Psalm 15


a.Tituli incriptio, ipsi David.

Conserva me Domine, quoniam speravi in te: dixi Domino, Deus meus es tu, quoniam bonorum meorum non eges.

The inscription of a title to David himself.

Preserve me, O Lord, for I have put my trust in thee. I have said to the Lord, thou art my God, for thou hast no need of my goods.

b. Sanctis qui sunt in terra ejus: mirificavit omnes voluntates meas in eis.

To the saints, who are in his land, he hath made wonderful all my desires in them.

c. Multiplicatae sunt infirmitates eorum; postea acceleraverunt.

Their infirmities were multiplied: afterwards they made haste.

d. Non congregabo conventicula eorum de sanguinibus, nec memor ero nominum eorum per labia mea.

I will not gather together their meetings for blood offerings: nor will I be mindful of their names by my lips

e. Dominus pars haereditatis meae, et calicis mei; tu es qui restitues haereditatem meam mihi. Funes ceciderunt mihi in praeclaris; etenim haereditas mea praeclara est mihi.

The Lord is the portion of my inheritance and of my cup: it is thou that wilt restore my inheritance to me. The lines are fallen unto me in goodly places: for my inheritance is goodly to me.

f. Benedicam Dominum, qui tribuit mihi intellectum; insuper et usque ad noctem increpuerunt me renes mei. Providebam Dominum in conspectu meo semper, quoniam a dextris est mihi ne commovear. Propter hoc laetatum est cor meum, et exsultavit lingua mea.

I will bless the Lord, who hath given me understanding: moreover my reins also have corrected me even till night. I set the Lord always in my sight: for he is at my right hand, that I be not moved. Therefore my heart hath been glad, and my tongue hath rejoiced:

g. Insuper et caro mea requiescet in spe. Quoniam non derelinques animam meam in inferno; nec dabis sanctum tuum videre corruptionem. Notas mihi fecisti vias vitae; adimplebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo, delectationes in dextera tua usque in finem.

moreover my flesh also shall rest in hope. Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; nor wilt thou give thy holy one to see corruption. Thou hast made known to me the ways of life, thou shalt fill me with joy with thy countenance: at thy right hand are delights even to the end.



a. In praecedenti Psalmo enumeravit justitias quas Deus requirit ab homine; hic autem ostendit quomodo justitiam sequebatur. Titulus talis est: inscriptio tituli ipsius David. Et quantum ad litteram significat quod editus est specialiter de his quae pertinent ad personam David. Sed quia David gerebat etiam personam Christi ex ejus semine nascituri, ideo quaedam hic de David, quaedam de Christo ponuntur. Et ideo Petrus Act. 2: providebam dominum et cetera. De resurrectione Christi dicit proprie dictum esse, et non de David. Et secundum hoc tangit historiam in Psalmo isto de novo testamento, secundum quod dicitur Joan. 18, quod Christo crucifixo imposuit Pilatus titulum super caput ejus hic est Jesus Nazarenus rex Judaeorum: et hic est quasi titulus regni ejus. Triplex titulus consuevit describi. Aliquando in sepulcro alicujus: hoc est sepulcrum talis. Aliquando in domo: haec est domus talis. Aliquando pro triumpho, sicut Romae fiebat: et hic titulus Christi est, qui triumphavit per crucem: Col. 2: palam triumphans illos in seipso, expolians principatus et potestates. Signatur ergo hic, quod in Psalmo specialiter de regno Christi agitur.

In the preceding Psalm he (the psalmist) enumerated the precepts that God requires of a person. Here, however, he shows how he followed that precept. The title is this: The inscription of a title to David himself. And with respect to the literal sense it indicates what has been proclaimed specifically about the matters that pertain to the person of David. But because David also bore the person of Christ, who was to be born of his seed, certain things are therefore put forth about David and about Christ. And so Peter in Acts 2:25: I foresaw the Lord, etc. He appropriately says that what has been said was about the resurrection of Christ, not of David. And with respect to this he touches upon history in this Psalm concerning the New Testament, with respect to which it is said in John 18 that Pilate placed on the crucified Christ a title above His head, This is Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews,1 and this is a sort of title of his kingdom. The title has usually been represented in three ways. Sometimes on the tomb of someone, and this is a sort of tomb; sometimes in a home, and this is a sort of home; sometimes at the front of a triumph as used to occur in Rome. And this is the title of Christ, who triumphed through the cross. Colossians 2:15: And despoiling the principalities and powers, he hath exposed them confidently in open shew, triumphing over them in himself. Therefore he indicates here specifically in the psalm what is done regarding the kingdom of Christ.

