditur gratiarum actio propter praedictas causas. And from those that rise up against me: Ps. 26: Wicked witnesses rose against me etc.. You will lift me up. He says this to show God's providence, that is, in that which they believe to be pushed down, they will be exalted: Phil. 2: on which account God also exalted him: Gen. 7: The waters were multiplied, and they raised the ark to a high place. From the unjust man you will rescue me, that is, from fraudulent men: Ps. 139: Rescue me, Lord, from the evil man, rescue me from the unjust man. Consequently, the thanksgiving concludes for the aforesaid reasons.
Propterea confitebor tibi in nationibus Domine etc. Idest coram omni populo te laudabo: Tob. 12: Benedicite Deum caeli, et coram omnibus viventibus confitemini ei. Et nomini tuo psalmum dicam. In psalmo intelligitur bona operatio: quia quicquid boni facimus, debemus facere in gloriam nominis Dei. Therefore I will give glory to you in the nations, o Lord etc.. That is, before the entire people I will praise you. Tob. 12: Bless the God of heaven, and give him glory before all living things. And I will sing a psalm to your name. By "psalm" we understand a good working: because whatever we do of good, we should do for the glory of God's name.
Magnificans salutes regis ejus. Hieronymus habet, sic magnificanti et facienti tibi, scilicet magnificanti et facienti, secundum literam nostram, Deus qui das vindictas. Et est Deus inquantum magnificans. Et ponit duo: unum ad statum regni, aliud ad personam, quia utrumque magnificatum est. Quantum ad primum dicit, magnificans salutes regis ejus, quia promovisti me ad regnum. Vel, regis, idest Christi, per cujus nomen omnes salvantur: Act. 4: non est aliud nomen datum etc.. Quantum ad personam dicit, et faciens misericordias Christo suo David et semini ejus usque in saeculum, quia multiplicavit semen suum sicut promisit. Giving great deliverance to his king. Jerome has the words, thus to you who makes great and acts, namely to the one who does great things and acts, and according to the text we have, God who gives gives retribution. And he is God insofar as he does great things. And he presents two things: first for the state of the kingdom, the other for the person, because each is made great. Regarding the first he says, making great the salvation of the king, because he has promoted me to the kingdom. Or, of the king, that is, of Christ, through whose name all are saved: Act. 4: There is no other name given etc.. Regarding the person he says, and showing mercy to his Christ, David, and to his seed in eternity, because he has multiplied his seed as he promised.

© Hugh McDonald

Latin Text according to the Venice Edition of MDCCLXXV

The Aquinas Translation Project