Titulus Hieronymi talis est, humilis et simplicis Psalmus David. Et signatur quod agitur in Psalmo illo de simplicitate et humilitate David, sive singularis, sive figurati, scilicet Christi. Dividitur ergo Psalmus iste in duas partes. In prima ostendit sive ex parte sua, sive ex parte Christi loquens, se soli Deo inhaerere. Secundo commemorat beneficia quae a Deo recepit, ibi, benedicam dominum qui et cetera. Primum ad simplicitatem, secundum ad humilitatem pertinet. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit quod soli Deo inhaeret. Secundo rationem assignat, ibi, dominus pars et cetera. Circa primum tria facit. Primo ostendit quomodo se habeat ad Deum. Secundo, quomodo se habeat ad sanctos Dei. Tertio, quomodo se habeat ad inimicos Dei. Secundum, ibi, sanctis. Tertium, ibi, multiplicate et cetera. Ad Deum se habet ut sibi soli inhaerens: et hoc dupliciter: per spem et fidem, ibi, dixi domino. Circa primum duo proponit: scilicet signum spei, et ipsam spem. Signum spei, ibi, conserva me domine: quasi: non confido per me servari posse: sed tu, domine, conserva me, vel in se, vel in membris suis: Joan. 17: pater, serva eos in nomine tuo, quos dedisti mihi. Et hoc, quoniam speravi in te. Sed numquid speravit Christus? Dicendum est quod sic: speravit quidem pro aliis vitam aeternam, pro se autem claritatem corporis. Claritatem autem animae habuit in instanti suae conceptionis.

The title of Jerome's version is this: A psalm of the humble and simple David. And this indicates what is done in the psalm regarding the simplicity and humility of David, whether of him per se or figuratively, namely of Christ. Therefore this Psalm is divided into two parts. In the first he shows, whether speaking of himself or on the part of Christ, that he clings to God alone. Secondly he recalls the blessings that he has received from God at I will bless the Lord who, etc. The first pertains to simplicity, the second to humility. Concerning the first he does two things. First he shows that he clings to God alone. Second he gives a reason at the Lord is the portion, etc. Concerning the first he does three things. First he shows how he is related to God, second how he is related to the saints of God, and third how he is related to the enemies of God. He treats of the second at to the saints and the third at their infirmities were multiplied, etc. He is related to God as he clings to him alone, and this he does in two ways, by hope and faith at I have said to the Lord. Concerning the first he sets forth two things: namely a sign of hope and hope itself. [He sets forth] a sign of hope at preserve me, O Lord, as if to say, "I have no confidence that I can be saved in and of myself, but you, Lord, save me, either in yourself or in your members." John 17:11: Father, keep them in thy name whom thou has given me, and this, for I have put my trust in thee. (Psalm 15:1) But surely Christ has not placed his hope [in anything]? It should be said like this: he indeed has placed his hope in eternal life for others, but for himself the glory of his body. He had, however, the glory of his spirit in the instance of his conception.

Dixi et cetera. Hic primo ponit actum fidei. Secundo rationem assignat, ibi, quoniam bonorum et cetera. Actus fidei est confiteri Deo, vel in corde credendo, vel exterius laudando, factis approbando: Roman. 10: corde creditur ad justitiam, ore autem confessio fit ad salutem; et ideo, dixi, corde, ore, et opere, quia Deus meus es: Gen. 28: erit mihi dominus in Deum. Et ideo est, quia bonorum meorum non eges. Et hoc est proprium Dei: quia infinitae bonitatis est, et nihil ei addi potest, quia est substantiale bonum ad omnia extendens bonitatem sicut sol lumen, non per participationem, sed per ipsum esse illuminans omnia. Cuilibet autem alii creaturae potest addi, etiam sanctis, et propter hoc aliquid eis accrescit, et ideo aliquo modo indigent nobis: sed Deus solus non indiget bonis nostris: Job 33: porro si juste egeris, quid donabis ei, aut quid de manu tua accipiet? Hieronymus habet, quoniam bene non est nobis sine te: quasi, ex hoc apparet quia tu es Deus meus, quia tu es bonitas, nec mihi bene est sine te.

I said, etc. Here he first puts forth the act of faith, second he gives a reason for it, at for thou hast no need of my goods, etc. The act of faith is to confess God, either by believing in the heart or outwardly by praising and by establishing it [faith] in deeds. Romans 10:10: For, with the heart, we believe unto justice; but, with the mouth, confession is made unto salvation. And so I said in heart, mouth, and deed, that you are my God. Genesis 28:21: the Lord shall be my God. And so it is, for thou hast no need of my goods. And this is appropriate for God, because he is of infinite goodness and nothing can be added to him, because he is the substantial good, extending goodness to all things just as the sun extends light, not through participation, but by itself illuminating all things that exist. For any other creature, however, something can be added, even to the saints, and because of this something increases for them, and therefore in some way we are in need. But God alone does not need our goods. Job 33: And if thou do justly, what shalt thou give him, or what shall he receive of thy hand?2 Jerome has, since it cannot go well with us without you, as if to say, "From this it is clear that you are my God, that you are goodness, and it cannot go well with me without you."

b. Sanctis. Hic ostendit quomodo se habet ad sanctos, etiam ut legitur ex persona Christi. Et sciendum, quod voluntas patris sicut voluntas Christi est, et inquantum homo, ut impleat voluntatem patris: Ps. 39: ut faciam voluntatem tuam, Deus meus volui: Thess. 4: haec est voluntas Dei sanctificatio vestra: Jo. 6: descendi de caelo non ut faciam voluntatem meam, sed voluntatem ejus qui misit me, patris, ut omne quod dedit mihi, non perdam, sed resuscitem illud in novissimo die. Christus autem multa voluit: et hoc propter nostram utilitatem. Sed quid voluit? Pati, mori, resurgere, ut nos vivificaret. Dicit ergo: Deus pater, omnes voluntates meas mirificavit, idest mirifice adimplevit, in eis, in quibus? Eis, in sanctis qui sunt in terra ejus, idest in Ecclesia militante et triumphante. Hieronymus habet sic, sanctis qui sunt in terra et magnificis, omnis voluntas mea in eis. Alia littera habet, robusti. Et dato quod aliquis terrenus confidat in potestate robusti exercitus, sed David dicit, ego speravi in te: Eccl. 2: nullus speravit in domino, et confusus est. Et robusti mei sunt sancti tui, qui magna faciunt: Ps. 100: oculi mei ad fideles, dicit Christus, ut sedeant mecum. Quod ipse Christus diligat sanctos, patet: Prov. 8: ego diligentes me diligo.

To the saints. Here he shows how he is related to the saints, as he is understood in the person of Christ. And it must be known that what the will of the father is, so is the will of Christ, and insomuch as he was a man, that he fulfills the will of the father. Psalm 39:9: that I should do thy will: O my God, I have desired it. 1 Thessalonians 4:3: for this is the will of God, your sanctification. John 6:38-39: because I came down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of him that sent me. Now this is the will of the Father who sent me: that of all that he hath given me, I should lose nothing; but should raise it up again in the last day. Christ, however, wanted many things, and this was for the sake of our benefit. But what did he want? To suffer, to die, to rise again, so that we might live. Therefore he says, "God the Father, he hath made wonderful all my desires, that is has wonderfully fulfilled my desires, in them." In whom? Them, in the saints who are on his land, that is, in the Church militant and triumphant. Jerome has it thus, in the saints and glorious ones on the earth, all my will is in them. Another version has, the strong. And although there had been given to him what anyone on earth may hope for in the power of a strong army, yet David says, I have put trust in thee. Ecclesiasticus 2:11: no one hath hoped in the Lord, and hath been confounded. And my strong ones are your saints, who do great things.3 Psalm 100:6: "My eyes were upon the faithful," says Christ, "so that they may be with me." Because if Christ himself loves his saints, he reveals himself. Proverbs 8:17: I love them that love me.

c. Multiplicatae. Hic ostendit quomodo se habeat ad adversarios Dei, sive ad peccatores. Et primo ponit eorum conversionem; secundo conversionis modum, ibi, non congregabo. Circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit statum praecedentis culpae; secundo ponit statum subsequentis gratiae, ibi, postea acceleraverunt. Dicit ergo, multiplicatae sunt infirmitates eorum, idest diversa peccata. Vel infirmitates, idest poenalitates ex peccato consequentes. Thren. 1: multi gemitus mei. Et ex hoc sequitur, postea acceleraverunt, idest conati sunt ad curandum vitam, ut redimerent tempus perditum. Et signanter hoc faciunt, quia, ubi abundat delictum superabundat gratia: ut dicitur Rom. 5. Item post tribulationes homo currit ad Deum. Osee 6: in tribulatione sua mane consurgent ad me, venite, revertamur ad dominum. Ps. 82: imple facies eorum ignominia, et quaerent nomen tuum, domine.

Were multiplied. Here he shows how he is related to the enemies of God, or to sinners. First he sets out their conversion, second the manner of conversion at, I will not gather together. Concerning the first he does two things. First he sets forth the state of their preceding sin, second he sets out the state of their subsequent grace, at afterwards they made haste. Therefore he says, Their infirmities were multiplied, that is their different sins, or infirmities, as in the penalties following from sin. Lamentations 1:22: my sighs are many. And because of this it follows that, afterwards they made haste, that is, they tried to manage their life so that they might redeem lost time. And they do this clearly because, where sin abounded, grace did more abound, as it says in Romans 5:20.4 In the same way, after afflictions man runs to God. Osee 6:1: In their affliction they will rise early to me: Come, and let us return to the Lord. Psalm 82:17: Fill their faces with shame; and they shall seek thy name, O Lord.
d. Non. Hic ponit modum conversionis. Et primo ostendit ad quem ritum convertantur; secundo, quomodo perfecte, ibi, nec memor ero et cetera. Dicit ergo, acceleraverunt. Sed quomodo convertentur? In veteri lege illi qui convertebantur, offerebant diversa sacrificia. Sed ego adunabo ex diversis partibus ad fidem; sed non ut effundant sanguinem: quia, ut apostolus dicit Hebr. 10, impossibile est per sanguinem taurorum aut hircorum, auferri peccata. Non congregabo conventicula eorum de sanguinibus, idest de ritu legis: sed haec congregatio est de sanguine novo, idest Christi. Hebr. 9: Christus semel oblatus est ad multorum exhaurienda peccata. Heb. 10: una oblatione consummavit in aeternum sanctificatos et cetera. Zach. 9: tu autem in sanguine testamenti tui eruisti vinctos tuos de lacu in quo non est aqua et cetera. Sed quomodo perfecta erit ista congregatio? Quia non ero memor nominis illorum, quod habebant in statu peccati, quia unus dicebatur fornicator, alius latro. Sed nullus post conversionem debet sic nominari, quia hujusmodi nomina sunt deleta. Vel, non ero memor peccatorum in judicio, cum congregabo justos, venite benedicti, Matth. 25. Et hoc per labia mea, vel per praedicatores meos. Sed dicetur eis, ite maledicti et cetera. Hier. 15: si separaveris pretiosum a vili, quasi os meum eris. Hieronymus habet: multiplicata sunt idola eorum: post tergum sequentium non libabo libamina eorum de sanguine, neque assumam nomina eorum in labiis meis; quasi dicat, te colo, non idola. Sed illorum idola multa sunt. Oseae 8: multiplicavi post dorsum recedentes a te. Hierem. 2: verterunt ad me tergum et faciem, nec ero particeps libaminum eorum. Deut. 33: de quorum victimis comedebant adipes, et bibebant vinum libaminum. Nec jurabo per illa idola.

Not. Here he sets out the manner of conversion. First he shows to what rite they are converted, second how it happens completely at nor will I be mindful, etc. Therefore he says, they made haste. But how will they be converted? In the Old Law those who were converted offered different sacrifices. But I shall bring them together from different parts to faith, but not that they may sacrifice blood, because as the apostle says in Hebrews 10:4: it is impossible that with the blood of oxen and goats sin should be taken away. [Therefore David says in the Psalm] I will not gather together their meetings for blood offerings, that is, concerning the rite of the law. But this is a congregation from the new blood, that is, of Christ. Hebrews 9:28: Christ was offered once to exhaust the sins of many. Hebrews 10:14: For by one oblation he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. Zacharias 9:11: Thou also by the blood of thy testament hast sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein is no water, etc.5 But how will that congregation be perfected? Because nor will I be mindful of their names, which they had in their state of sin, because one was called fornicator, another thief. But no one after his conversion ought to be so named, because names of this type have been destroyed. Or, I will not be mindful of their sins in judgment, when I shall gather together the just, Come, ye blessed Matthew 25:34. And this happens by my lips, or by my prophets. But it will be said to them, Depart from me, you cursed, etc.6 Jeremiah 15:19: if thou wilt separate the precious from the vile, thou shalt be as my mouth. Jerome has, Their idols were multiplied. I shall not pour forth drink offerings of their blood behind the back of those that follow, nor shall I take their names upon my lips, as if to say, "I worship you, not idols." But their idols are many. Osee 8: I have multiplied those retreating from you behind your back.7 Jeremiah 2:27: they have turned their back and face to me,8 and I shall not be a participant in their drink offerings.9 Deuteronomy 33:38: Of whose victims they ate the fat, and drank the wine of their drink offerings.10 Nor shall I swear by those idols.

e. Dominus. Hic assignat rationem suae inhaesionis soli Deo, quia scilicet ipse solus est hereditas sua; quasi dicat: ideo solum huic inhaereo, quia haec est hereditas mea. Primo dicit Deum esse suam hereditatem. Secundo commendat eam, quod est contentus de ea, ibi, etenim hereditas mea et cetera. Ipsa est bonum nostrum quo fruimur: homines in mundo isto quaerunt possessiones et usus earum, sed possessio sua est Deus; unde dominus, pars hereditatis meae, intransitive, idest hereditas quae venit mihi in partem. Quidam habent pro hereditate delectationes carnis. Sap. 2: haec est pars et haec sors nostra. Alii autem alia delectabilia mundi; sed Deus est sors mea. Thren. 3: pars mea dominus, dixit anima mea. Sed non solum est hereditas mea, sed, pars calicis mei, idest calix meus veniens mihi in sortem; quia tota delectatio mea et potus est Deus. Ps. 22: calix meus inebrians quam praeclarus est. Vel Christus habet hereditatem fideles; et hujusmodi hereditatis, scilicet fidelium, Deus est pars, sicut dictum est, dominus pars calicis mei, quia passio mea ordinatur ad Deum. Ipse etiam est dator hujus hereditatis: tu es qui restitues hereditatem meam mihi, scilicet aeternae gloriae. Et sic Christus loquitur ex persona suorum, qui eam perdiderunt peccante primo parente. Vel, hereditatem, idest claritatem corporis, quam perdidit homo peccando. Funes extenderunt mihi in praeclaris. Divites terram mensurant fune. Deut. 32: Jacob funiculus hereditatis ejus. Et ideo portio dicitur quasi funiculus funis, idest portio mea cedit mihi in rebus optimis, quia nihil melius ipso Deo. Hier. 3: tribuam tibi terram desiderabilem, praeclaram hereditatem. Secundo ostendit quod sit ea contentus: etenim hereditas mea praeclara est mihi; quasi dicat: non solum hereditas mea in se praeclara est; sed est ita praeclara mihi, quod nullo modo mutarem eam. Ps. 131: haec requies mea in saeculum saeculi: hic habitabo, quoniam elegi eam.

The Lord. Here he gives the reason for his clinging to God alone, because (God) himself alone is his inheritance, as if to say, "I therefore cling only to him, because this is my inheritance." First he says that God is his inheritance. Second he praises it [i.e. his inheritance] because he is content concerning it, at for my inheritance, etc. [Psalm 15:6.] This itself is our good, which we enjoy. Men in this world seek possessions and uses of them, but his own possession is God, whence The Lord is the portion of my inheritance, in a way that cannot be passed on to another, that is, it is the inheritance that comes as my own part. Some people have as their inheritance pleasures of the flesh. Wisdom 2:9: this is our portion, and this our lot. Others, however, have other delights of the world, but God is my lot. Lamentations 3:24: The Lord is my portion, said my soul. But not only is he my inheritance, but the portion of my cup, that is, my cup coming as my lot, because my whole pleasure and drink is God. Psalm 22:5: my chalice which inebriateth me, how goodly is it. Or, Christ has as an inheritance the faithful; and of this sort of inheritance, namely of the faithful, God is the portion, as it has been said, The Lord is the portion of my cup, because My (i.e. Christ's) suffering is ordained for God. For it is God Himself who is the giver of this inheritance: it is thou that wilt restore my inheritance to me, namely, of eternal glory. And thus Christ speaks through the persona of one of His own, who condemned Him through the sin of the first parent. Or, inheritance, that is, the glory of the body, which man has destroyed by sinning. The lines are fallen unto me in goodly places.11 The rich measure their land with a line. Deuteronomy 32:9: [But the Lord's portion is his people:] Jacob the lot of his inheritance.12 And therefore his (i.e., Christ's) portion is said to be, as it were, the lot of lots,13 that is, my portion yields to me the best things, because nothing is better than God. Jeremias 3:19: [How shall I] give thee a lovely land, the goodly inheritance. Secondly he shows that he is content in this: for my inheritance is goodly to me, as if to say, "Not only is my inheritance goodly in itself, but it is so goodly to me that in no way would I change it." Psalm 131:14: This is my rest for ever and ever: here will I dwell, for I have chosen it.

f. Benedicam. Supra Psalmista posuit rationem quare soli Deo inhaeret, quia scilicet ipse est pars hereditatis suae; hic recognoscit beneficia. Et primo proponit beneficia suscepta; secundo speranda, ibi, insuper et caro mea. Circa primum duo facit. Primo commemorat beneficia suscepta; secundo ostendit gaudium quod habet ex eis, ibi, propter hoc laetatum est cor meum. Commemorat ergo duplex beneficium: unum in adeptione boni, aliud conservando contra mala. Quantum ad primum dicit, benedicam dominum etc. ut intelligam quam praeclara sit illa hereditas aeterna. Ps. 118: da mihi intellectum, et scrutabor et cetera. Ps. 31: intellectum tibi dabo, et instruam te. Eccl. ult.: danti mihi sapientiam dabo gloriam. Dedit autem dominus homini rationem ad sapientiam, sed non totaliter abstulit infirmitatem; sed hoc erit in gloria. Et primo proponit eam; secundo ponit auxilium contra eam, ibi, providebam dominum. Omnis homo habet a Deo secundum rationem lumen intellectus, et justus reformatur lumine gratiae. Sed adhuc infirmitas carnis restat; et ideo dicit, insuper adhuc increpuerunt me renes mei, idest infirmitates meae, scilicet culpae, vel peccata. Et hoc, usque ad noctem, idest usque ad mortem, increpuerunt me renes mei, idest reprehensibilem me ostenderunt. Alia littera, quia in renibus incentivum luxuriae sedem habet, et sic delectationem tentando molestat. 2 Cor. 12: ne magnitudo revelationum et cetera. Sed in Christo non sunt infirmitates culpae, vel infectionis, quia caro ejus non repugnat adversus spiritum; et ideo intelligitur solum de poena. Heb. 4: tentatum per omnia, quantum ad infirmitates corporales. Sed si de nobis intelligatur, dicendum quod homo qui donum intellectus habet, vel gratiam, dicat adhuc cum apostolo, Rom. 7: video aliam legem in membris meis repugnantem legi mentis meae. Vel renes, idest Judaei sibi conjuncti, usque ad noctem, idest usque ad passionem, sive usque ad passibilitatem carnis. Et quia caro timebat passionem, ego in illa passione, providebam dominum, erectis oculis in caelum, non in mundo. Providentia est praevisio rerum fiendarum in futuro; sed visio sive conspectus est rerum praesentium. Sed si adhuc tales renes impugnant, non est timendum, quia paratum habet auxilium Dei. Et ideo primo ponit recordationem auxilii, dicens, providebam dominum etc. quando scilicet increpuerunt me renes mei. Ps. 24: oculi mei semper ad dominum quoniam et cetera. Et hoc ideo quia a dextris est mihi ne commovear, non ad sinistram. Prov. 3: dominus erit in latere tuo, et custodiat pedem tuum ne capiaris. Isa. 50: stemus simul et cetera. Propter hoc laetatum est cor meum. 1 Reg. 2: exultavit cor meum in domino. Ps. 63: laetabitur justus in domino et cetera. Et exultavit lingua mea etc., exterius, cum exteriori gaudio prorumpit in laudem vocis. Isa. 12: cantate domino quoniam magnifice fecit. Psal. 80: exultate Deo et cetera.

I will bless. The Psalmist above set out the reason why he clings to God alone, namely because God himself is the portion of his inheritance. Here he recognizes the benefits. First he sets forth the benefits he has received, second the benefits he hopes for, at moreover my flesh. Concerning the first he does two things. First he recalls the benefits he has received, second he shows the joy that he has from them at, Therefore my heart hath been glad. He recalls, therefore, a two-fold benefit, one in the obtaining of good, the other in preservation against evil. With respect to the first he says, I will bless the Lord, etc., so that I may understand how goodly is that eternal inheritance. Psalm 118:34: Give me understanding, and I will search, etc. Psalm 31:8: I will give thee understanding, and I will instruct thee. Ecclesiasticus 51:23: To him that giveth me wisdom, will I give glory. The Lord, however, has given reason to mankind for wisdom, but he has not entirely taken away its weakness. But this will happen in glory. First he sets it [weakness] forth, second he sets out help against it at, I set the Lord always in my sight. Every person has from God, with respect to his reasoning powers, the light of understanding, and the just person is reformed by the light of grace. But still the weakness of the flesh remains, and therefore he says, moreover my reins also have corrected me, that is, my weaknesses, namely faults, or sins. And this even till night, that is even till death, my reins have corrected me, that is, they have shown me deserving of blame. Another version has, since the incentive/excitement to inordinate sensual pleasure has its seat in the loins, thus does it disturb (our spiritual) delight through temptation.14 2 Corinthians 12:7, lest the greatness of the revelations (should exalt me, there was given me a sting of my flesh, an angel of Satan to buffet me. For which thing thrice I besought the Lord, that it might depart me. And he said to me: My grace is sufficient for thee: for power is made perfect in infirmity). But in Christ there are no weaknesses of fault, or of defect, because his flesh does not fight back against the spirit, and therefore this is understood only of the penalty (that the flesh endures). Hebrews 4:15: one tempted in all things, with respect to bodily weaknesses. But if this should be understood about us, it must be said that a person who has the gift of understanding, or the grace, would still say with the apostle in Romans 7:23: I see another law in my members, fighting against the law of my mind. Or reins, that is the Jews bound to him, even till night, that is even to his suffering, or even to the ability of his flesh to suffer. And because his flesh feared suffering, I, in that suffering, set the Lord always in my sight, with my eyes raised toward heaven and not on the earth. Providence is the provision of things to happen in the future, but vision or sight is of present things. But if still such reins oppose, this must not be feared, because (this opposition) has the help of God already prepared. And therefore he first sets out a recollection of help, saying, I set the Lord always in my sight, etc. when, namely, my reins have corrected me. Psalm 24:15: My eyes are ever towards the Lord, etc. And this, therefore, is because he is at my right hand, that I be not moved, not to the left. Proverbs 3:26: For the Lord will be at thy side, and will keep thy foot that thou be not taken.15 Isaiah 50:8: let us stand together, etc. Therefore my heart hath been glad. 1 Kings 2:1: My heart hath rejoiced in the Lord. Psalm 63:11: The just shall rejoice in the Lord, etc. And my tongue hath rejoiced, etc., outwardly he breaks forth with outward joy into the praise of his voice. Isaiah 12:5: Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath done great things. Psalm 80:2: Rejoice to God, etc.

g. Insuper. Hic enumerat beneficia speranda. Primo quantum ad resurrectionem carnis; secundo quantum ad animam, ibi, notas. Prima in duo. Primo ponit spem resurrectionis; secundo modum, ibi, quoniam non derelinques. Dicit ergo, dedisti mihi intellectum, et astitisti mihi homini, sed insuper et caro mea requiescet in spe, resurrectionis. Ps. 3: ego dormivi, et soporatus sum, et resurrexi. Et etiam habebit caro mea spem in resurrectione. Sap. 3: spes illorum immortalitate plena est. Ratio, quia resurrectio requirit unionem corporis et animae; et ideo non debuit anima conjuncta divinitati remanere in Inferno; sed tamdiu debebat ibi stare, donec probaretur veritas humanitatis, et verae carnis: nec plus decebat relinqui in Inferno, ubi descenderat ad liberandum sanctos. Eccl. 24: penetrabo omnes inferiores partes terrae, et inspiciam omnes dormientes, et illuminabo omnes et cetera. Item ex parte corporis, quia nec dabis sanctum, idest corpus meum a te sanctificatum, videre corruptionem, idest putrefactionis, vel resolutionis, quam non est passus; sed mortis corruptionem passus est. Beneficia quae pertinent ad animam commemorat, cum dicit, notas. Hoc refertur ad Christum pro membris suis, et haec sunt documenta et praecepta, quae sunt via in beatitudinem. Prov. 7: serva mandata mea, et vives; et ideo dicit, notas mihi fecisti vias vitae. Secundo commemorat beneficium: ubi tria dicit. Primo plenam Dei visionem, adimplebis me laetitia cum vultu tuo, idest videbo vultum tuum. 2 Cor. 13: nunc cognosco ex parte, idest imperfecte, tunc cognoscam facie ad faciem. Plenam laetitiam: Joan. 16: ut gaudium vestrum plenum sit: quia delectationes indeficientes, quia, in dextera tua usque in finem. Isa. 51: laetitia sempiterna super capita eorum, gaudium et laetitiam obtinebunt: et fugiet ab eis dolor et gemitus. Prov. 3: longitudo dierum in dextera ejus, et in sinistra illius divitiae et gloria.

Moreover. Here he enumerates blessings to be hoped for, first with respect to the resurrection of the flesh, second with respect to the spirit at made known. The first he enumerates in two ways. First he sets out hope of resurrection, second the manner at Because thou wilt not leave. Therefore he says, "You have given me understanding, and you have stood by me, (I who am) a person, but moreover my flesh also shall rest in hope, of resurrection." Psalm 3:6: I have slept and taken my rest: and I have risen up.16 And my flesh will also have hope in resurrection. Wisdom 3:4: their hope is full of immortality. The reason is that resurrection requires a union of body and soul, and therefore the soul joined to divinity ought not to remain in Hell, but it ought to stay there until the truth of humanity and of true flesh might be tested. Nor ought it be abandoned further in Hell where he had descended to free the saints. Ecclesiasticus 24:45: I will penetrate to all the lower parts of the earth, and will behold all that sleep, and will enlighten all, etc. Likewise from part of the body, because nor wilt then give thy holy one, that is my body sanctified by you, to see corruption, that is, of decay, or dissolution, which he (i.e. Christ) does not suffer; but he has suffered the corruption of death. He recalls the blessings that pertain to the soul when he says, known. In this he refers to Christ on behalf of his members, and these are the examples and precepts that are the way to blessedness. Proverbs 7:2: Keep my commandments, and thou shalt live; and therefore he says Thou hast made known to me the ways of life. Second he recalls the benefit where he says three things. First, the full vision of God, thou shalt fill me with joy with thy countenance, that is, I shall see your face. 2 Corinthians 13:12: Now I know in part,17 that is, imperfectly, then I shall know even as I am known. Full joy: John 16:24: that your joy may be full, for our pleasures are lacking, because at thy right hand are delights even to the end. Isaias 51:11: joy everlasting shall be upon their heads, they shall obtain joy and gladness, sorrow and mourning shall flee away.18 Proverbs 3:16: Length of days is in her right hand, and in her left hand riches and glory.

© Steve Perkins
(perx2@aol.com)


The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)

Endnotes

1 This line actually occurs in John 19:19, and then not exactly as Thomas cites it. He reads the phrase hic est into the text from Matthew 27:37 and Luke 23:38.

2 This is actually Job 35:7.

3 The last part of this quote from Ecclesiasticus is not found there, nor elsewhere in the vulgate.

4 Thomas uses the present tenses where the Vulgate uses the perfect.

5 Thomas cites this slightly differently. He cites, literally, "Thou, however, by the blood of thy testament hast rescued..."

6 Thomas appears to be citing Matthew 25:41, but the verb he uses is literally "go."

7 The reference is not found in Osee.

8 The vulgate has "They have turned their back to me, and not their face."

9 This last part is not at the referenced place.

10 Deuteronomy 32:38.

11 Thomas is citing Psalm 15:6, but mistakenly uses a verb from Psalm 139:6, whose phrasing funes extenderunt is rendered they have stretched out cords.

12 There is a play on words here missed in the English. The word translated "line" in Psalm 15:6 is funis. The word translated "lot" in Deuteronomy 32:9 is funiculus, the diminutive form of funis.

13 Thomas has funiculus funis.

14 I cannot find the source for Thomas' citation here.

15 Thomas cites the subjunctive form of "keep" rather than the future that the Vulgate uses. His citation would translate literally, For the Lord will be at thy side, and may he keep thy foot that thou be not taken.

16 Thomas cites the verb exurrexi, which is a synonym for the Vulgate's resurrexi.

17 Thomas incorrectly cites this as 2 Corinthians. It is 1 Corinthians.

18 Thomas cites this with a few differences. He uses obtinebunt for tenebunt, both meaning "they shall obtain." He adds the phrase ab eis in the final clause, meaning "from them."